Good Correlation (good + correlation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Good Correlation

  • very good correlation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Diagnosis of melanoma aspirates on ThinPrep®: The University of Michigan experience

    Güliz Akdas Barkan M.D.
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the cytologic features of melanoma fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) prepared by ThinPrep® (TP) with those in conventional smears (CS) and to identify any diagnostic pitfalls. Fifty-one aspirates diagnosed as melanoma were obtained, 36 of which were prepared by both TP and CS. The preparations were evaluated for cellularity, cell aggregates, cellular appearance, melanin pigment, cytoplasmic, and nuclear features. Categorical data were analyzed by the chi-square test and continuous data by the Wilcoxin-signed rank test. Correlation was determined by Spearman's test for bivariate correlations (rho). Good correlation between the two methods was identified for the following features: cellularity, cell type, bi/multinucleated cells, cytoplasmic features, NC ratio, and presence of macronucleoli. TP exhibits coarser chromatin compared to CS (P = 0.005). Six of 36 CS contained large cellular groups; none of the TP contained them (P = 0.018). Twenty-five of 36 CS contained intranuclear inclusions as opposed to 12/36 TP (P < 0.001). The number of inclusions was significantly reduced on TP. The amount of intracellular melanin was the same with both techniques. Background melanin was markedly reduced on TP except when either trapped by fibrin or attached to cellular clusters (P = 0.006). Background blood was also markedly reduced on TP (P < 0.005). In summary, the cytological features of TP and CS for FNA evaluation of melanoma correlate well; however, one needs to be aware of the cytologic alterations introduced by TP. TP is a sufficient preparation method in the diagnosis of melanoma FNA aspirates when performed by clinicians. It is also a useful adjunct in bloody or low-cellular aspirates, where it tends to reduce the background blood and concentrate the cells. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2002;26:334,339. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Prediction of polymorphic N -acetylation of new drug candidates by correlation with human NAT1 and NAT2

    Katalin Jemnitz
    Abstract Due to interindividual variation in N -acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) activity, pharmaceutical companies face the problem of polymorphic metabolism in drugs that are metabolized mainly or exclusively by this enzyme. An in vitro method has been developed to predict in vivo polymorphic N -acetylation at an early stage of drug development. Two new type 5H-2,3-benzodiazepine derivatives, Nerisopam (NER) with anxiolytic activity and GYKI47261 with antiepileptic activity, are metabolized mainly by N -acetylation in the rat and human. The selectivity of human N -acetyltransferases (NAT1,2) to form the acetylated metabolites has been investigated by correlation analysis. Twelve human liver samples were characterized for NAT1 and NAT2 phenotype based on their enzyme activity toward two selective NAT1 (p -aminobenzoic acid, PABA; p -aminosalicylic acid, PAS) and two selective NAT2 (sulfamethazine, SMZ; procainamide, PROC) substrates. Significant correlation was found between enzyme activities NAT1PABA/NAT1PAS and NAT2SMZ/NAT2PROC, respectively, and no correlation was observed comparing enzyme activities toward NAT1PABA/NAT2PROC. Enzyme activities using NER and GYKI 47261 as substrates were compared to activities obtained with NAT1 and NAT2 selective substrates, and the correlation coefficients were calculated. Good correlation was established between the rates of acetylation of the two drugs and that of the NAT2 selective substrate (NER/NAT2SMZ, r2=0.91, GYKI 47261/NAT2SMZ, r2=0.91). In contrast, no correlation was found between the rate of conjugation of the drugs and that of NAT1 selective substrate (NER/NAT1PABA, r2=0.022, GYKI 47261/NAT1PABA, r2=0.0004), suggesting polymorphic in vivo metabolism, since both drugs are acetylated preferably by NAT2. According to our results, correlation analysis based on in vitro acetylation activity may be used to predict in vivo polymorphic metabolism. Drug Dev. Res. 56:17,22, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Dip-coating of Fibrous Natural Materials for Alumina Tube Manufacturing,

    S. Gaydardzhiev
    Hollow ceramic microtubes have been prepared by dip-coating of fibrous plants with water based alumina gel-casting slurries using hemp and coconut fibres as templates. Good correlation between the diameters of the template fibres and the resulting channels have been found. Hemp fibres used as bundles have lead to the formation of multi channel patterns (see figure) and the coconut fibres-templated process resulted in uniform monochannel materials. The micro tubes show good mechanical handling. [source]

    Distribution of Chemical Constituents in Superimposed Ice from Austre Brøggerbreen, Spitsbergen

    H. Motoyama
    10 m and 2.3 m ice cores were obtained on Austre Brøggerbreen, Spitsbergen in Svalbard (78°53,N, 11°56,E, 450 m a.s.l.) in September 1994 and in March 1995, respectively. Stratigraphy, bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity, and major ions were obtained from the core samples. The chemical effect of meltwater percolation through snow/ice is examined. Good correlation between Cl, and Na+ was obtained. The ratio of Cl, to Na+ was 1.14 which was nearly the same value as in bulk sea water. However, the variation of Cl,/Na+ shows that higher ratio occured in the bubble-free ice. Furthermore the Cl, ions remain in higher concentration than SO 4 2, or Na+ ions. [source]

    In vitro assessment of cytochrome P450 inhibition: Strategies for increasing LC/MS-based assay throughput using a one-point IC50 method and multiplexing high-performance liquid chromatography

    Tong Lin
    Abstract A fast and robust LC/MS-based cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition assay, using human liver microsomes, has been fully developed and validated for the major human liver CYPs. Probe substrates were phenacetin, diclofenac, S-mephenytoin, and dextromethorphan for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6, respectively. Midazolam and testosterone were chosen for CYP3A4. Furafylline, sulfaphenazole, tranylcypromine, quinidine, and ketoconazole were identified as positive control inhibitors for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, respectively. To increase the throughput of the assay, a one-point method was developed, using data from CYP inhibition assays conducted at one concentration (i.e., 10 µM), to estimate the drug concentration at which the metabolism of the CYP probe substrate was reduced by 50% (IC50). The IC50 values from the one-point assay were validated by correlating the results with IC50 values that were obtained with a traditional eight-point concentration,response curve. Good correlation was achieved with the slopes of the trendlines between 0.95 and 1.02 and with R2 between 0.77 and 1.0. Throughput was increased twofold by using a Cohesive multiplexing high-performance liquid chromatography system. The one-point IC50 estimate is useful for initial compound screening, while the full concentration,response IC50 method provides detailed CYP inhibition data for later stages of drug development. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 96: 2485,2493, 2007 [source]

    Insecticidal 2-hydroxy-3-alkyl-1,4-naphthoquinones: correlation of inhibition of ubiquinol cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III) with insecticidal activity

    Philip J Jewess
    Abstract The insecticidal and in vitro activities of four homologous series of 2-hydroxy and acetoxy-3-substituted-1,4-naphthoquinones have been measured and correlated with their (Log) octanol/water partition coefficients (Log Ko/w). In vitro activity against mitochondrial complex III was only exhibited by 2-hydroxy-3-alkyl-1,4-naphthoquinones, indicating that the 2-acetoxy compounds act as pro-insecticides. Good correlation was observed between in vivo activity against the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae and inhibition of complex III isolated from blowfly flight muscle. Both hydroxy and acetoxy analogues of individual compounds exhibited similar levels of in vivo activity with optimum activity for analogues with Log Ko/w values of 7,8. In contrast, the acetoxy derivatives showed superior in vivo activity against the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Complex III isolated from whitefly was optimally inhibited by hydroxy analogues with lower Log Ko/w values (6.0,6.5) and was also more sensitive than the blowfly enzyme to all the compounds tested. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Associations between the American College of Rheumatology pediatric response measures and the continuous measures of disease activity used in adult rheumatoid arthritis: A secondary analysis of clinical trial data from children with Polyarticular-Course Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 12 2009
    Sarah Ringold
    Objective To measure associations between the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) pediatric criteria for improvement and the continuous measures of disease activity used for rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods In this retrospective analysis of 2 etanercept trials, disease activity was calculated at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months using the Disease Activity Score (DAS), the DAS based on 28 joints (DAS28), the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), and the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI). The ACR pediatric response and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response were also determined for the 3-month and 6-month evaluations. Data were analyzed in 94 patients with JIA independent of the treatment arm. Correlation coefficients between measures were calculated for each visit. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of ROC) were calculated to assess the discriminative properties of the scores for the ACR pediatric response measures. Results The mean DAS, DAS28, CDAI score, and SDAI score were 3.7, 4.7, 30.8, and 36.4, respectively, at baseline, corresponding to high levels of disease activity (CDAI/SDAI) or moderate levels of disease activity (DAS/DAS28). At 3 months, the mean scores corresponded to low (DAS/DAS28) or moderate (CDAI/SDAI) disease activity. At 6 months, the mean scores corresponded to low disease activity (DAS/DAS28/CDAI) or moderate disease activity (SDAI). Most children met the criteria for a good or moderate EULAR response at 3 months and 6 months. The correlation between continuous outcome measures and each pediatric core set component was moderate to very good. The AUC of ROC values for each measure were high (range 0.76,0.98). Conclusion Good correlation and discriminative abilities were seen between the DAS, DAS28, CDAI, and SDAI for the ACR pediatric criteria for improvement. These disease activity measures may be useful for research and clinical care in polyarticular-course JIA. [source]

    Possible automatic cell classification of bone marrow aspirate using the CELL-DYN 4000® automatic blood cell analyzer

    Ryousuke Yamamura
    Abstract In clinical hematology, the demand for bone marrow aspiration testing is increasing. However, conventional automatic blood cell analyzers cannot completely analyze erythroblasts, and evaluation has mainly been performed by visual examination (the microscopic method). Using the CELL-DYN 4000® automatic blood cell analyzer (CD4000) (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL), specific recognition and classification of erythroblasts by DNA staining is possible. In the present study, using bone marrow blood collected from normal subjects and patients with hematological malignancy, we classified cells by the microscopic method and with the CD4000, and compared the results. Good correlations were found for total nucleated cell count (TNCC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, erythroblasts, and the myeloid series to erythroid series (M/E) ratio. It is possible to detect blasts that emerge in patients with hematological malignancy using the blast flag system installed on the CD4000. Since all of the items can be analyzed in about 80 sec with the CD4000, cells in bone marrow aspirates can be classified faster with this apparatus than by the microscopic method. Therefore, analysis of bone marrow aspirates with this apparatus appears to be very useful not only for laboratory testing but also for clinical screening. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 16:86,90, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Theoretical studies on the structure and protonation of Cu(II) complexes of a series of tripodal aliphatic tetraamines: Good correlations with the experimental data

    Sadegh Salehzadeh
    Abstract DFT(B3LYP) studies on first protonation step of a series of Cu(II) complexes of some tripodal tetraamines with general formula N[(CH2)nNH2][(CH2)mNH2][(CH2)pNH2] (n = m = p = 2, tren; n = 3, m = p = 2, pee; n = m = 3, p = 2, ppe; n = m = 3, tpt; n = 2, m = 3, p = 4, epb; and n = m = 3, p = 4; ppb) are reported. First, the gas-phase proton macroaffinity of all latter complexes was calculated with considering following simple reaction: [Cu(L)]2+(g) + H+(g) , [Cu(HL)]3+(g). The results showed that there is a good correlation between the calculated proton macroaffinities of all complexes with their stability constants in solution. Then, we tried to determine the possible reliable structures for microspecies involved in protonation process of above complexes. The results showed that, similar to the solid state, the [Cu(L)(H2O)]2+ and [Cu(HL)(H2O)2]3+ are most stable species for latter complexes and their protonated form, respectively, at gas phase. We found that there are acceptable correlations between the formation constants of above complexes with both the , and , of following reaction: [Cu(L)(H2O)]2+(g) + H+(g) + H2O(g) , [Cu(HL)(H2O)2]3+(g). The , of the latter reaction can be defined as a theoretically solvent,proton macroaffinity of reactant complexes because they have gained one proton and one molecule of the solvent. The unknown formation constant of [Cu(epb)]2+ complex was also predicted from the observed correlations. In addition, the first proton affinity of all complexes was studied in solution using DPCM and CPCM methods. It was shown that there is an acceptable correlation between the solvent,proton affinities of [Cu(L)(H2O)]2+ complexes with formation constants of [Cu(HL)(H2O)2]3+ complexes in solution. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2010 [source]

    Modified Gaussian-2 level investigation of the identity ion-pair SN2 reactions of lithium halide and methyl halide with inversion and retention mechanisms

    Yi Ren
    Abstract Identity ion-pair SN2 reactions LiX + CH3X , XCH3 + LiX (X = F, Cl, Br, and I) have been investigated in the gas phase and in solution at the level of the modified Gaussian-2 theory. Two possible reaction mechanisms, inversion and retention, are discussed. The reaction barriers relative to the complexes for the inversion mechanism [,H(inv)] are found to be much higher than the corresponding values for the gas phase anionic SN2 reactions, decreasing in the following order: F (263.6 kJ mol,1) > Cl (203.3 kJ mol,1) > Br (174.7 kJ mol,1) > I (150.7 kJ mol,1). The barrier gaps between the two mechanisms [,H (ret) , ,H (inv)] increase in the order F (,62.7 kJ mol,1) < Cl (4.4 kJ mol,1) < Br (24.9 kJ mol,1) < I (45.1 kJ mol,1). Thus, the retention mechanism is energetically favorable for fluorine and the inversion mechanism is favored for other halogens, in contrast to the anionic SN2 reactions at carbon where the inversion reaction channel is much more favorable for all of the halogens. The stabilization energies for the dipole,dipole complexes CH3X · · · LiX (,Hcomp) are found to be similar for the entire set of systems with X = F, Cl, Br, and I, ranging from 53.4 kJ mol,1 for I up to 58.9 kJ mol,1 for F. The polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used to evaluate the direct solvent effects on the energetics of the anionic and ion-pair SN2 reactions. The energetic profiles are found to be still double-well shaped for most of the ion-pair SN2 reactions in the solution, but the potential profile for reaction LiI + CH3I is predicted to be unimodal in the protic solvent. Good correlations between central barriers [,H (inv)] with the geometric looseness of the inversion transition state %C,X,, the dissociation energies of the C,X bond (DC,X) and Li,X bond (DLi,X) are observed, respectively. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 461,467, 2004 [source]


    P. J. CULLEN
    A vibrational process viscometer was evaluated as an in-line consistency monitoring technique for tomato based products. This sensor was installed in both pilot and industry scale production processes. Accuracy of the sensor and its ability to distinguish between varying concentrations of non-Newtonian fluids was evaluated with flowrate and temperature closely controlled. The sensor was shown to have the least inherent variability when compared to off-line techniques. However it was found to be flowrate dependent for the tomato based products. Good correlations between the sensor and off-line techniques were developed for the pilot scale trials. Plant trials revealed a number of problems in developing such correlations under industrial process conditions, however the instrument proved capable of tracking out of specification sauce as determined by the off-line Brookfield viscometer. It was concluded that use of the sensor would result in increased measurement precision over the off-line instruments coupled with the benefits of in-line monitoring. [source]

    In Vivo Optical Analysis of Quantitative Changes in Collagen and Elastin During Arterial Remodeling,

    Alexander Christov
    ABSTRACT Altered collagen and elastin content correlates closely with remodeling of the arterial wall after injury. Optical analytical approaches have been shown to detect qualitative changes in plaque composition, but the capacity for detection of quantitative changes in arterial collagen and elastin content in vivo is not known. We have assessed fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of quantitative changes in arterial composition in situ, in rabbit models of angioplasty and stent implant. Fluorescence emission intensity (FEI) recorded at sites remote from the primary implant site was correlated with immunohistochemical (IH) analysis and extracted elastin and collagen. FEI was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after treatment with anti-inflammatory agents, and plaque area decreased on comparison with saline-treated rabbits after stent implant or angioplasty (P, 0.013). Excellent correlations for FEI with elastin and collagen I, III and IV content measured by IH (R2, 0.961) analysis were detected by multiple regression (MR) analysis. Good correlations also were found for FEI with elastin and collagen measured by high-performance liquid chromatography; MR analysis provided highly predictive values for collagen and elastin (R2, 0.994). Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis detects quantitative compositional changes in arterial connective tissue in vivo, demonstrating changes at sites remote from primary angioplasty and stent implant sites. [source]

    Fatigue crack initiation in naval welded joints: experimental and numerical approaches

    D. Thevenet
    This work deals with the fatigue behavior of welded joints. The proposed strategy can be split into two stages: the structure shakedown study and the fatigue crack initiation study. Firstly, stabilized elastic stress,strain cycles are obtained in any point of the welded joint by a finite element analysis, taking constant or variable amplitude loadings into account. The second part of this work is the calculation of the fatigue crack initiation period. Under the assumption of a fast elastic shakedown, a recent approach, proposed by Lemaitre et al., based on damage mechanics, can be used to predict the fatigue crack initiation life in a structure subjected to variable and complex loadings. This strategy is used as a post,treatment of the shakedown finite element calculation for the studied welded specimen. As a validation, four,point bending fatigue tests under constant amplitude loading were carried out on welded specimens provided by DCNS group. Good correlations between experimental and calculated fatigue crack initiation lives have been established. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Effects of dietary highly unsaturated fatty acids and astaxanthin on the fecundity and lipid content of pond-reared Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) broodstock

    Jian-Hua Huang
    Abstract Five diets that contained fresh squid meat as the basic constituent and were supplemented with different amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and astaxanthin were fed to pond-reared Penaeus monodon broodstock. Diet A was sole squid meat. Diets B and C were supplemented with astaxanthin 50 and 100 mg kg,1 respectively. Diets D and E were supplemented with HUFA 5 and 10 g kg,1 and astaxanthin 50 mg kg,1 respectively. The result showed that the group fed diet E had the best reproductive performance in all experimental groups. It had a higher proportion of spawns (71.5%), spawning rate (0.047), a shorter latency period (7.7±0.3 d), higher absolute fecundity (× 103) (361.6±5.5) and egg production/female (× 103) (597.0±18.0) than all the other experimental groups. The fatty acid composition in broodstock diets strongly affected the tissue and fecundity of broodstock. Good correlations between the content of 20:4n-6 in eggs and the fecundity (r2=0.6109) and egg production (r2=0.9876) of broodstock were found. On the other hand, 22:6n-3 and DHA/EPA ratio was negatively correlated with the fecundity of broodstock (r2=0.5362, 0.8702 respectively). The result also showed that the balance between n-3 and n-6 fatty acid families, total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total saturated fatty acid and 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) may play vital roles in maturation and reproductive performance of P. monodon broodstock. [source]

    In Vitro/in Vivo scaling of alprazolam metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in humans

    Noriko Hirota
    Abstract We attempted to predict the in vivo metabolic clearance of alprazolam from in vitro metabolic studies using human liver microsomes and human CYP recombinants. Good correlations were observed between the intrinsic clearance (CLint) for 4-hydroxylation and CYP3A4 content and between the CLint for ,-hydroxylation and CYP3A5 content in ten human liver microsomal samples. Using the recombinant CYP isoforms expressed in insect cells, the CLint for CYP3A4 was about 2-fold higher than the CLint for CYP3A5 in the case of 4-hydroxylation. However, the CLint for CYP3A5 was about 3-fold higher than the CLint for CYP3A4 in the case of ,-hydroxylation. The metabolic rates for 4- and ,-hydroxylation increased as the added amount of cytochrome b5 increased, and their maximum values were 3- to 4-fold higher than those without cytochrome b5. The values of CLint, in vivo predicted from in vitro studies using human liver microsomes and CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 recombinants were within 2.5 times of the observed value calculated from literature data. The average CLint value (sum of 4- and ,-hydroxylation) obtained using three human liver microsomal samples was 4-fold higher than that obtained using three small intestinal microsomal samples from the same donors, indicating the minor contribution of intestinal metabolism to alprazolam disposition. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of alprazolam is reported to increase following co-administration of ketoconazole and the magnitude of the increase predicted from the in vitroKi values and reported pharmacokinetic parameters of ketoconazole was 2.30,2.45, which is close to the value observed in vivo (3.19). A quantitative prediction of the AUC increase by cimetidine was also successful (1.73,1.79 vs 1.58,1.64), considering the active transport of cimetidine into the liver. In conclusion, we have succeeded in carrying out an in vitro/in vivo scaling of alprazolam metabolism using human liver microsomes and human CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 recombinants. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Prediction of hyperbilirubinaemia in the healthy term newborn

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2001
    X Carbonell
    The aim is to establish the correlation between transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB) and serum bilirubin (TSB) and its predictive value for significant hyperbilirubinaemia ,290 mcmol/L (17mg/dL). We studied a total of 2004 healthy full-term newborns, weight 3.230g ± 491g; 90% received breast milk. The study was performed in two phases. In the first phase (610 newborns), the following tests were carried out: hematocrit and bilirubin in umbilical cord blood; TCB at 24 h, 48 h and between 60 h and 96 h at the forehead and over the sternum; TSB was measured along with this last test. In the second phase (1394 newborns), the predictive value of TCB and TSB was validated. The incidence of bilirubin >290 mcmol/L was 2.95% and 3.2%. The correlation between TSB and TCB is high (n= 996; r = 0.92; y = 5.916 + 0.804x; p < 0.000). There was a better correlation between TCB and TSB with sternal compared to forehead determination (< 24 h: 0.81 vs 0.77; 24,48 h: 0.887 vs 0.83; and >48 h: 0.94 vs 0.83). The study showed the scant sensitivity of umbilical cord blood bilirubin and good predictive value at 24 h of TSB > 102 mcmol/L (6mg/dL) and at 48 h of TSB > 154 mcmol/L (9mg/dL) and TCB > 13 (equivalent to 154 mcmol/L). Conclusion: There is a good correlation between TCB and TSB. In infants with TSB 102 mcmol/L at 24 h or TSB > 154 mcmol/L or transcutaneous readings > 13 h at 48 h, a TSB test must be performed after 48 h of life. [source]

    Albumin enhanced morphometric image analysis in CLL,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2004
    Matthew A. Lunning
    Abstract BACKGROUND The heterogeneity of lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and blood film artifacts make morphologic subclassification of this disease difficult. METHODS We reviewed paired blood films prepared from ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (ETDA) samples with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA) from 82 CLL patients. Group 1 adhered to NCCLS specifications for the preparations of EDTA blood films. Group 2 consisted of blood films containing EDTA and a 1:12 dilution of 22% BSA. Eight patients were selected for digital photomicroscopy and statistical analysis. Approximately 100 lymphocytes from each slide were digitally captured. RESULTS The mean cell area ± standard error was 127.8 ,m2 ± 1.42 for (n = 793) for group 1 versus 100.7 ,m2 ± 1.39 (n = 831) for group 2. The nuclear area was 88.9 ,m2 ± 0.85 for group 1 versus 76.4 ,m2 ± 0.83 for group 2. For the nuclear transmittance, the values were 97.6 ± 0.85 for group 1 and 104.1 ± 0.83 for group 2. The nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios were 0.71 ± 0.003 for group 1 and 0.78 ± 0.003 for group 2. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS BSA addition results in the reduction of atypical lymphocytes and a decrease in smudge cells. BSA also decreases the lymphocyte area and nuclear area, whereas nuclear transmittance and nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio are increased. A standardized method of slide preparation would allow accurate interlaboratory comparison. The use of BSA may permit better implementation of the blood film-based subclassification of CLL and lead to a better correlation of morphology with cytogenetics and immunophenotyping. Published 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Association of components of the metabolic syndrome with the appearance of aggregated red blood cells in the peripheral blood.

    An unfavorable hemorheological finding
    Abstract Background Components of the metabolic syndrome are associated with low-grade inflammation. This can be accompanied by the synthesis of sticky proteins and erythrocyte aggregation. Methods The degree of erythrocyte aggregation was evaluated by a simple slide test and image analysis along with other markers of the acute-phase response, including the white blood cell count (WBCC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations. Patients were categorized in four groups according to the absence or presence of 1, 2 and 3 or more components of the metabolic syndrome. Results We examined a total of 1447 individuals (576 women and 871 men) who gave their informed consent for participation. A significant cardiovascular risk factors, age and hemoglobin adjusted correlation was noted between the degree of erythrocyte aggregation and the number of components of the metabolic syndrome (r = 0.17, p < 0.0005). This correlation was better than that observed for clottable fibrinogen (r = 0.13 p < 0.0005), for ESR (r = 0.11 p < 0.0005) or WBCC (r = 0.13 p < 0.0005). A somewhat better correlation was noted for hs-CRP (r = 0.26 p < 0.0005). Conclusions The multiplicity of components of the metabolic syndrome is associated with enhanced erythrocyte aggregation, probably related to the presence of multiple adhesive macromolecules in the peripheral blood. The enhanced aggregation might contribute to capillary slow flow, tissue deoxygenation as well as vasomotor tone changes in the presence of multiple components of this syndrome. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The relationship of postprandial glucose to HbA1c

    Rüdiger Landgraf
    Abstract The gold standard for the assessment of the overall glycemic control is the determination of HbA1c. There are, however, insufficient data to determine reliably the relative contribution of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose to HbA1c. Increasing evidence suggests that excessive excursions of postprandial glucose might be important for the development of micro- and macroangiopathic complications. With respect to the treatment options, one important question to be answered is whether premeal, postmeal or fasting plasma glucose, alone or in combination, will be necessary in adjusting the therapy to achieve optimal HbA1c levels while minimizing hypoglycemia. HbA1c is difficult to predict from fasting plasma glucose. There are indications that there is a shift in the relative contribution from postprandial glucose at good to fair HbA1c levels (<7.3% to <9.2%) to fasting plasma glucose at high HbA1c (>9.3%). There is also a better correlation of afternoon and evening plasma glucose with HbA1c than with prebreakfast and prelunch plasma glucose values. Since the definition on how to define postprandial glucose is still a matter of debate and since postprandial glucose depends on the premeal blood glucose level and, on the time of the meal, its size and composition and the therapeutic strategy, the data so far available are inconclusive and the best correlation of HbA1c is with the area under the glucose profiles. Continuous glucose monitoring under daily life conditions will be the key to definitely unravel the relationship among HbA1c and fasting, premeal, postprandial and postabsorptive plasma glucose. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Spindles-Inducing Mechanism Modulates Sleep Activation of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges in the Landau,Kleffner Syndrome

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2000
    L. Nobili
    Summary: Purpose: Landau,Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is characterized by a marked increase of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) during sleep. During nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, neuronal membrane potential oscillations lead to the appearance of spindles and delta waves in the surface EEG and might develop into paroxysmal synchronization. Spectral analysis allows the quantitative description of the dynamics of delta (slow-wave activity, SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) and sigma activity (SA, 12.0,16.0 Hz) and can be used to assess the relation between SA, SWA, and IEDs during sleep. Methods: We performed six overnight continuous EEG-polysomnographic studies in three patients with LKS. The temporal series of SWA and SA were obtained from a spike-free derivation lead. The IEDs count was performed on the most active lead. Relations between sigma and SWA and time series of lEDs were tested by means of correlation techniques after data normalization. Results: Our results revealed a significantly higher correlation between IEDs and SA with respect to SWA in all the subjects, in total sleep time. The same analysis limited to NREM sleep highlights the better correlation between SA and IEDs. Conclusions: Our data suggest that neural mechanisms involved in the generation of sleep spindles facilitate IEDs production in LKS. [source]

    Hydrolysis of diphenylmethyltin(iv) chloride in different aqueous solutions of ethanol

    Sima Mehdizadeh
    The hydrolysis of [(Ph)2MeSn(IV)]+ has been studied spectrophotometrically at 25,C and constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm,3 sodium perchlorate. Over a wide pH range, 1,11, the investigation has been performed in different aqueous solutions of ethanol. The species formed together with their formation constants have been determined using the computer program Squad. The hydrolysis constants at different media were analyzed in terms of Kamlet and Taft's parameters. A single-parameter correlation of the formation constants, K1-1 and K1-2, versus , (hydrogen-bond donor acidity), , (hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity), and ,* (dipolarity/polarizability) for both cases are relatively poor in all solutions, but multiparameter correlation represents significant improvement with regard to the single-parameter models. In this work, we have also used the normalized polarity parameter, E, alone and in combination with the Kamlet,Taft's parameters to find a better correlation of the formation constants in different aqueous solutions of ethanol. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heteroatom Chem 19:654,660, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/hc.20484 [source]

    Lesson from performing SCORADs in children with atopic dermatitis: Subjective symptoms do not correlate well with disease extent or intensity

    K. L. E. Hon MBBS
    Background, Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a distressing disease associated with pruritus and sleep disturbance. It is not known how well these symptoms correlate with the extent and intensity of eczematous involvement. We evaluated whether: (i) the level of sleep loss correlates with pruritus and (ii) the level of pruritus correlates with the extent or severity of AD in children according to the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Method, Patients with AD younger than 18 years old were recruited from the pediatric dermatology clinic of a university teaching hospital, and AD severity was evaluated by the SCORAD index. Results, One hundred and eighty-two Chinese children with AD (107 boys and 75 girls) [mean (SD) age of 9.6 (4.2) years] were recruited. Their mean (SD) overall SCORAD was 30.1 (19.2). Sleep loss was strongly correlated with pruritus (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). However, the two subjective symptoms were only weakly correlated with the objective signs (extent and intensity) of AD. The correlations between pruritus and extent and intensity were 0.42 (P < 0.001) and 0.38 (P < 0.001), respectively, and the correlations between sleep loss and extent and intensity were 0.38 (P < 0.001) and 0.34 (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion, We speculate that the lack of a better correlation was either because pruritus and sleep loss as reported by parents were imprecise, or that mechanisms other than disease extent or severity are responsible for the pathogenesis of these subjective symptoms. [source]

    A simple and rapid turbidimetric method for determining catechins in beverages

    Motokazu Nakayama
    Summary We have developed a simple and rapid turbidimetric method to determine catechins based on the fact that many polyphenols produce hydrogen peroxide in an alkaline environment and that hydrogen peroxide oxidises cerium to generate cerium oxide precipitates. Four catechins (epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate) aggregated with these precipitates to form massive precipitates with increased turbidity. The catechins solution (0.18 mL) was mixed with 0.02 mL of 1% CeCl3 solution, and absorbance (650 nm) was measured immediately after agitation for 3 min using a spectrophotometer. Absorbance was strongly correlated (0.99) with the concentration of each catechin compound. For commercially bottled green tea, the estimated catechin content determined using this turbidimetric method showed better correlation with the content determined by high-performance liquid chromatography than that determined using ferrous tartrate method, which is the official Japanese method for determining the tannin content of green tea. [source]

    Nitrogen Rates and Water Stress Effects on Production, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Enzyme Activities in Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes

    L.-X. Zhang
    Abstract Effects of nitrogen rates and water stress (WS) on production, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities in two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes were assessed at different stages under two levels of water supply conditions. WS caused a significant decline in dry matter, grain yield and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) whereas a marked rise in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was observed in leaves for the two genotypes. However, the responses of the two varieties to WS were different: significantly higher dry matter, grain yield and antioxidative enzyme activities and lower MDA content were observed for Shaandan 9 than Shaandan 911, therefore the former could be treated as a drought tolerance variety comparatively. A better correlation was obtained amongst dry matter, grain yield and physiological traits. The addition of nitrogen increased dry matter and grain yield as well as activities of SOD, POD and CAT to different levels and significantly decreased MDA content under WS. These effects were higher for Shaandan 911 than for Shaandan 9. Furthermore, a significant effect was found for Shaandan 911 between N rates for all traits unlike Shaandan 9. Hence, we suggest that nitrogen should be applied to a water-sensitive variety to bring out its potential fully under drought. [source]

    Salmonella on pig carcasses: positive pigs and cross contamination in the slaughterhouse

    N. Botteldoorn
    Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs at the moment of slaughter and in the slaughterhouse environment. Methods and Results: In total, five different commercial slaughterhouses were sampled during eight slaughterhouse visits. Carcass swabs, colon content and mesenteric lymph nodes were taken to reflect the animal status and from the slaughterhouse environmental samples were taken. Salmonella was isolated from 37% of the carcass samples as a mean value. High variations were noticed between different slaughterhouses (between 0 and 70%) and sampling days in the same abattoir (between 3 and 52%). A correlation was found between the carcass contamination and the status of the delivered animals (P = 0·01675). Cross contamination was estimated to account for 29% of the positive carcasses. The slaughterhouse environment was highly contaminated; before starting the slaughtering activities 25% of the samples were positive on average. The most prevalent serotypes isolated at the slaughterhouse environment and from the colon content were S. Typhimurium, S. Livingstone and S. Derby. On carcasses S. Typhimurium was predominately isolated (71%). The biggest variability of serotypes was found in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Serologically 56·3% of the pigs were found positive for Salmonella using a cut-off level of the optical density percentage higher than 10 (O.D.% , 10). While on individual pig level the correlation between the bacteriological and serological data was poor, because of recent Salmonella infections, a better correlation was found at the herd level on the moment of slaughtering. Conclusion: A high degree of carcass contamination is noticed after slaughtering. This contamination resulted from the delivery of Salmonella -positive pigs and cross-contamination from the slaughterhouse environment. Significance and Impact of the Study: In pigs, Salmonella carriage is high, but it is obvious that slaughterhouse hygiene is a determinative factor for managing carcass contamination. [source]

    Effect of the biomass in the modelling and simulation of the biofiltration of hydrogen sulphide: simulation and experimental validation

    Javier Silva
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Several models have been developed to simulate the decay of pollutants concentration along the biofilter and to predict its performance. Despite the evidence, it is common that most models ignore the effect of variable biomass along the biofilter. An equation that represents the variable amount of active biomass along the column was included in the modelling of a biotrickling filter; it was obtained by measuring the active biomass at different heights. Validation of the model was carried out using experimental data obtained at different H2S loads. RESULTS: The simulation considering the expression for variable active biomass along the column shows better correlation with experimental results. With the diffusion coefficient that shows the best fit with the experimental results; 1.35 × 10,9 m2 s,1, the value of the Thiele module is 2 × 10,3, indicating that biooxidation of H2S is controlled by mass transfer. CONCLUSIONS: A better correlation between experimental results and model prediction is obtained when the expression for variable active biomass along the column is considered in the modelling. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Model development for semicontinuous production of ethylene and norbornene copolymers having uniform composition

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Shaojie Liu
    Abstract Terminal and penultimate models for controlling copolymer composition distribution (CCD) in ethylene and norbornene (NB) copolymerization were developed by taking into account the variation of active site concentration with the initial comonomer ratio. The models were validated by batch polymerization experimental data. The terminal model gave better correlation with the composition data whereas the penultimate model had a better fit to the rate data. The terminal model was then used to design NB feeding policies in semicontinuous processes for targeted CCD profiles. Based on the model results, a series of ethylene-NB copolymers with various NB contents were prepared. With the same NB content, the semicontinuous process produced a uniform composition, whereas the batch process yielded broad CCD. The batch samples had lower Tg values and broader transition ranges, even yielded crystalline materials. In contrast, the semicontinuous samples overcame the disadvantages. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

    Tailoring orthogonal proteomic routines to understand protein separation during ion exchange chromatography

    Rosa Cabrera
    Abstract Surface charge, molecular weight, and folding state are known to influence protein chromatographic behaviour onto ion exchangers. Experimentally, information related to such factors can be gathered via 2-DE methods. The application of 2-D PAGE under denaturing/reducing conditions was already shown to reveal separation trends within a large protein population from cell extracts. However, ion-exchange chromatography normally runs under native conditions. A tailored protocol consisting in a first separation based on IEF on ImmobilineTM strips under native conditions followed by a second dimension SDS-PAGE run was adopted. The chromatographic versus electrophoretic separation behaviours of two model proteins, thaumatin (TAU) and BSA, were compared to better understand which proteomic routine would be better suited to anticipate IEX chromatographic separations. It was observed that the information contained in the pI value obtained with the adapted 2-DE protocol showed better correlation with the IEX chromatographic behaviour. On the other hand, chromatographic separations performed in the presence of urea as a denaturant have demonstrated the potential influence of hydrodynamic radius/conformation on protein separation. Moreover, the information provided by such 2-D system correlated well with the chromatographic behaviour of an additional set of pure proteins. An initial prediction of protein ion-exchange chromatographic behaviour could be possible utilizing an experimental approach based on 2-DE running under milder chemical conditions. This technique provides information that more closely resembles the separation behaviour observed with a complex biotechnological feedstock. [source]

    Validation of two dual fluorescence techniques for confocal microscopic visualization of resin penetration into enamel caries lesions

    Sebastian Paris
    Abstract Fluorescence confocal microscopy is a useful tool to analyze the infiltration of enamel caries lesions with low-viscosity resins (infiltrants) in vitro. The conventionally used staining technique, which comprises dye labeling of the resin, has been shown to be limited by chromatographic separation of the resin-dye-mixture during penetration. The aim of this study was to develop an improved dual staining technique and to compare validity and reproducibility of both methods. Human molars with proximal white spots were cut across the demineralizations. After varnishing the cut surfaces, paired lesion halves were infiltrated with an infiltrant using either one of two different staining techniques. For the conventional direct technique (A) the infiltrant was labeled with rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC) prior to application. Using the new indirect technique (B) lesions were stained with RITC solution and subsequently infiltrated with pure infiltrant. After light curing, unbound dye was bleached by immersion in hydrogen peroxide. Remaining lesion pores were stained with sodium fluorescein solution. Penetration depths (PD) and lesion depths (LD) were evaluated by five examiners using confocal microscopy and compared with the results of scanning electron microscopic (SEM; PD) and microradiographic (TMR; LD) analysis. The indirect technique showed better correlation (intraclass coefficients) with SEM (0.990) and TMR (0.982) compared with the direct technique (SEM: 0.513; TMR: 0.702). Inter- and intrarater reliability was higher for technique B compared with technique A. The new indirect technique yields to more valid and reliable results to visualize infiltrant penetration into natural enamel caries lesions compared with the conventional method. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Evaluation of serum cystatin C levels and 99mTechnetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 renal scintigraphy for the early detection of cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in cancer patients

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    Nazan GÜNEL
    SUMMARY: Cisplatin has a broad-spectrum antineoplastic activity. Nephrotoxicity is a prominent component of the toxicity profile of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In recent years, several reports have confirmed that cystatin C (cys-C) demonstrates a better correlation with the glomerular filtration rate than with serum creatinine. Scintigraphic techniques are also widely used in evaluating renal function. In the present study, serum cys-C, serum creatinine concentrations and 99mTechnetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 (99mTc-MAG-3) scintigraphy were studied in 22 cisplatin-naive cancer patients, 3 days before and 24 h after the first cycle of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Serum cystatin C and creatinine levels increased in cancer patients after chemotherapy (creatinine: from 68 ± 12 to 72 ± 17 nmol/L; cystatin-C: from 0.064 ± 0.025 to 0.072 ± 0.033 jimol/L), but these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Semiquantitative variables of 99mTc-MAG-S scintigraphy significantly elevated after chemotherapy (T½*: from 10.27 ± 5.00to 16.17 ± 9.40 min, R20/max*: from 0.40 ± 0.12 to 0.67+0.45, Tmax**: from 5.40 ± 4.01 to 7.59 ± 5.30 min; *P<0.001, **P<0.01, respectively). These results suggest that MAG-3 scintigraphy is a highly sensitive method in the early detection of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Serum cystatin C doesn't seem to play a role in the early detection of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. As a result, MAG-3 scintigraphy may be used in selected patients who have a predisposition for renal toxicity. [source]