Good Example (good + example)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Middle Jurassic Coptoclavidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Dytiscoidea) from China: a Good Example of Mosaic Evolution

Abstract: Adults of the aquatic coptoclavid beetles (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscoidea), described from four Middle Jurassic fossil localities in Inner Mongolia and Liaoning in northeastern China, are attributed to Daohugounectes primitives Wang, Ponomarenko and Zhang, 2009, which was previously proposed after study of larvae. The generic name Timarchopsis Brauer, Redtenbacher and Ganglbauer, 1889 is proposed as a substitute for the preoccupied and junior homonym Necronectes Ponomarenko, 1977, non Milne-Edwards, 1881. Furthermore, the subfamily name Necronectinae Ponomarenko, 1977 is substituted by the available name Timarchopsinae. Daohugounectes is placed into Timarchopsinae because its adults have long, slightly apically widened tibiae and small femoral plates. The adults of this genus differ from those of other Timarchopsinae in the following features: antennae short and widened in the middle part; basal segments of protarsi not cut apically; metaventrite with a triangular plate. The larvae look like somewhat primitive forms in the subfamily Timarchopsinae. In contrast to these primitive larvae, the adults with some advanced characters can be regarded as among the most advanced forms in the subfamily Timarchopsinae, and probably represent a transition between the Timarchopsinae and Charanoscaphinae. Such mosaic evolution within Daohugounectes indicates that the evolutionary process of aquatic beetles is far more complex than previously thought. [source]

Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Stationary Plasma Thruster

F. Taccogna
Abstract A very good example for the application of PIC techniques for detailed studies of low-temperature plasmas is the Hall thrusters. Here, a variety of models with different complexities are needed to get better insight into the physics of these systems. Particular emphasis has been spent for the geometrical scaling, for the simulation of the plasma-wall interaction inside the acceleration channel and for ion-neutral collision into the plume emitted from the thruster. Results show the axial acceleration mechanism, the secondary electron emission instability, the azimuthal fluctuations into the channel and the ion backflow and electron trapping in the plume. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

From necessity to responsibility: evidence for corporate environmental citizenship activities from a developing country perspective

Fatma Küskü
Abstract The objective of this study is to focus on corporate activities conducted to protect and preserve the environment, and to evaluate these activities with respect to social responsibility in a developing country setting. This study also tries to find out whether corporations take part in these activities due to social expectations and legal obligations or due to their own social awareness. The data was collected from Turkey, which is a good example of a developing country with its economic situation. Corporations from the automotive, pharmaceutical and textile industries were studied, as the products and the process of production of these industries pose a threat to the environment. The research findings show that in adopting environmental citizenship policies corporations are more influenced by ,obligatory regulations' coming from institutional forces than by ,voluntary regulations' coming from their own social awareness. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Clustering: An Essential Step from Diverging to Converging

Marc Tassoul
Within the context of new product development processes and the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) process, the authors have come to the view that clustering is to be seen as a separate step in the process of diverging and converging. Clustering is generally presented as part of the converging stages, and as such categorized as a selection technique, which in the authors' view does not do justice to this activity. It is about expanding knowledge, about connecting ideas, and connecting ideas to problem statements, functionalities, and values and consequences. It is about building a shared understanding, in other words about ,making sense', an essential creative activity in the development of concepts and, although different from a more freewheeling divergent phase, can be as creative and maybe even more so. Four kinds of clusterings are distinguished: object clustering, morphological clustering, functional clustering and gestalt clustering. Object clustering is mainly aimed at categorizing ideas into an overviewable set of groups of ideas. No special connections are being made, other then looking for similarities. Morphological clustering is used to split up a problem into subproblems after which the ideas generated are considered as subsolutions which can then be combined into concepts. Functional clustering is interesting when different approaches can be chosen to answer some question. It permits a more strategic choice to be made. Gestalt clustering is a more synthesis like approach, often with a more metaphoric and artistic stance. Collage is a good example of such clustering. General guidelines for clustering are: use a bottom-up process of emergence; postpone early rationalisations and verbalisations; start grouping ideas on the basis of feeling and intuition; and use metaphoric names to identify clusters. [source]

Limits to Democratic Development in Civil Society and the State: The Case of Santo Domingo

Anne Marie Choup
Some scholars see civil society as key to democratization of the political system. In this view, pressure from civil society forces democratization of the state. However, this disregards the fact that changes in civil society's behaviour require changes in political society , changes are reciprocal. The demand,making strategies of grassroots organizations in the Dominican Republic in 1999 provide a good example of this dynamic: the incomplete nature of the democratic transition (specifically, the persistence of paternalism and clientelism) constrained the democratic strategy choices of the civil society organizations. Just as democratization within political society is inconsistent and incomplete, so will be the demand,making strategies of the grassroots towards the state. The Dominican case is of particular interest as it illustrates the blend of personalized and institutionalized elements characteristic of democratic transition. [source]

A catchment scale evaluation of the SIBERIA and CAESAR landscape evolution models

GR Hancock
Abstract Landscape evolution models provide a way to determine erosion rates and landscape stability over times scales from tens to thousands of years. The SIBERIA and CAESAR landscape evolution models both have the capability to simulate catchment,wide erosion and deposition over these time scales. They are both cellular, operate over a digital elevation model of the landscape, and represent fluvial and slope processes. However, they were initially developed to solve research questions at different time and space scales and subsequently the perspective, detail and process representation vary considerably between the models. Notably, CAESAR simulates individual events with a greater emphasis on fluvial processes whereas SIBERIA averages erosion rates across annual time scales. This paper describes how both models are applied to Tin Camp Creek, Northern Territory, Australia, where soil erosion rates have been closely monitored over the last 10 years. Results simulating 10,000 years of erosion are similar, yet also pick up subtle differences that indicate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two models. The results from both the SIBERIA and CAESAR models compare well with independent field data determined for the site over different time scales. Representative hillslope cross-sections are very similar between the models. Geomorphologically there was little difference between the modelled catchments after 1000 years but significant differences were revealed at longer simulation times. Importantly, both models show that they are sensitive to input parameters and that hydrology and erosion parameter derivation has long-term implications for sediment transport prediction. Therefore selection of input parameters is critical. This study also provides a good example of how different models may be better suited to different applications or research questions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Commonwealth of Australia [source]

Risk management lessons from Long-Term Capital Management

Philippe Jorion
The 1998 failure of Long-Term Capital Management (LTCM) is said to have nearly blown up the world's financial system. For such a near-catastrophic event, the finance profession has precious little information to draw from. By piecing together publicly available information, this paper draws risk management lessons from LTCM. LTCM's strategies are analysed in terms of the fund's Value at Risk (VAR) and the amount of capital necessary to support its risk profile. The paper shows that LTCM had severely underestimated its risk due to its reliance on short-term history and risk concentration. LTCM also provides a good example of risk management taken to the extreme. Using the same covariance matrix to measure risk and to optimize positions inevitably leads to biases in the measurement of risk. This approach also induces the strategy to take positions that appear to generate ,arbitrage' profits based on recent history but also represent bets on extreme events, like selling options. Overall, LTCM's strategy exploited the intrinsic weaknesses of its risk management system. [source]


Patrick D. Nunn
ABSTRACT. Around a.d. 1300 the entire Pacific Basin (continental Pacific Rim and oceanic Pacific Islands) was affected by comparatively rapid cooling and sea-level fall, and possibly increased storminess, that caused massive and enduring changes to Pacific environments and societies. For most Pacific societies, adapted to the warmer, drier, and more stable climates of the preceding Medieval Climate Anomaly (a.d. 750,1250), the effects of this A.D. 1300 Event were profoundly disruptive, largely because of the reduction in food resources available in coastal zones attributable to the 70,80-centimeter sea-level fall. This disruption was manifested by the outbreak of persistent conflict, shifts in settlements from coasts to refugia inland or on unoccupied offshore islands, changes in subsistence strategies, and an abrupt end to long-distance cross-ocean interaction during the ensuing Little Ice Age (a.d. 1350,1800). The A.D. 1300 Event provides a good example of the disruptive potential for human societies of abrupt, short-lived climate changes. [source]

How socially responsible engagement can change your business model: The radical experience of Armor Lux

Virginie Vial
Despite a growing consensus on corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues relevant to companies, there is no one-size-fits-all way to structure and organize CSR. The lack of clarity and transparency in the structure leads stakeholders, rightly or wrongly, to accuse companies of "greenwashing strategies." The author analyzes the case of a small French textile company that has radically turned its business model toward CSR in order to survive. It provides a good example of real social engagement and how it transforms the business model. It also raises the question of whether sustainable development issues, scarcity of resources, and deindustrialization of developed countries will move other manufacturers to consider services and intangible assets as part of their business model. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Allelic imbalance (AI) identifies novel tissue-specific cis- regulatory variation for human UGT2B15,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2010
Chang Sun
Abstract Allelic imbalance (AI) is a powerful tool to identify cis -regulatory variation for gene expression. UGT2B15 is an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of multiple endobiotics and xenobiotics. In this study, we measured the relative expression of two alleles at this gene by using SNP rs1902023:G>T. An excess of the G over the T allele was consistently observed in liver (P<0.001), but not in breast (P=0.06) samples, suggesting that SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium with G253T regulate UGT2B15 expression in liver. Seven such SNPs were identified by resequencing the promoter and exon 1, which define two distinct haplotypes. Reporter gene assays confirmed that one haplotype displayed ,20% higher promoter activity compared to the other major haplotype in liver HepG2 (P<0.001), but not in breast MCF-7 (P=0.540) cells. Reporter gene assays with additional constructs pointed to rs34010522:G>T and rs35513228:C>T as the cis -regulatory variants; both SNPs were also evaluated in LNCaP and Caco-2 cells. By ChIP, we showed that the transcription factor Nrf2 binds to the region spanning rs34010522:G>T in all four cell lines. Our results provide a good example for how AI can be used to identify cis -regulatory variation and gain insights into the tissue specific regulation of gene expression. Hum Mutat 30:1,9, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Tectonic and stratigraphic significance of the Middle Ordovician carbonate breccias in the Ogcheon Belt, South Korea

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2002
In-Chang Ryu
Abstract Carbonate breccias occur sporadically in the Lower,Middle Ordovician Maggol Limestone exposed in the Taebacksan Basin in the northeastern part of the northeast,southwest-trending Ogcheon Belt, South Korea. These carbonate breccias have been previously interpreted as intraformational or fault-related breccias. Thus, little attention has been focused on tectonic and stratigraphic significance of these carbonate breccias. The present study, however, indicates that the majority of these carbonate breccias are solution,collapse breccias, which are causally linked to paleokarstification. Carbonate facies analysis in conjunction with conodont biostratigraphy suggests that an overall regression toward the top of the Maggol Limestone probably culminated in subaerial exposure of platform carbonates during the early Middle Ordovician (earliest Darriwilian). Extensive subaerial exposure of platform carbonates resulted in paleokarst-related solution,collapse breccias in the upper Maggol Limestone. This subaerial exposure event is manifested as a major paleokarst unconformity at the Sauk,Tippecanoe sequence boundary elsewhere beneath the Middle Ordovician succession and its equivalents, most notably North America and North China. Due to its global extent, this paleokarst unconformity has been viewed as a product of second- or third-order eustatic sealevel drop during the early Middle Ordovician. Although a paleokarst breccia zone is recognized beneath the Middle Ordovician succession in South Korea, the Sauk,Tippecanoe sequence boundary appears to be a conformable transgressive surface on the top of the paleokarst breccia zone in the upper Maggol Limestone. The paleokarst breccia zone beneath the conformable transgressive surface is represented by a thinning-upward stack of exposure-capped tidal flat-dominated cycles that are closely associated with multiple occurrences of paleokarst-related solution,collapse breccias. This paleokarst breccia zone was a likely consequence of repeated fourth- and fifth-order sealevel fluctuations. It suggests that second- and third-order eustatic sealevel drop may have been significantly tempered by substantial tectonic subsidence near the end of the Maggol deposition. The tectonic subsidence in the basin is also evidenced by the occurrence of coeval off-platform lowstand siliciclastic quartzite lenses as well as debris flow carbonate breccias (i.e. the Yemi Breccia). With the continued tectonic subsidence, subsequent rise in the eustatic cycle caused drowning and deep flooding of carbonate platform, forming a transgressive surface on the top of the paleokarst breccia zone. This tectonic implication contrasts notably with the slowly subsiding carbonate platform model for the basin as has been previously interpreted. Thus, it is proposed that the Taebacksan Basin in the northeastern part of the Ogcheon Belt evolved from a slowly subsiding carbonate platform to a rapidly subsiding intracontinental rift basin during the early Middle Ordovician. The proposed tectonic model in the basin gives much better insight to unravel the stratigraphic response to tectonic evolution of the Ogcheon Belt, which remains an enigmatic feature in formulating a tectonic framework of the Korean peninsula. The present study also provides a good example that the falling part of the eustatic sealevel cycle may not produce a significant event in a rapidly subsiding basin where the rate of eustatic fall always remained lower than the rate of subsidence. [source]

Are Banks Still Special?

New Evidence on Their Role in the Corporate Capital-Raising Process
Bankers appear to play a special role in providing commitment-based financing to corporations. This type of lending is important not only for small firms that lack access to public debt markets but for large and medium-size companies as well. For such companies, commitment-based financing provides access to debt capital that becomes valuable when the firm has an immediate need for funding but interest rates in public debt markets are prohibitively high, or the firm is undervalued by the market. A good example of this was provided by the Asian crisis in the last quarter of 1998, when $10 billion of commercial paper was retired and $20 billion of net new commercial loans were booked. The authors also suggest that the fact that commitment-based financing is used by larger companies when they believe themselves to be undervalued in the market is probably the best explanation of why announcements of these types of loans elicit a positive stock price reaction. [source]

Step-Energy Barriers and Particle Shape Changes during Coarsening

Brian W. Sheldon
Models of particle shape changes usually do not account for the step-energy barrier associated with adding or removing additional atomic planes from a faceted surface. However, the step-energy barrier can be a substantial limitation when the free energy changes that drive particle shape changes are relatively low. A good example of this is particle coarsening. The analysis presented in this article describes dislocation-free particles with surfaces that have faceted and nonfaceted regions. When the chemical potential differences responsible for shape changes are too small to overcome the step-energy barrier, atomic layers cannot be added or removed from the facets. Even with this constraint, it is possible to add or remove atoms from the particle surface; however, this can cause the particle shape to differ substantially from the traditional equilibrium shape. [source]

Regional Cluster Policies: Learning by Comparing?

Jan Hospers
This paper deals with an intriguing paradox that can be observed in today's regional economic policy making: whereas unique local factors are increasingly seen as the determinants of regional economic success, simultaneously more and more governments try to copy policy experiences that proved to be successful in a particular region. A good example here is the use of ,best practices' in the field of regional cluster policy. Cluster programs are becoming like ,mantras' for policy makers who want to stimulate regional economic development. Given this paradox, in the present paper we address the question what lessons can be drawn from comparing success stories of regional clustering. To answer this question, we combine insights from regional economics and comparative public policy. To start, we discuss the literature that has led to the popularity of the cluster concept as a learning device among policy makers. After that, we identify the preconditions (,contingencies') that affect whether these cluster policy initiatives can be transferred from one place to another. We find that some of the contingent influences, especially those related to the degree of uniqueness of an area's economic structure and culture, hamper the possibility of ,learning by comparing' in regional cluster policy. It may even be argued that exactly those regional specificities explain the success of cluster,based policy efforts. Thus, we have to draw the rather pessimistic conclusion that the possibilities of lesson,drawing in regional cluster policy are limited. In our view, at best ,best practices' should be seen as inspiration sources rather than as recipes for successful regional economic development. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the CURE 3,Conference on Outstanding Regions in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands, November 22,24, 2000. We would like to thank Arnoud Lagendijk, an anonymous referee and the editors for valuable comments. [source]

Teaching & Learning Guide for: Victorian Life Writing

Valerie Sanders
Author's Introduction The Victorian period was one of the great ages for life-writing. Though traditionally renowned for its monumental ,lives and letters', mainly of great men, this was also a time of self-conscious anxiety about the genre. Critics and practitioners alike were unsure who should be writing autobiography, and whether its inherent assertiveness ruled out all but public men as appropriate subjects. It was also a period of experimentation in the different genres of life-writing , whether autobiography, journals, letters, autobiographical novels, and narratives of lives combined with extracts from correspondence and diaries. Victorian life-writing therefore provides rich and complex insights into the relationship between narrative, identity, and the definition of the self. Recent advances in criticism have highlighted the more radical and non-canonical aspects of life-writing. Already a latecomer to the literary-critical tradition (life-writing was for a long time the ,poor relation' of critical theory), auto/biography stresses the hidden and silent as much as the mainstream and vocal. For that reason, study of Victorian life-writing appeals to those with an interest in gender issues, postcolonialism, ethnicity, working-class culture, the history of religion, and family and childhood studies , to name but a few of the fields with which the genre has a natural connection. Author Recommends A good place to start is the two canonical texts for Victorian life-writing: George P. Landow's edited collection, Approaches to Victorian Autobiography (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1979) and Avrom Fleishman's Figures of Autobiography: The Language of Self-Writing in Victorian and Modern England (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1983). These two re-ignited interest in Victorian life-writing and in effect opened the debate about extending the canon, though both focus on the firmly canonical Ruskin and Newman, among others. By contrast, David Amigoni's recently edited collection of essays, Life-Writing and Victorian Culture (Aldershot: Ashgate 2006) shows how far the canon has exploded and expanded: it begins with a useful overview of the relationship between lives, life-writing, and literary genres, while subsequent chapters by different authors focus on a particular individual or family and their cultural interaction with the tensions of life-writing. As this volume is fairly male-dominated, readers with an interest in women's life-writing might prefer to start with Linda Peterson's chapter, ,Women Writers and Self-Writing' in Women and Literature in Britain 1800,1900, ed. Joanne Shattock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 209,230. This examines the shift from the eighteenth-century tradition of the chroniques scandaleuses to the professional artist's life, domestic memoir, and spiritual autobiography. Mary Jean Corbett's Representing Femininity: Middle-Class Subjectivity in Victorian and Edwardian Women's Autobiographies (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992) begins with material on Wordsworth and Carlyle, but ,aims to contest the boundaries of genre, gender, and the autobiographical tradition by piecing together a partial history of middle-class women's subjectivities in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries' (3). Corbett is particularly interested in the life-writing of actresses and suffragettes as well as Martineau and Oliphant, the first two women autobiographers to be welcomed into the canon in the 1980s and 90s. Laura Marcus's Auto/biographical Discourses, Theory, Criticism, Practice (Manchester and New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 1994) revises and updates the theoretical approaches to the study of life-writing, stressing both the genre's hybrid qualities, and its inherent instability: in her view, it ,comes into being as a category to be questioned' (37). Another of her fruitful suggestions is that autobiography functions as a ,site of struggle' (9), an idea that can be applied to aesthetic or ideological issues. Her book is divided between specific textual examples (such as the debate about autobiography in Victorian periodicals), and an overview of developments in critical approaches to life-writing. Her second chapter includes material on Leslie Stephen, who is also the first subject of Trev Lynn Broughton's Men of Letters, Writing Lives: Masculinity and Literary Auto/biography in the Late Victorian Period (London: Routledge, 1999) , her other being Froude's controversial Life of Carlyle. With the advent of gender studies and masculinities, there is now a return to male forms of life-writing, of which Martin A. Danahay's A Community of One: Masculine Autobiography and Autonomy in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993) is a good example. Danahay argues that nineteenth-century male autobiographers present themselves as ,autonomous individuals' free of the constraints of social and familial contexts, thus emphasizing the autonomy of the self at the expense of family and community. Online Materials My impression is that Victorian life-writing is currently better served by books than by online resources. There seem to be few general Web sites other than University module outlines and reading lists; for specific authors, on the other hand, there are too many to list here. So the only site I'd recommend is The Victorian Web: This Web site has a section called ,Autobiography Overview', which begins with an essay, ,Autobiography, Autobiographicality and Self-Representation', by George P. Landow. There are sections on other aspects of Victorian autobiography, including ,Childhood as a Personal Myth', autobiography in Dickens and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and a list of ,Suggested Readings'. Each section is quite short, but summarizes the core issues succinctly. Sample Syllabus This sample syllabus takes students through the landmarks of Victorian life-writing, and demonstrates the development of a counter-culture away from the mainstream ,classic male life' (if there ever was such a thing) , culminating in the paired diaries of Arthur Munby (civil servant) and Hannah Cullwick (servant). Numerous other examples could have been chosen, but for those new to the genre, this is a fairly classic syllabus. One week only could be spent on the ,classic male texts' if students are more interested in pursuing other areas. Opening Session Open debate about the definition of Victorian ,life-writing' and its many varieties; differences between autobiography, autobiographical fiction, diary, letters, biography, collective biography, and memoir; the class could discuss samples of selected types, such as David Copperfield, Father and Son, Ruskin's Praeterita, and Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Brontë. Alternatively, why not just begin with Stave Two of Dickens's A Christmas Carol (1843), in which the First Spirit takes Scrooge back through his childhood and youth? This is a pretty unique type of life-writing, with Scrooge ,laughing and crying' as his childhood and youth are revealed to him in a series of flashbacks (a Victorian version of ,This is Your Life?'). The dual emotions are important to note at this stage and will prompt subsequent discussions of sentimentality and writing for comic effect later in the course. Week 2 Critical landmarks: discussion of important stages in the evolution of critical approaches to life-writing, including classics such as Georges Gusdorf's ,Conditions and Limits of Autobiography', in Autobiography: Essays Theoretical and Critical, ed. James Olney (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980), 28,47; Philippe Lejeune's ,The Autobiographical Pact', in On Autobiography, ed. Paul John Eakin, trans. Katherine Leary (original essay 1973; Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989), 3,30; and Paul De Man's ,Autobiography as De-Facement', Modern Language Notes 94 (1979): 919,30. This will provide a critical framework for the rest of the course. Weeks 3,4 Extracts from the ,male classics' of Victorian life-writing: J. S. Mill's Autobiography (1873), Ruskin's Praeterita (1885,89), and Newman's Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864). What do they think is important and what do they miss out? How open or otherwise are they about their family and personal lives? Are these essentially ,lives of the mind'? How self-aware are they of autobiographical structures? Are there already signs that the ,classic male life' is fissured and unconventional? An option here would be to spend the first week focusing on male childhoods, and the second on career trajectories. Perhaps use Martin Danahay's theory of the ,autonomous individual' (see above) to provide a critical framework here: how is the ,Other' (parents, Harriet Taylor) treated in these texts? Weeks 5,6 Victorian women's autobiography: Harriet Martineau's Autobiography (1877) and Margaret Oliphant's Autobiography (1899): in many ways these are completely unalike, Martineau's being ordered around the idea of steady mental growth and public recognition, while Oliphant's is deeply emotional and disordered. Can we therefore generalize about ,women's autobiography'? What impact did they have on Victorian theories of life-writing? Students might like to reconsider Jane Eyre as an ,autobiography' alongside these and compare scenes of outright rebellion. The way each text handles time and chronology is also fascinating: Martineau's arranged to highlight stages of philosophical development, while Oliphant's switches back and forth in a series of ,flashbacks' to her happier youth as her surviving two sons die ,in the text', interrupting her story. Week 7 Black women's autobiography: how does Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands (1857) differ from the Martineau and Oliphant autobiographies? What new issues and genre influences are introduced by a Caribbean/travelogue perspective? Another key text would be Harriet Jacobs's Incidents in the Life of a Slave-Girl (1861). How representative and how individual are these texts? Do these authors see themselves as representing their race as well as their class and sex? Week 8 Working-class autobiography: Possible texts here could be John Burnett's Useful Toil (Allen Lane, 1974, Penguin reprint); Carolyn Steedman's edition of John Pearman's The Radical Soldier's Tale (Routledge, 1988) and the mini oral biographies in Henry Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor (1861,62) (e.g., the Water-Cress Seller). There is also a new Broadview edition of Factory Lives (2007) edited by James R. Simmons, with an introduction by Janice Carlisle. This contains four substantial autobiographical texts (three male, one female) from the mid-nineteenth century, with supportive materials. Samuel Bamford's Passages in the Life of a Radical (1839,42; 1844) and Early Days (1847,48) are further options. Students should also read Regenia Gagnier's Subjectivities: A History of Self-Representation in Britain 1832,1910 (Oxford University Press, 1991). Week 9 Biography: Victorian Scandal: focus on two scandals emerging from Victorian life-writing: Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Brontë (1857) (the Branwell Brontë/Lady Scott adultery scandal), and Froude's allegations of impotence in his Life of Carlyle (1884). See Trev Broughton's ,Impotence, Biography, and the Froude-Carlyle Controversy: ,Revelations on Ticklish Topics', Journal of the History of Sexuality, 7.4 (Apr. 1997): 502,36 (in addition to her Men of Letters cited above). The biographies of the Benson family written about and by each other, especially E. F. Benson's Our Family Affairs 1867,1896 (London: Cassell, 1920) reveal the domestic unhappiness of the family of Gladstone's Archbishop of Canterbury, Edward White Benson, whose children and wife were all to some extent homosexual or lesbian. Another option would be Edmund Gosse's Father and Son (1907) in which the son's critical stance towards his father is uneasy and complex in its mixture of comedy, pity, shame, and resentment. Week 10 Diaries: Arthur Munby's and Hannah Cullwick's relationship (they were secretly married, but lived as master and servant) and diaries, Munby: Man of Two Worlds: The Life and Diaries of Arthur Munby, ed. Derek Hudson (John Murray, 1972), and The Diaries of Hannah Cullwick: Victorian Maidservant, ed. Liz Stanley (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984): issues of gender and class identity; the idealization of the working woman; the two diaries compared. Half the class could read one diary and half the other and engage in a debate about the social and sexual fantasies adopted by each diarist. It would also be sensible to leave time for an overview debate about the key issues of Victorian life-writing which have emerged from this module, future directions for research, and current critical developments. Focus Questions 1To what extent does Victorian autobiography tell an individual success story? Discuss with reference to two or three contrasting examples. 2,All life writing is time writing' (Jens Brockmeier). Examine the way in which Victorian life-writers handle the interplay of narrative, memory, and time. 3To what extent do you agree with the view that Victorian life-writing was ,a form of communication that appeared intimate and confessional, but which was in fact distant and controlled' (Donna Loftus)? 4,Bamford was an autobiographer who did not write an autobiography' (Martin Hewitt). If autobiography is unshaped and uninterpreted, what alternative purposes does it have in narrating a life to the reader? 5,Victorian life-writing is essentially experimental, unstable, and unpredictable.' How helpful is this comment in helping you to understand the genre? [source]

Mesoscale simulations of atmospheric flow and tracer transport in Phoenix, Arizona

Ge Wang
Abstract Large urban centres located within confining rugged or complex terrain can frequently experience episodes of high concentrations of lower atmospheric pollution. Metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona (United States), is a good example, as the general population is occasionally subjected to high levels of lower atmospheric ozone, carbon monoxide and suspended particulate matter. As a result of dramatic but continuous increase in population, the accompanying environmental stresses and the local atmospheric circulation that dominates the background flow, an accurate simulation of the mesoscale pollutant transport across Phoenix and similar urban areas is becoming increasingly important. This is particularly the case in an airshed, such as that of Phoenix, where the local atmospheric circulation is complicated by the complex terrain of the area. Within the study presented here, a three-dimensional time-dependent mesoscale meteorological model (HOTMAC) is employed for simulation of lower-atmospheric flow in Phoenix, for both winter and summer case-study periods in 1998. The specific purpose of the work is to test the model's ability to replicate the atmospheric flow based on the actual observations of the lower-atmospheric wind profile and known physical principles. While a reasonable general agreement is found between the model-produced flow and the observed one, the simulation of near-surface wind direction produces a much less accurate representation of actual conditions, as does the simulation of wind speed over 1,000 metres above the surface. Using the wind and turbulence output from the mesoscale model, likely particle plume trajectories are simulated for the case-study periods using a puff dispersion model (RAPTAD). Overall, the results provide encouragement for the efforts towards accurately simulating the mesoscale transport of lower-atmospheric pollutants in environments of complex terrain. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Use of Extant Non-Indigenous Tortoises as a Restoration Tool to Replace Extinct Ecosystem Engineers

Christine J. Griffiths
We argue that the introduction of non-native extant tortoises as ecological replacements for extinct giant tortoises is a realistic restoration management scheme, which is easy to implement. We discuss how the recent extinctions of endemic giant Cylindraspis tortoises on the Mascarene Islands have left a legacy of ecosystem dysfunction threatening the remnants of native biota, focusing on the island of Mauritius because this is where most has been inferred about plant,tortoise interactions. There is a pressing need to restore and preserve several Mauritian habitats and plant communities that suffer from ecosystem dysfunction. We discuss ongoing restoration efforts on the Mauritian offshore Round Island, which provide a case study highlighting how tortoise substitutes are being used in an experimental and hypothesis-driven conservation and restoration project. The immediate conservation concern was to prevent the extinction and further degradation of Round Island's threatened flora and fauna. In the long term, the introduction of tortoises to Round Island will lead to valuable management and restoration insights for subsequent larger-scale mainland restoration projects. This case study further highlights the feasibility, versatility and low-risk nature of using tortoises in restoration programs, with particular reference to their introduction to island ecosystems. Overall, the use of extant tortoises as replacements for extinct ones is a good example of how conservation and restoration biology concepts applied at a smaller scale can be microcosms for more grandiose schemes and addresses more immediate conservation priorities than large-scale ecosystem rewilding projects. [source]


James Huff
This article explores how one faith-based nonprofit organization and its various Pentecostal and evangelical church partners in El Salvador are creating associational contexts within which local community development projects are identified and implemented. Observational and interview data derived from a process evaluation of a project identification exercise are examined to explore how different community and organizational stakeholders attempt to implement local development initiatives that will presumably build on local assets and associations. The study details the patterns of participation that emerged as members of local churches negotiated with their neighbors over how to best direct social change in their community. Corresponding analysis of interview data portrays how these same actors relied on diverse social logics,which are both religious and practical in nature,to make sense of and assess some of the key assumptions of a particular form of faith-based development. The case is a good example of how faith-based organizations play key roles in the formation of publics, wherein actors from diverse networks come together to deliberate over the aims and outcomes of local development projects in contemporary El Salvador. [source]


Satoshi Suzuki
ABSTRACT In general, a Variable Structure (VS) system is designed with a sliding mode. Recently a sliding sector, designed by an algebraic Riccati equation, has been proposed to replace the sliding mode for chattering-free VS controllers. In this paper we extend the design algorithm for the sliding sector to a time-varying sliding sector. The time-varying sliding sector is defined by functions dependent on both state and time, hence time-varying uncertainty can be considered. The VS controller is designed to stabilize an uncertain system, quadratically. The design procedure for real systems is introduced via an implementation to the control of "Furuta pendulum". To enhance the stability it is necessary to compensate the time-varying nonlinear static friction of the actuator adequately, hence this problem is a good example to demonstrate the performance of the proposed VS control method. In the experiment, it will be shown that the VS control with the time-varying sliding sector is superior to an orthodox chattering-free VS control. [source]

Insecticide resistance in the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer): chromosome location and epigenetic effects on esterase gene expression in clonal lineages

Insecticide treatment of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) has led to the evolution of several insecticide resistance mechanisms, including the detoxification of insecticides by elevated esterases. This results from amplification of one of two closely related esterase genes (E4 or FE4) with up to 80 copies in the most resistant aphids. The amplified E4 genes are at a single site linked to a chromosomal translocation and resistance can be unstable. Individuals within a clone lose their elevated esterase and resistant phenotype, a good example of ,clonal variation'. This loss of esterase is accompanied by a loss of the corresponding mRNA but the amplified genes are retained with no detectable sequence differences. However, the expressed E4 genes contain 5-methylcytosine, which is lost at the same time as the genes are turned off. This is in direct contrast with vertebrate genes where DNA methylation causes gene silencing, but it does suggest that the resistant phenotype in M. persicae is under epigenetic control. One hypothesis is that 5-methylcytosine in E4 genes facilitates expression by preventing the production of incorrectly initiated transcripts. It is interesting that we have never detected silencing of amplified FE4 genes, possibly because they are at multiple loci and therefore less likely to be subject to synchronous control. © 2003 The Linnean Society of London. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 79, 107,113. [source]

DATE analysis: A general theory of biological change applied to microarray data

David Rasnick
Abstract In contrast to conventional data mining, which searches for specific subsets of genes (extensive variables) to correlate with specific phenotypes, DATE analysis correlates intensive state variables calculated from the same datasets. At the heart of DATE analysis are two biological equations of state not dependent on genetic pathways. This result distinguishes DATE analysis from other bioinformatics approaches. The dimensionless state variable F quantifies the relative overall cellular activity of test cells compared to well-chosen reference cells. The variable ,i is the fold-change in the expression of the ith gene of test cells relative to reference. It is the fraction , of the genome undergoing differential expression,not the magnitude ,,that controls biological change. The state variable , is equivalent to the control strength of metabolic control analysis. For tractability, DATE analysis assumes a linear system of enzyme-connected networks and exploits the small average contribution of each cellular component. This approach was validated by reproducible values of the state variables F, RNA index, and , calculated from random subsets of transcript microarray data. Using published microarray data, F, RNA index, and , were correlated with: (1) the blood-feeding cycle of the malaria parasite, (2) embryonic development of the fruit fly, (3) temperature adaptation of Killifish, (4) exponential growth of cultured S. pneumoniae, and (5) human cancers. DATE analysis was applied to aCGH data from the great apes. A good example of the power of DATE analysis is its application to genomically unstable cancers, which have been refractory to data mining strategies. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]

Potential for Using Histidine Tags in Purification of Proteins at Large Scale

V. Gaberc-Porekar
Abstract Attachment of oligo-histidine tag (His-tag) to the protein N- or C-terminus is a good example of early and successful protein engineering to design a unique and generalized purification scheme for virtually any protein. Thus relatively strong and specific binding of His-tagged protein is achieved on an Immobilized Metal-Ion Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) matrix. Most popular hexa-histidine tag and recently also deca-histidine tag are used in combination with three chelating molecules: iminodiacetic acid (IDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and carboxymethyl aspartic acid (CM-Asp), covalently attached to the chromatographic matrix. The following combinations with divalent metal ions are preferentially used: (Cu, Zn, Ni, Co)-IDA, Ni-NTA, and Co-CM-Asp. At large scale, regarding cost and product purity, a decisive step is precise and efficient cleavage of His-tag by the cleavage enzyme. Two-step IMAC followed by a polishing step appears to be a minimum but still realistic as an approach to generic technology also for more demanding products. Possible drawbacks in using His-tags and IMAC, such as leaching of metal ions, inefficient cleavage, and batch-to-batch reproducibility must be carefully evaluated before transferred to large scale. Although a great majority of reports refer to small laboratory scale isolations for research purposes it appears there is much higher potential for more extensive use of His-tags and IMAC at large scale than currently documented. [source]

Proline-40 is Essential to Maintaining Cytochrome b5, s Stability and Its Electron Transfer with Cytochrome c

Zhi-Qian Wang
Abstract In order to illustrate the roles played by Pro40 in the structure, properties and functions of Cytochrome b5, three mutated genes, P40V, P40Y, P40G were constructed in this work. Only the P40V gene was successfully expressed into holoprotein in E. coli JM83. According to the results of X-ray crystallographic analysis and various kinds of spectroscopy studies, it is evident that substituting valine for Pro40 does not result in significant alterations in the protein,s overall structure; however, local conformational perturbations in the proximity of the heme do occur. The redox potential of the P40V mutant is 40 mV lower than that of the wild type protein. Its stability towards heat, urea, acid and ethanol were significantly decreased. The mutation leads to a decrease in the hydrophobicity of the heme pocket, which is probably the major factor contributing to the above changes. Binding constants and electron transfer rates between cytochrome bs and cytochrome c were determined using UV-visible spectroscopy and stopped-flow techniques for both the wild type and the mutant. The results showed that the substitution of Pro40 by valine does not influence the binding constant of cytochrome b5 to cytochrome c; however, the electron transfer rate between them decreased significantly. This indicates that proline-40 is essential to maintaining cytochrome bss stability and its electron transfer with cytochrome c. These studies also provided a good example that property and functional changes of a protein do not necessarily require large overall structural alterations; in most cases, only perturbations on the local conformations are sufficient to induce significant changes in protein,s properties and functions. [source]

Virtual anatomy: An anatomist's playground

Victor M. Spitzer
Abstract Virtual anatomy presents significant advantages over the reality of a cadaver as it can provide different views and perspectives, portability, longevity, standardization, diversity and most importantly the opportunity to learn the anatomy of the living human body instead of the corpse. Virtual anatomy is the life-like appearance of visible anatomy, a good example of which is the evolution of the Visible Human. Racial and statistical diversity is already developing as the population of photographic "Visible Humans" is now at least 10. Virtual anatomy should include additional diversity and therefore, consideration should be given to the preparation of more visible anatomy that will better support the virtual integration of all areas of physiology, kinematics, pathology and pathophysiology, development and evolution. Integration of anatomists with mathematicians, computer scientists, information scientists, physiologists, pathologists and clinicians (and LIST other basic scientist) is needed in order to facilitate this development. As this unfolds it is proposed, or challenged, that anatomists should maintain their position of responsibility for building anatomy as the foundation for all medical and healthcare education. In order to maintain that position they must understand and participate in this development and enjoy the rewards of teaching more visually empowering, functional, and clinical anatomy. The trip is a long one and is only about to begin but the train is leaving. Are you on board? Clin. Anat. 19:192,203, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Does Competition for Clients Increase Service Quality in Cleaning Gobies?

ETHOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Marta C. Soares
In a biological market, members of one trading class try to outbid each other to gain access to the most valuable partners. Competition within class can thus force individuals to trade goods or services more cheaply, ultimately resulting in conflict (e.g. cheating) over the value of commodities. Cleaning symbioses among fish appear to be good examples of biological markets. However, the existence and effect of outbidding competition among either types of traders (cleaners or clients) have never been tested. We examined whether increasing competition among cleaning gobies (Elacatinus spp.) for access to clients results in outbidding in the form of provision of a better cleaning service. On reefs where fish clients visited cleaning stations less frequently, and thus competition among cleaners was higher, cleaning gobies ingested fewer scales relative to the number of ingested parasites, i.e. they cleaned more honestly. This shift in cleaner behaviour towards greater honesty is consistent with a greater market value of access to clients in the face of competition among cleaners. However, this pattern could have also arisen as a result of differences in ectoparasite availability across reefs and therefore in value of the commodity offered by clients. Experimental manipulations will be required to determine whether cleaning service quality by cleaning gobies was enhanced solely because of competitive outbidding. [source]

Structure Variation and Luminescence Properties of Lanthanide Complexes Incorporating a Naphthalene-Derived Chromophore Featuring Salicylamide Pendant Arms

Xue-Qin Song
Abstract A new potentially bridging ligand containing two salicylamide pendant arms separated by a 2,3-dimethoxynaphthalene spacer has been prepared and its coordination chemistry with LnIII ions has been investigated. An analysis of the presented crystal structures indicates that the diversity of these supramolecular structures is mainly dictated by the nature of the metal ions. These compounds represent good examples of tuning crystal structures arising from the flexibility of the ligands and the Ln contraction effect. Luminescence studies showed that the introduction of the methoxyl substituents on the naphthalene backbone lowers the triplet energy and considerably changes the luminescent behaviors of the EuIII and TbIII complexes, which is very different from the literature data on similar compounds. In the emission spectra of the Tb complex the ligand fluorescence remains relatively important because of the back-energy transfer from the TbIII ion to the ligand, which to the best of our knowledge, may be the first example of salicylamide lanthanide complexes. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

Modelling strain localization in granular materials using micropolar theory: mathematical formulations

Mustafa I. Alsaleh
Abstract It has been known that classical continuum mechanics laws fail to describe strain localization in granular materials due to the mathematical ill-posedness and mesh dependency. Therefore, a non-local theory with internal length scales is needed to overcome such problems. The micropolar and high-order gradient theories can be considered as good examples to characterize the strain localization in granular materials. The fact that internal length scales are needed requires micromechanical models or laws; however, the classical constitutive models can be enhanced through the stress invariants to incorporate the Micropolar effects. In this paper, Lade's single hardening model is enhanced to account for the couple stress and Cosserat rotation and the internal length scales are incorporated accordingly. The enhanced Lade's model and its material properties are discussed in detail; then the finite element formulations in the Updated Lagrangian Frame (UL) are used. The finite element formulations were implemented into a user element subroutine for ABAQUS (UEL) and the solution method is discussed in the companion paper. The model was found to predict the strain localization in granular materials with low dependency on the finite element mesh size. The shear band was found to reflect on a certain angle when it hit a rigid boundary. Applications for the model on plane strain specimens tested in the laboratory are discussed in the companion paper. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The JCMS Lecture: Managing Diversity and Change in the European Union,

European integration is going through difficult times. Poor economic performance and the growing feeling of insecurity among many Europeans play a major role. So does the weakening of the old political consensus. More clarity and realism about what Europe can deliver would help enormously: the Lisbon process and further enlargement are good examples. Economic liberalization also creates losers. This problem needs to be tackled at both national and European levels. [source]