Grade III (grade + iii)

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Kinds of Grade III

  • who grade iii

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  • grade iii tumor

  • Selected Abstracts

    Graft rejection and hyperacute graft-versus-host disease in stem cell transplantation from non-inherited maternal antigen complementary HLA-mismatched siblings

    Hirokazu Okumura
    Abstract Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched stem cell transplantation from non-inherited maternal antigen (NIMA)-complementary donors is known to produce stable engraftment without inducing severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We treated two patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and one patient with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) with HLA-mismatched stem cell transplantation (SCT) from NIMA-complementary donors (NIMA-mismatched SCT). The presence of donor and recipient-derived blood cells in the peripheral blood of recipient (donor microchimerism) and donor was documented respectively by amplifying NIMA-derived DNA in two of the three patients. Graft rejection occurred in the SAA patient who was conditioned with a fludarabine-based regimen. Grade III and grade IV acute GVHD developed in patients with AML on day 8 and day 11 respectively, and became a direct cause of death in one patient. The findings suggest that intensive conditioning and immunosuppression after stem cell transplantation are needed in NIMA-mismatched SCT even if donor and recipient microchimerisms is detectable in the donor and recipient before SCT. [source]

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Histological Classification of Intracranial Meningiomas in 112 Dogs

    B.K. Sturges
    Background: Intracranial meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumors in dogs. Classification of meningiomas by tumor grade and subtype has not been reported, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics for predicting tumor subtype and grade has not been investigated. Hypothesis: Canine intracranial meningiomas are a heterogenous group of tumors with differing histological subtypes and grades. Prediction of histopathological classification is possible based on MRI characteristics. Animals: One hundred and twelve dogs with a histological diagnosis of intracranial meningioma. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Results: Meningiomas were overrepresented in the Golden Retriever and Boxer breeds with no sex predilection. The incidence of specific tumor grades was 56% benign (Grade I), 43% atypical (Grade II), and 1% malignant (Grade III). Grade I histological subtypes included meningothelial (43%), transitional (40%), microcystic (8%), psammomatous (6%), and angiomatous (3%). No statistically significant (P < .05) associations were found among tumor subtype or grade and any of the MRI features studied. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Meningiomas in dogs differ from their counterparts in humans mainly in their higher incidence of atypical (Grade II) tumors observed. MRI characteristics do not allow for prediction of meningioma subtype or grade, emphasizing the necessity of histopathology for antemortem diagnosis. The higher incidence of atypical tumors in dogs may contribute to the poorer therapeutic response in dogs with meningiomas as compared with the response in humans with meningiomas. [source]

    Postural instability during reaching tasks in Parkinson's disease

    Dr Emma Stack
    Abstract Background and Purpose. Reaching, like turning and rising from sitting, is an activity commonly associated with falls by people with Parkinson's disease. We set out to: (a) identify how people with moderate and severe Parkinson's disease performed high and low reaches and (b) to explore in detail the standard functional reach (functional reach) test and the fall histories of those who appeared unstable when reaching. Method. In this cross-sectional study, people with moderate or severe Parkinson's disease (Hoehn and Yahr Grade III or IV) were video-recorded at home, reaching above shoulder height and below knee level. Blinded observers rated stability, alignment, foot position, floor contact, use of support and reach type. Functional reach was also measured and participants were interviewed about falls. Results. Of 51 participants, 33 (65%) had moderate Parkinson's disease and 18 (35%) severe. A greater proportion of the latter used support when reaching high (p = 0.029) and aligned forward when reaching low (p = 0.015); otherwise, strategies were similar across groups. Six people (all with severe Parkinson's disease) appeared unstable when reaching: they had a shorter functional reach than the others (median 10 cm versus 18 cm; p = 0.042) and had fallen frequently (median five falls in a year), although rarely when reaching. Conclusions. Reaching tasks challenge postural stability in severe Parkinson's disease. People who appear unstable when reaching are likely to be repeat-fallers and at risk of further falls during more demanding activities. Research should address whether discouraging potentially destabilizing manoeuvres (such as squatting and toe-standing) and promoting safety-enhancing strategies (such as using support and facing forward), with or without balance retraining, reduces the risk of falling among people with severe Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Small cell astrocytoma: An aggressive variant that is clinicopathologically and genetically distinct from anaplastic oligodendroglioma

    CANCER, Issue 10 2004
    Arie Perry M.D.
    Abstract BACKGROUND Small cell glioblastoma (GBM) is a variant with monomorphous, deceptively bland nuclei that often is misdiagnosed as anaplastic oligodendroglioma. METHODS To elucidate its clinicopathologic and genetic features, the authors studied 71 adult patients (median age, 57 years), including 22 patients who were identified from a set of 229 GBMs (10%) that had been characterized previously by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/EGFR-vIII variant immunohistochemistry. Tumors also were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for 1p, 19q, 10q, and EGFR copy numbers. RESULTS Radiologically, 37% of tumors that were not selected for grade showed minimal to no enhancement. Similarly, 33% of tumors had no endothelial hyperplasia or necrosis histologically, qualifying only as anaplastic astrocytoma (Grade III) using World Health Organization criteria. Nevertheless, such tumors progressed rapidly, with mortality rates that were indistinguishable from their Grade IV counterparts. The median survival for 37 patients who were followed until death was 11 months. Oligodendroglioma-like histology included chicken-wire vasculature (86%), haloes (73%), perineuronal satellitosis (58%), and microcalcifications (45%), although mucin-filled microcystic spaces were lacking. No small cell astrocytomas had 1p/19q codeletions, whereas EGFR amplification and 10q deletions were present in 69% and 97% of small cell astrocytomas, respectively. The tumors expressed EGFR and EGFR-vIII more commonly than nonsmall cell GBMs (83% vs. 35% [P < 0.001]; 50% vs. 21% [P < 0.001] respectively). CONCLUSIONS Small cell astrocytoma is an aggressive histologic variant that behaved like primary GBM, even in the absence of endothelial hyperplasia and necrosis. Despite considerable morphologic overlap with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, clinicopathologic and genetic features were distinct. Fifty percent of small cell astrocytomas expressed the constitutively activated vIII mutant form of EGFR, and molecular testing for 10q deletion improved the diagnostic sensitivity over EGFR alone. Cancer 2004. © 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]

    A case of acute vascular rejection after overseas deceased kidney transplantation

    Tomokazu Shimizu
    Abstract:, A 54-yr-old Japanese male received overseas deceased kidney transplantation in January 2006. His allograft functioned immediately and he received immunosuppression with cyclosporine A (CyA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisone (PR). On day 24 after transplantation, he came back to Japan. His serum creatinine level (s-Cr) was 1.39 mg/dL at two months after transplantation when he was admitted into Toda Central General Hospital on March 2006, for follow-up his renal allograft. He had taken only two immunosuppressive drugs, MMF and PR, and had not taken CyA at that time. His serum creatinine gradually rose after hospitalization. Allograft biopsy performed on April 6, 2006, showed acute vascular rejection (Banff 97 acute/active cellular rejection Grade III), together with suspicious for acute humoral rejection (Banff 97 antibody-mediated rejection Grade II). After treatment of two courses of steroid pulses and five d of gusperimus, acute vascular rejection and acute humoral rejection were relieved, which had been proven by the third allograft biopsy. In conclusion, this was a case of acute vascular rejection after overseas deceased kidney transplantation, resulted from non-compliance with immunosuppressive therapy. [source]

    Photodynamic therapy of vulvar and vaginal condyloma and intraepithelial neoplasia using topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid,

    Mathias K. Fehr MD
    Abstract Background and Objectives To determine the feasibility of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of vulvar and vaginal condyloma and intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, VAIN) and to compare PDT results with conventional treatments. Study Design/Materials and Methods Thirty-eight patients with vulvar or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade II/III (n,=,22) or condyloma (n,=,16) had 10% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-gel applied topically. After 2,4 hours, 80,125 J/cm2 laser light at a wavelength of 635 nm was applied. PDT was compared to conventional treatments for condyloma (CO2 laser evaporation) and for VIN III (laser evaporation, surgical excision). Results The complete clearance rate for condyloma treated by PDT was 66% and the rate for IN was 57% (as determined by biopsy). Of the neoplasia patients, none with hyperkeratotic VIN (n,=,4) responded, and only one of four with increased pigmentation cleared. No scarring occurred, and postoperative discomfort lasted 4.9,±,3.4 days. Reduced disease-free survival (DFS) was associated with multifocal VIN (P,=,0.02, OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.15,4.08), but DFS did not vary with treatment mode. Conclusions Although PDT is not equally efficacious for all subgroups, PDT for condyloma and intraepithelial neoplasia appears to be as effective as conventional treatments, but with shorter healing time and excellent cosmetic results. Lasers Surg. Med. 30:273,279, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Decreased protein tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane fluidity in spermatozoa from infertile men with varicocele

    M.G. Buffone
    Abstract Varicocele is a prevalent pathology among infertile men. The mechanisms linking this condition to infertility, however, are poorly understood. Our previous work showed a relationship between sperm functional quality and the ability of spermatozoa to respond to capacitating conditions with increased membrane fluidity and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Given the reported association between varicocele, oxidative stress, and sperm dysfunction, we hypothesized that spermatozoa from infertile patients with varicocele might have a combined defect at the level of membrane fluidity and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Semen samples from infertile patients with and without grade II/III left varicocele were evaluated for motion parameters (computer-assisted semen analysis [CASA]), hyperactivation (CASA), incidence and intensity of protein tyrosine phosphorylation (phosphotyrosine immunofluorescence and western blotting), and membrane fluidity (Laurdan fluorometry), before and after a capacitating incubation (6 hr at 37°C in Ham's F10/BSA, 5% CO2). Spermatozoa from varicocele samples presented a decreased response to the capacitating challenge, showing significantly lower motility, hyperactivation, incidence and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation, and membrane fluidity. The findings reported in this article indicate that the sperm dysfunction associated to infertile varicocele coexists with decreased sperm plasma membrane fluidity and tyrosine phosphorylation. These deficiencies represent potential new pathophysiological mechanisms underlying varicocele-related infertility. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 73: 1591,1599, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cytotoxic factor-autoantibodies: possible role in the pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever

    U.C. Chaturvedi
    Abstract During dengue virus infection a unique cytokine, cytotoxic factor (hCF), is produced that is pathogenesis-related and plays a key role in the development of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). However, what regulates the adverse effects of hCF is not known. We have previously shown that anti-hCF antibodies raised in mice, neutralise the pathogenic effects of hCF. In this study we have investigated the presence and levels of hCF-autoantibodies in sera of patients with various severity of dengue illness (n=136) and normal healthy controls (n=50). The highest levels of hCF-autoantibodies (mean±S.D.=36±20 U ml,1) were seen in patients with mild illness, the dengue fever (DF), and 48 out of 50 (96%) of the sera were positive. On the other hand the hCF-autoantibody levels declined sharply with the development of DHF and the levels were lowest in patients with DHF grade IV (mean±S.D.=5±2 U ml,1; P=<0.001 as compared to DF). Only one of the 13 DHF grade IV patients had an antibody level above the ,cut-off' value (mean plus 3 S.D. of the control sera). The analysis of data with respect to different days of illness further showed that the highest levels of hCF-autoantibodies were present in DF patients at >9 days of illness. Moreover, the DF patients at all time points, i.e. 1,4, 5,8 and >9 days of illness had significantly higher levels of hCF-autoantibodies (P<0.001) than patients with DHF grade I, II, III and IV. In addition DHF grade I and grade II patients had significantly more positive specimens than DHF grade III and grade IV patients at all time points. These results suggest that elevated levels of hCF-autoantibodies protect the patients against the development of severe forms of DHF and, therefore, it may be useful as a prognostic indicator. [source]

    Peripheral Neurostimulation for the Treatment of Chronic, Disabling Transformed Migraine

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2003
    Charles A. Popeney DO
    Background.,Up to 5% of the general population suffers from transformed migraine. This study analyzes clinical responses of transformed migraine to cervical peripheral nerve stimulation. Methods.,Headache frequency, severity, and disability (Migraine Disability Assessment [MIDAS] scores) were independently measured in an uncontrolled consecutive case series of 25 patients with transformed migraine implanted with C1 through C3 peripheral nerve stimulation. All patients met International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for episodic migraine, as well as suggested criteria for transformed migraine, and had been refractory to conventional treatment for at least 6 months. Responses to C1 through C3 peripheral nerve stimulation were recorded. Results.,Prior to stimulation, all patients experienced severe disability (grade IV on the MIDAS) with 75.56 headache days (average severity, 9.32; average MIDAS score, 121) over a 3-month period. Following stimulation, 15 patients reported little or no disability (grade I), 1 reported mild disability (grade II), 4 reported moderate disability (grade III), and 5 continued with severe disability (grade IV), with 37.45 headache days (average severity, 5.72; average MIDAS score, 15). The average improvement in the MIDAS score was 88.7%, with all patients reporting their headaches well controlled after stimulation. Conclusions.,These results raise the possibility that C1 through C3 peripheral nerve stimulation can help improve transformed migraine symptoms and disability. A controlled study is required to confirm these results. [source]

    Preoperative chemoradiation versus radiation alone for stage II and III resectable rectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Wim Ceelen
    Abstract Combining chemotherapy with preoperative radiotherapy (RT) has a sound radiobiological rationale. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials comparing preoperative RT with preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) in rectal cancer patients. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Embase and Medline (Pubmed) were searched from 1975 until June 2007. Dichotomous parameters were summarized using the odds ratio while time to event data were analyzed using the pooled hazard ratio for death. From the primary search result of 324 trials, 4 relevant randomized trials were identified. The addition of chemotherapy significantly increased grade III and IV acute toxicity (p = 0.002) while no differences were observed in postoperative morbidity or mortality. Preoperative CRT significantly increased the rate of pathological complete response (p < 0.001) although this did not translate into a higher sphincter preservation rate (p = 0.29). The local recurrence rate was significantly lower in the CRT group (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed in disease free survival (p = 0.89) or overall survival (p = 0.79). Compared to preoperative RT alone, preoperative CRT improves local control in rectal cancer but is associated with a more pronounced treatment related toxicity. The addition of chemotherapy does not benefit sphincter preservation rate or long-term survival. Future trials should address improvements in the rate of distant metastasis and overall survival by incorporating more active chemotherapy. © 2008 UICC [source]

    HLA-B alleles, high-risk HPV infection and risk for cervical neoplasia in southern Chinese women,

    Paul K.S. Chan
    Abstract A population-based study was conducted on 256 southern Chinese with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III) or invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and on 258 controls to examine the associations between HLA-B alleles, infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and the development of cervical neoplasia. HLA-B15 was found to be protective for CIN III/ICC overall (pcorrected = 0.003), and for HPV52-positive CIN III/ICC (pcorrected = 0.003). A marginal protective effect of B15 was observed for HPV16-positive CIN III/ICC, but no significant associations were revealed for HPV18- or HPV58-positive cases. None of the HLA-B alleles were found to confer an increased risk for cervical neoplasia. HLA-B15 is common among Asian for whom HPV52, a worldwide uncommon HPV type, also exists in a relatively high prevalence. It would also be worthwhile to assess the association between HLA-B15, HPV52 and cervical cancer in other Asian populations. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Invasive bladder carcinoma: A pilot study of conservative treatment with accelerated radiotherapy and concomitant cisplatin,

    Abderrahim Zouhair M.D.
    Abstract From November 1992 to December 1997, 25 patients (inoperable or refusing cystectomy) were included in a prospective study to assess the feasibility, tolerance, and curative potential of accelerated radiotherapy (RT) and concomitant cisplatin. Median age was 74 years (range 49,86). Stage distribution was as follows: 1 T1, 10 T2, 8 T3, and 6 T4. Two patients had clinically positive pelvic nodes. The goal was to deliver a total dose of 40 Gy to the whole pelvis and bladder in 4 weeks using a concomitant boost of 20 Gy to the tumor or to the whole bladder during the third and fourth weeks (total dose 60 Gy), with daily cisplatin (6 mg/m2) before RT for patients with creatinine clearance > 50 ml/min. All but one patient completed the RT protocol. Daily cisplatin was sucessfully delivered in 18 patients. One patient presented with grade III ototoxicity. Diarrhea was scored grade III in two and grade IV in two patients. Acute urinary toxicity was scored grade III in one patient. Posttreatment late effects included bladder grade II and grade III in two patients and one patient, respectively; large bowel grade III in one; urethral grade III in one; and femoral head radionecrosis in one. Four-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 23% and 35%, respectively. The latter was 60% for patients with T2 tumors. The 4-year actuarial locoregional control rate for all patients was 61%. In summary, accelerated RT and concomitant cisplatin is feasible with acceptable tolerance even in relatively old patients. Although outcome was better for patients with low-stage tumors, local control and survival rates appeared similar to those of standard RT schedules for a similar patient population. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Skin color measurement in Chinese female population: analysis of 407 cases from 4 major cities of China

    Liu Wei MD
    Background, Color assessment of human skin is an important index both in dermatology and in cosmetology. Methods, Skin color measured in 407 Chinese women selected from four different cities in China is reported in the 1976 Commission International de L'eclairage (CIE)-color space, according to the skin color typing method proposed by Chardon et al. in 1991. The skin color of buttocks and hands, which represent sun unexposed and exposed sites, respectively, were measured with a Minolta 2500d chromameter. Individual typology angle (ITA°) of each volunteer was calculated based on the measured L* and b* values and her skin complexion was graded accordingly. Results, The results show that most of the volunteers had a "light" skin color at their unexposed sites, namely grade II (65.5%), and then grade III (intermediate, 23.1%), and I (very light, 9.6%). The skin colors at exposed sites of the studied group were mainly grade III (intermediate, 45.7%), followed by grade IV (tan, 42.0%) and II (light, 7.9%). The difference among the investigated cities, the relationship between skin color and ages, and the complexion changes from unexposed site to exposed site were analyzed based on the data from the research. Conclusion, The authors believed that the present results might basically represent the complexion conditions of Chinese women. [source]

    Application of differential display, with in situ hybridization verification, to microscopic samples of breast cancer tissue

    Ruey Ho Kao
    Summary., The technique of differential display (DD) has been used widely to identify potentially interesting overexpressed or repressed genes in a variety of compared samples. When used in studying tissue samples, it inevitably confronts problems of limited amount of input material and cell-type heterogeneity. We report here the application of in situ hybridization as a method of confirmatory test for DD as well as definition of cell type expressing differential cDNA. This procedure employed material derived from a single case of human mammary, grade III, infiltrating ductal carcinoma, using free-hand microdissection, where we have compared gene expression profiles in invasive tumour with those in adjacent normal tissue. A total of 21 cDNAs were found to be differentially expressed between the two tissue types; 11 upregulated in the tumour sample and 10 upregulated in the normal sample. Six cDNAs were utilized as probes for in situ hybridization analysis of a further five cases of comparably staged breast cancer. One of these clones, 11AT1, which was found to be homologous to Hsc70, was shown to be overexpressed in tumour cells relative to adjacent normal stroma and to benign glandular epithelium in all five cases; an increase in expression was further confirmed at protein level by immunohistochemistry. The study demonstrated the applicability of in situ hybridization as a screening test in DD strategy for studying tissue material and a reasonable technique combination of identifying changes in gene expression associated with tumour development. [source]

    Beating Heart Ischemic Mitral Valve Repair and Coronary Revascularization in Patients with Impaired Left Ventricular Function

    Edvin Prifti M.D., Ph.D.
    Materials and Methods: Between January 1993 and February 2001, 91 patients with LVEF between 17% and 35% and chronic ischemic MVR (grade III,IV), underwent MV repair in concomitance with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) Sixty-one patients (Group I) underwent cardiac surgery with cardioplegic arrest, and 30 patients (Group II) underwent beating heart combined surgery. Aortic valve insufficiency was considered a contraindication for the on-pump/beating heart procedure. Mean age in Group I was 64.4 ± 7 years and in Group II, 65 ± 6 years (p = 0.69). Results: The in-hospital mortality in Group I was 8 (13%) patients versus 2 (7%) patients in Group II (p > 0.1). The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time was significantly higher in Group I (p < 0.001). In Groups I and II, respectively (p > 0.1), 2.5 ± 1 and 2.7 ± 0.8 grafts per patient were employed. Perioperative complications were identified in 37 (60.7%) patients in Group I versus 10 (33%) patients in Group II (p = 0.025). Prolonged inotropic support of greater than 24 hours was needed in 48 (78.7%) patients (Group I) versus 15 (50%) patients (Group II) (p = 0.008). Postoperative IABP and low cardiac output incidence were significantly higher in Group I, p = 0.03 and p = 0.027, respectively. Postoperative bleeding greater than 1000 mL was identified in 24 patients (39.4%) in Group I versus 5 (16.7%) in Group II (p = 0.033). Renal dysfunction incidence was 65.6% (40 patients) in Group I versus 36.7% (11 patients) in Group II (p = 0.013). The echocardiographic examination within six postoperative months revealed a significant improvement of MV regurgitation fraction, LV function, and reduced dimensions in both groups. The postoperative RF was significantly lower in Group II patients 12 ± 6 (%) versus 16 ± 5.6 (%) in Group I (p = 0.001). The 1, 2, and 3 years actuarial survival including all deaths was 91.3%, 84.2%, and 70% in Group I and 93.3%, 87.1%, and 75% in Group II (p = ns). NYHA FC improved significantly in all patients from both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that patients with impaired LV function and ischemic MVR may undergo combined surgery with acceptable mortality and morbidity. The on/pump beating heart MV repair simultaneous to CABG offers an acceptable postoperative outcome in selected patients. [source]

    Harvesting peripheral blood progenitor cells from healthy donors: retrospective comparison of filgrastim and lenograstim

    Massimo Martino
    Abstract Mobilization of CD34+ into peripheral blood is attained by either glycosylated (lenograstim) or non-glycosylated recombinant G-CSF (filgrastim). 101 donors, 57 males, median age 42 years (range 16,63) entered this retrospective study. Group I (55 cases) received filgrastim and group II lenograstim subcutaneously for 5,6 days. The peak number of CD34+ cells/,l blood observed on day 4 and 5 was not significantly different in the two groups. No differences were shown in terms of both circulating CFU-GM at the time of harvesting and CD34+ target of collection. The most frequent side effects were bone pain (18.2% grade I; 36.4% grade II, 7.3% grade III), headache (18.2%), nausea (9.1%), fever (5.5%) and a mild splenomegaly (>2cm) (5.5%) in filgrastim group, and bone pain (37.0% grade I, 26.1% grade II, 2.2% grade III), headache (17.4%), nausea (15.2%), fever (4.4%) and a mild splenomegaly (4.3%) in lenograstim group, respectively. CD34+ collection was associated with thrombocytopenia, which was not significantly different between the two groups. No donor in either group developed long-term adverse effects. We conclude that both G-CSFs are comparable in terms of CD34+ cell collection, safety and tolerability. J. Clin. Apheresis © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Impact of the Tokyo guidelines on the management of patients with acute calculous cholecystitis

    Shou-Wu Lee
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Prompt treatments for acute calculous cholecystitis can reduce both mortality and morbidity. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the impact of the Tokyo guidelines on management of patients with acute cholecystitis. Methods:, The records of patients admitted due to acute calculous cholecystitis were collected between January 2007 and June 2008. Exclusion criteria included acalculous, hepatobiliary malignancy, younger than 18 years old and mortality unrelated to cholecystitis. These 235 patients were classified into three groups; grade I, grade II and grade III, according to the severity grading in the Tokyo guidelines for acute cholecystitis. They were further classified into two subgroups; those compatible with and incompatible with managements suggested in the Tokyo guidelines, for comparison. Results:, Lower levels of platelets, lower blood pressure, higher levels of C-reactive protein, blood urine nitrogen, prothrombin time, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and more incidences of positive microorganisms cultured in bile or blood, were found in patients as the severity of disease progressed. Shorter mean length of hospital stay was compatible with the Tokyo guidelines, but no significant differences in outcomes, including incidences of survival, post-surgery complications and mortality, were found between the two subgroups. Conclusion:, No significant benefit of the application of the Tokyo guidelines in the management of patients was found between the two subgroups except for reduced mean length of hospital stay. The application of the Tokyo guidelines for improving the outcomes of patients with acute cholecystitis needs further investigation and evaluation. [source]

    Loss of SNAP-25 and rabphilin 3a in sensory-motor cortex in Huntington's disease

    Ruben Smith
    Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG-expansion in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin. The disease is characterized by progressive motor disturbances, cognitive defects, dementia, and weight loss. Using western blotting and immunohistochemistry we have assessed the expression levels and patterns of a number of proteins involved in neurotransmitter release in post-mortem frontal cortex samples from 10 HD cases with different disease grades. We report a loss of the soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP 25) in HD brains of grades I,IV. Moreover, in brains of grade III and IV we found a reduction in rabphilin 3a, a protein involved in vesicle docking and recycling. These losses appear to be specific and not due to a general loss of synapses in the HD cortex. Thus, levels of synaptobrevin II, syntaxin 1, rab3a or synaptophysin are unaltered in the same patient samples. SNAP 25 and rabphilin 3a are crucial for neurotransmitter release. Therefore, we suggest that a deficient pre-synaptic transmitter release may underlie some of the symptoms of HD. [source]

    Detection of Right-to-Left Shunts: Comparison between the International Consensus and Spencer Logarithmic Scale Criteria

    Annabelle Y. Lao
    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND International Consensus Criteria (ICC) consider right-to-left shunt (RLS) present when Transcranial Doppler (TCD) detects even one microbubble (,B). Spencer Logarithmic Scale (SLS) offers more grades of RLS with detection of >30 ,B corresponding to a large shunt. We compared the yield of ICC and SLS in detection and quantification of a large RLS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We prospectively evaluated paradoxical embolism in consecutive patients with ischemic strokes or transient ischemic attack (TIA) using injections of 9 cc saline agitated with 1 cc of air. Results were classified according to ICC [negative (no ,B), grade I (1-20 ,B), grade II (>20 ,B or "shower" appearance of ,B), and grade III ("curtain" appearance of ,B)] and SLS criteria [negative (no ,B), grade I (1-10 ,B), grade II (11-30 ,B), grade III (31100 ,B), grade IV (101300 ,B), grade V (>300 ,B)]. The RLS size was defined as large (>4 mm) using diameter measurement of the septal defects on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). RESULTS TCD comparison to TEE showed 24 true positive, 48 true negative, 4 false positive, and 2 false negative cases (sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 92.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) 85.7%, negative predictive value (NPV) 96%, and accuracy 92.3%) for any RLS presence. Both ICC and SLS were 100% sensitive for detection of large RLS. ICC and SLS criteria yielded a false positive rate of 24.4% and 7.7%, respectively when compared to TEE. CONCLUSIONS Although both grading scales provide agreement as to any shunt presence, using the Spencer Scale grade III or higher can decrease by one-half the number of false positive TCD diagnoses to predict large RLS on TEE. [source]

    Diagnostic sub-types, psychological distress and psychosocial dysfunction in southern Chinese people with temporomandibular disorders

    L. T. K. LEE
    Summary, The study aimed to assess the distribution of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) sub-types, psychological distress and psychosocial dysfunction in southern Chinese people seeking treatment for TMD using Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) and investigate potential cross-cultural differences in sub-type prevalence and psychosocial impact. Eighty-seven consecutive patients (77 females; 10 males) with a mean age of 39·3 years (s.d. 12·8) newly referred to the specialist TMD clinic at the Prince Philip Dental Hospital, Hong Kong over a 20-month period took part in the study. RDC/TMD history questionnaire and clinical assessment data were used to derive Axis I and II findings. Group I muscle disorders were the most common and found in 57·5% of patients. Group II (disc displacement) disorders were found in 42·5% and 47·1% of the right and left temporomandibular joints (TMJ) respectively. Group III disorders (arthralgia/arthrosis/arthritis) were revealed in 19·5% and 23·0% of right and left TMJ's respectively. In the Axis II assessment, 42·5% of patients had moderate/severe depression scores, 59·7% had moderate/severe somatization scores and based on graded chronic pain scores 15·0% had psychosocial dysfunction (grade III and IV). While acknowledging the small sample size, the distribution of RDC/TMD Axis I and II diagnoses was fairly similar in Chinese TMD patients compared with Western and other Asian patient groups. However, in Chinese patients, myofascial pain with limited jaw opening and TMJ disc displacement with reduction were more common and a significant number experienced psychological distress and psychosocial dysfunction. The findings have implications for the management of TMD in Chinese people. [source]

    Ultrastructural characterization of the new NG97ht human-derived glioma cell line using two different electron microscopy technical procedures

    Camila Maria Longo Machado
    Abstract On the basis of transmission electron microscopy observations in tumor cell lines, oncologists have made innumerous diagnostic and therapeutical progresses. Following this path, the UNICAMP immunopathologies laboratory established the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which when injected to the athymic nude mouse flank developed a grade IV astrocytoma. In this study, we focused on ultrastructural characterization of the NG97 cells after being recovered from xenotransplant (NG97ht). These cells in culture were assayed by two different electron microscopy procedures to characterize ultrastructures related to grade IV astrocytomas and to observe their structures through cell subcultivation. Additionally, comparative morphological descriptions of different cell passages in these technical procedures could be a useful tool for improving electron microscopy cell lineage protocols. Results from many cell passage observations showed ultrastructural similarities, which suggest malignant and glioblastoma phenotypes. In the first procedure, NG97ht cells were harvested and then incorporated into agarose before subjecting them to electron microscopy protocols, whereas in the second one, monolayer cells grew first on cover slides. Comparison among protocols revealed that organelles, cytoplasmatic extensions, spatial conformation of filopodia, and cell attachment to substrate were more preserved in the second procedure. Furthermore, in this latter procedure, a unique ellipsoidal structure was observed, which was already described when dealing with gliosarcoma cell line elsewhere. Therefore, these analyses demonstrated a morphological characterization of a new NG97ht cell line using electron transmission microscopy. Moreover, it has been shown that the second procedure provides more detailed information compared with the first. Microsc. Res. Tech, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Influence of total IgE levels on the severity of sting reactions in Hymenoptera venom allergy

    ALLERGY, Issue 8 2007
    G. J. Sturm
    Background:, Detection of specific IgE for Hymenoptera venoms and skin tests are well established diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of insect venom hypersensitivity. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of total IgE levels on the outcome of generalized anaphylactic reactions after a Hymenoptera sting. Methods:, Two hundred and twenty patients allergic to bee, wasp, or European hornet venom were included in the study. Their specific and total IgE levels, serum tryptase levels, skin tests, and sting history were analyzed. Results:, In patients with mild reactions (grade I, generalized skin symptoms) we observed higher total IgE levels (248.0 kU/l) compared to patients with moderate reactions (grade II, moderate pulmonary, cardiovascular, or gastrointestinal symptoms; 75.2 kU/l) and severe reactions (grade III, bronchoconstriction, emesis, anaphylactic shock, or loss of consciousness; 56.5 kU/l; P < 0.001). Accordingly, 25% of the patients with low levels of total IgE (<50 kU/l), but no individual with total IgE levels >250 kU/l, developed loss of consciousness (P = 0.001). Additionally, specific IgE levels were related to total IgE levels: Specific IgE levels increased from 1.6 to 7.1 kU/l in patients with low (<50 kU/l) and high (>250 kU/l) total IgE levels, respectively (P < 0.001). Specific IgE levels correlated inversely to the clinical reaction grades, however, this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.083). Conclusion:, Patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy and high levels (>250 kU/l) of total IgE, predominantly develop grade I and grade II reactions and appear to be protected from grade III reactions. However, this hypothesis should be confirmed by extended studies with sting challenges. [source]

    A novel member of the glycosyltransferase family, ,3Gn-T2, highly downregulated in invasive human bladder transitional cell carcinomas

    Irina Gromova
    Abstract Differential display reverse transcription (DDRT),polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the transcriptomes of invasive and noninvasive fresh human bladder transitional cell carcinomas. A differentially expressed novel gene sharing structural similarity with the human ,3-galactosyltransferase family, ,-1,3- N -acetylglucosaminyltransferase-T2 (,3Gn-T2), was identified. The full-length ,3Gn-T2 cDNA, containing a complete open reading frame of 1193 bp, was cloned and sequenced. ,3Gn-T2 exhibited 29,41% homology to the multigene ,3-galactosyltransferase family. Expression of the full-length ,3Gn-T2 cDNA in an in vitro coupled transcription/translation assay yielded a primary translation product with an apparent Mr of 46 kDa, which is in agreement with the predicted 397-amino-acid protein encoded by ,3Gn-T2. Multiple peptide alignment showed several sequence motifs corresponding to putative catalytic domains that are conserved throughout all members of the ,3-galactosyltransferase family, namely, a type II transmembrane domain, a conserved DxD motif, an N -glycosylation site, and five conserved cysteins. By RT-PCR strong downregulation of ,3Gn-T2 expression was noted in invasive human bladder transitional cell carcinomas (16 fresh biopsy samples: grade III, T2,T4) compared with their noninvasive counterparts (15 fresh biopsies: grade II, Ta), suggesting that ,3Gn-T2 may be involved in cancer progression. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Shanop Shuangshoti
    J1-31 is one of the astrocytic proteins, the expression of which has not been evaluated in astrocytomas. In the present study, we studied the expression of J1-31 protein in astrocytes and astrocytomas in comparison with GFAP, p53 and Ki-67. Materials consisted of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens that included five cases of normal brain, 17 of gliosis, 15 of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I), 26 of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), four of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and eight of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). GFAP was highly expressed in all specimens examined. The anti-J1-31 antibody exhibited strong cytoplasmic staining of reactive gliosis in 17/17 (100%) cases with a higher intensity of staining than that observed in the adjacent normal astrocytes. The antibody showed reactivity with tumor cells in 12/15 (80%) cases of pilocytic astrocytoma, although intensity of staining was generally weaker and more focal than observed in reactive gliosis. J1-31-positive tumor cells were detected in only 9/26 (35%) cases of the low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and none of the cases of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. Increasing Ki-67 indices paralleled advancing tumor grades. p53 protein was expressed more commonly in infiltrating astrocytomas compared to pilocytic astrocytoma. In conclusion, down-regulation of J1-31 expression correlates with advancing grade of astrocytomas. The result suggests this protein plays some role in astrocytes that is progressively lost in malignant progression. The anti-J1-31 antibody may help further our understanding of astrocytes in disease and may be useful as an aid in the pathologic diagnosis of astrocytic lesions. [source]

    Glial cytoplasmic inclusions and tissue injury in multiple system atrophy: A quantitative study in white matter (olivopontocerebellar system) and gray matter (nigrostriatal system)

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Keisuke Ishizawa
    Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) and microglia were quantified in 12 cases of multiple system atrophy (MSA) with special reference to their association with histologically defined lesion severity. The targets of the analysis were white matter (cerebellum, pontine base) and gray matter (putamen, substantia nigra). First, the lesion severity was defined: for white matter, the degree of demyelination and tissue rarefaction were semi-quantified on Klüver-Barrera (KB) sections as grade I (mildly injured), II (moderately injured), and III (severely injured); for gray matter, neurons and astrocytes were counted on KB and glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunostained sections, respectively. Next, the GCI burden was quantified on sections immunostained for ,-synuclein, phosphorylated ,-synuclein, and ubiquitin and the microglial burden was quantified on sections immunostained for HLA-DR. In white matter, the GCI and microglial burdens were the greatest when the tissue injury was mild and/or moderate (grade I and/or grade II), and they became less prominent when the tissue injury became more severe (grade III). In gray matter, in contrast, the GCI and microglial burdens failed to show significant correlations with the lesion severity. Our result suggests that the amount of GCIs as well as that of microglia is reduced when the tissue injury becomes severe in vulnerable white matter areas, but not in vulnerable gray matter areas, of MSA. It also suggests that there seems to be a difference between gray matter and white matter in the way GCIs and microglia participate in the degenerative process of MSA. [source]

    Structured review of enamel erosion literature (1980,1998): a critical appraisal of experimental, clinical and review publications

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 4 2000
    G. Maupome
    OBJECTIVE: To attain an objective account of the methods to measure enamel erosion used in 1980,1998 publications, a structured review of the literature was undertaken. METHODS: Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to 731 clinical/experimental research and review reportS. Eighty-five included papers were subsequently rated according to ,hierarchy of evidence' guidelines to assess the strength of the report's design and the relevance of the evidence to replicating enamel erosion in vivo in humanS. Scores were assigned to rate each aspect in the guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 16 clinical, 13 review and 56 experimental papers were assessed; 36.4% were published during 1996,1998.Excluding reviews, 16 papers were qualitative and 56 quantitative; 51 used human enamel. Our classification yielded nine groups of methods (five scoring systems and 26 measurement techniques).CTFPHE (Can Med Assoc J 1992; 147: 443) grading of research reports indicated that 2.8% provided evidence grade I; 20.8%, grade IIa; 63.9%, grade III; and 12.5%, grade IV. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a consistent increase in the body of knowledge. The overall quality of publications has not substantially changed over time. Experimental studies were more often quantitative, and quantitative studies had better research designS. No single group of research methods had obviously superior research designs. [source]

    Sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatoblastoma-like features in an adult

    Min-Sun Cho
    A mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor of the liver arising in an adult is rare and is mostly classified as sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, a case of sarcomatoid HCC in an adult with hepatoblastoma (HB)-like features, which produced difficulty in the differential diagnosis between sarcomatoid HCC and mixed HB, is presented. The epithelial component of the tumor composed of poorly differentiated HCC, Edmondson's grade III, and more primitive components, which were embryonal and small cell undifferentiated components of HB-like areas. The small undifferentiated cells surrounded HCC and the embryonal component of HB-like area, and revealed transition partly to areas of rhabdomyosarcoma. A small portion of chondrosarcoma was also noted. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that HCC and the embryonal component of HB-like areas expressed alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and cytokeratin 8. The small undifferentiated cells were negative for AFP but stained with cytokeratin 8 as well as CD56, which is a marker of primitive cells in many sarcoma and HB. It is not certain whether small undifferentiated cells belong to hepatic progenitor cells or primitive mesenchymal cells. Polymerase chain reaction,single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for beta-catenin mutation using microdissection revealed no mutation of any components. A review was undertaken of the cases previously reported as adult hepatoblastoma without detailed immunohistochemical study and consider many of them may be sarcomatoid HCC. These primitive and sarcomatoid components would be arising from the dedifferentiation process of HCC. [source]

    Unsuspected rejection episodes on routine surveillance endomyocardial biopsy post-heart transplant in paediatric patients

    Viktoria Dixon
    Abstract: The use of routine endomyocardial biopsies post-heart transplant in children remains controversial. It is generally accepted as the gold standard for detecting rejection, but details of the surveillance protocol, such as number and timing of biopsies, remain uncertain, with suggestions that recent advances in immunosuppressant therapy have obviated the need to perform surveillance biopsies. We retrospectively analysed results of endomyocardial biopsies performed in our unit since the introduction of a policy of three routine biopsies in the first six months post-transplantation. We specifically examined only routine surveillance biopsies in order to determine whether clinically unsuspected cases of rejection were identified. Between January 2002 and April 2006, 63 children completed three biopsies in the first six months post-transplant. Of 189 surveillance endomyocardial biopsies, 19 (10%) patients showed significant, grade III or above, rejection. One patient had two episodes of rejection. In only one case the child was haemodynamically unstable, four cases were mildly unwell, and 14 of 19 (74%) cases demonstrated no cardiac symptoms. Four of eight cases treated with sirolimus for some part of their post-transplant course had an episode of rejection and of 54 tacrolimus-treated patients, 13 had an episode of asymptomatic rejection detected. One of the seven infants had significant episode of rejection. Asymptomatic, clinically significant rejection is detected in about 10% of biopsies overall using a three-biopsy protocol in the first six months after paediatric heart transplantation, and occurs in 24% of tacrolimus-treated patients. More frequent surveillance appears needed in children treated with sirolimus, but less frequent surveillance may be possible in infants. [source]

    Allograft with unrelated donor accentuates the gastrointestinal toxicity associated with high-dose melphalan and total body irradiation preparative for bone marrow transplantation in children

    K. Vettenranta
    Abstract: The use of high-dose melphalan ( l -phenyalalanine mustard or l -PAM) has been shown to be associated with both hematological and non-hematological toxicity. It has been employed in the conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplants from related donors but experience on its use in the unrelated setting has not been reported. As an attempt to elucidate the role of high-dose l -PAM (210 mg/m2) and total body irradiation (TBI) as a preparative regimen for allogeneic marrow transplantation from matched unrelated donors, they were employed in an institutional pilot series of seven pediatric patients. When compared with recipients of unrelated marrow grafts conditioned using other regimens, those treated with high-dose l -PAM experienced a markedly more severe acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD). The overall incidence of grade III,IV acute GvHD was higher (86% vs. 14%) among those treated with l -PAM. As judged by gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, clinically significant (stages ++ to ++++) gut GvHD was strikingly more prevalent among those treated with l -PAM (86% vs. 9%, p<0.005). Toxic mortality prior to day +100 was 29% in the l -PAM group and 9% in the non- l -PAM group of patients. With a mean follow-up of 21 months no increase in the incidence of chronic GvHD has been encountered among those conditioned with l -PAM. We conclude that the use of preparative L -PAM for allogeneic transplants from unrelated donors is associated with considerable procedure-related toxicity. We strongly suggest its use in this setting to be viewed with caution. [source]

    Postoperative complications after extracapsular dissection of benign parotid lesions with particular reference to facial nerve function

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 3 2010
    Nils Klintworth MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: The desirable extent of surgical intervention for benign parotid tumors remains a matter of controversy. Superficial or total parotidectomy as a standard procedure is often said to be the gold standard; however, with it the risk of intraoperative damage to the facial nerve cannot be ignored. For some time now, extracapsular dissection without exposure of the main trunk of the facial nerve has been favored as an alternative for the treatment of discrete parotid tumors. Data on the incidence of facial nerve lesions and other acute postoperative complications of extracapsular dissection have been lacking until now. Study Design: Retrospective analysis. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the data from patients in whom extracapsular dissection of a benign parotid tumor had been performed under facial nerve monitoring and as a primary intervention in our department between 2000 and 2008. Results: A total of 934 patients were operated on for a newly diagnosed benign tumor of the parotid gland. Three hundred seventy-seven patients (40%) underwent extracapsular dissection as a primary intervention. The most common postoperative complication was hypoesthesia of the cheek or the earlobe, as reported by 38 patients (10%). Eighteen patients (5%) developed a seroma and 13 patients (3%) a hematoma. A salivary fistula formed in eight patients (2%). Secondary bleeding occurred in three patients (0.8%). In 346 patients (92%) facial nerve function was normal (House-Brackmann grade I) in the immediate postoperative period, whereas 23 patients (6%) showed temporary facial nerve paresis (House-Brackmann grade II or III) and eight patients (2%) developed permanent facial nerve paresis (seven patients House-Brackmann grade II, one patient House-Brackmann grade III). Conclusions: Extracapsular dissection of benign parotid tumors is associated with a low rate of postoperative complications, a fact that is confirmed by the available literature. We therefore recommend that use of this technique always be considered as a means of treating benign parotid tumors as conservatively, that is, as uninvasively, as possible. Laryngoscope, 2010 [source]