Good Effectiveness (good + effectiveness)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Silanol dyes for solar cells: higher efficiency and significant durability

Masafumi Unno
Abstract Azobenzene-containing silanol dyes were synthesized, and their applicability to dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated. Silanol dyes showed better effectiveness when compared with conventional carboxy-substituted azobenzene dyes. Moreover, silanol dyes showed better durability than carboxyl dyes; ,90% of silanol dyes remained intact on the TiO2 electrode of the solar cell after being immersed in water for 96 h, whereas in the case of carboxy dyes this figure was less than 20%. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Variable-Pulse Nd:YAG Laser in the Treatment of Facial Telangiectasias

BACKGROUND Variable-pulse 1,064 nm wavelength lasers have been used with good effectiveness on leg telangiectasias and reticular veins and have shown promising results on facial telangiectasias as well. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of a variable-pulse neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser using a small spot size in the treatment of facial telangi-ectasias. METHODS Eight male patients (mean age 75 years) underwent a single treatment session using a variable-pulse 1.5 mm spot size Nd:YAG laser with epidermal cooling. Telangiectasia diameters were 0.3 to 2.0 mm. Test sites were performed using three pulse widths (3, 20, and 60 ms), with fluences varying depending on vessel size and response. Full treatments were per-formed using test parameters giving the best response. Thirteen weeks later, the patients returned for final evaluation and satisfaction rating. RESULTS Fluences ranged from 226 to 425 J/cm2, with smaller vessels requiring larger energies. Pulse duration was equally divided between the 20 and 60 ms settings. The shortest pulse width (3 ms) was inferior in all patients. Longer pulse durations achieved superior vessel elimination with minimal immediate purpura and no postinammatory hyperpigmentation. The average mean vessel clearance was 26 to 50% in half of the patients and 51 to 75% in the other half as evaluated by three unbiased dermatologists with extensive laser experience. CONCLUSION A small,spot size Nd:YAG laser using a pulse width of 20 ms or higher appears to be effective in clearing a significant percentage of facial telangectasias with a single pass. The side effects were minimal. [source]

Electrochemical Investigation of the Role of Reducing Agents in Copper-Catalyzed Nitric Oxide Release from S-Nitrosoglutathione

Monique David-Dufilho
Abstract Studies of nitric oxide (NO) release from S -nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) decomposition by Cu2+ in the presence of reducing agents were performed using a nickel porphyrin and Nafion-coated microsensor in order to compare the efficiency of sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) and sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to that of the most abundant endogenous reducer, glutathione (GSH). When it was mixed to Cu(NO3)2 and added to equimolar concentration of GSNO, each reducing agent caused a NO release (measured in terms of oxidation current) but only NaBH4 induced a proportional rise if its concentration doubled and that of Cu2+ remained constant. For Na2S2O4, there was a mild increase and for GSH, no change. Furthermore, when Cu2+ concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5,,M were mixed with 2,,M reducing agent and added to 2,,M GSNO, the NO oxidation current linearly increased with NaBH4 and was constant with Na2S2O4. Concerning GSH, Cu2+ dose-dependently increased the NO release from GSNO only if the Cu2+ -to-reducer ratio was ,1. However, GSH formed the catalytic species Cu+ even in excess of Cu2+ and GSNO as indicated by suppression of the Cu2+/GSH-induced NO release when the Cu+ chelator neocuproine was added to GSNO. This work shows that, among the 3 reducing agents, only NaBH4 allows Cu2+ to dose-dependently increase the NO release from GSNO for Cu2+ -to-reducer ratios ranging from 0.25 to 2.5. Despite this good effectiveness, excess of NaBH4 compared to both Cu2+ and GSNO seems to be required for optimal NO release. [source]

Utilisation de la méthode du cubic simplex pour l'optimisation de la formulation a froid d'une emulsion de thioglycolate de calcium

N. Moulai-Mostefa
Synopsis The aim of this work relates to the optimization of a cold formulation of a depilatory emulsion containing thioglycolate of calcium, which presents the same characteristics as a reference product. To lead to this objective, a cubic simplex method was used. A preliminary formulation was preformed to evaluate the influence of each factor on the process formulation. The depilatory creams carried out present a rheological behaviour described by the model of Hershell,Bulkely, whose parameters are considered as responses of the optimizing system. This strategy allows both reducing and optimizing the number of experiments. The rheological measurements and the tests of stability showed that the use of an emulsifying polymer led to obtain a stable depilatory cream with a good effectiveness at a strong pH value. Résumé L'objectif principal de ce travail concerne l'optimisation de la formulation à froid d'une émulsion dépilatoire à base de thioglycolate de calcium, présentant les mêmes caractéristiques qu'un produit de référence. Pour aboutir à cet objectif, on a utilisé la méthode du cubic simplex. L'étude de préformulation a permis d'évaluer avec précision l'influence des différents facteurs sur le processus de formulation. Les crèmes dépilatoires réalisées présentent un comportement rhéologique décrit par le modèle de Hershell,Bulkley dont les deux paramètres sont considérés comme réponses du système à optimiser. Les plans d'expériences utilisés ont permis de restreindre le nombre d'essais à réaliser. Les résultats expérimentaux de l'analyse rhéologique et les tests de stabilité ont montré que l'utilisation d'un polymère émulsifiant conduit à l'obtention d'une crème dépilatoire stable possédant une bonne efficacité aux fortes valeurs du pH. [source]