Good Construct Validity (good + construct_validity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A ChemoSensory Questionnaire for Patients Treated for Cancer of the Head and Neck,

Andrew N. Goldberg MD, MSCE
Abstract Objectives: To investigate primary chemosensory issues experienced by patients who undergo treatment for cancer of the head and neck and to develop and assess a ChemoSensory Questionnaire (CSQ). Design: Cross sectional survey for questionnaire development and testing. Methods: Literature, expert opinion, and focus group methodology were used to identify aspects of smell and taste affecting patients before, during, and after therapy for cancer of the head and neck. A draft instrument was compiled, reviewed, and revised. The revised instrument was administered along with a demographic and clinical form, the SF-12, the Performance Status Survey, and the University of Michigan Head and Neck Quality of Life Questionnaire (HRQOL) to a sample of patients. After item and scale analyses and reductions, a final instrument was assembled. Construct validity and test-retest reliability were assessed. Results: Two hundred six patients were included in the study. The final survey instrument consisted of eight items, four on smell and four on taste. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 for the smell scale and 0.78 for the taste scale. Correlations with other HRQOL scales ranged from 0.20 to 0.64 for the taste scale and from 0.10 to 0.33 for the smell scale. Good construct validity of the CSQ scores was demonstrated. Conclusions: Treatment for head and neck cancer negatively impacts smell and taste. A survey instrument was developed to evaluate chemosensory function that is simple to administer and is brief. This instrument will be of value in identifying factors that contribute to chemosensory disturbance and may serve as a guide for planning treatment regimens that minimize such disturbance. [source]

Willingness to pay for a hearing aid: comparing the payment scale and open-ended question

Janneke P. C. Grutters MSc
Abstract Rationale & objectives, Different question formats elicit different willingness-to-pay (WTP) results, but there is no consensus on which method elicits the most valid WTP. In spite of the methodological controversies, WTP is a potentially valuable tool in health economics to value health services. Our general objective was to provide additional evidence on the validity of two WTP elicitation formats: the open-ended question and the payment scale. Methods, We elicited WTP for a hearing aid among hearing aid users (n = 108), using both a payment scale and an open-ended question. We compared the results from both formats. We tested criterion validity by comparing both formats with the actual out-of-pocket payment. Construct validity was tested by examining whether WTP was consistent with positive income elasticity. Results, The WTP results elicited with the payment scale and open-ended question were not statistically significantly different. Both formats showed good criterion validity, although the open-ended question showed a stronger association with the actual out-of-pocket payment. The open-ended format showed better construct validity, as it was influenced by family income. Conclusion, The results of the present study showed that the open-ended question was more valid than the payment scale question. We, therefore, recommend that in future WTP studies on hearing aids the open-ended question is used to directly elicit WTP values. The same recommendation may apply to other studies where respondents are familiar with costs or payments for the intervention under evaluation. [source]

Development and Construct Validation of the Pharmacists' Care of Migraineurs Scale

HEADACHE, Issue 1 2009
Monica L. Skomo PharmD
Objectives., To develop the pharmacists' care of migraineurs scale (PCMS) and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Background., Migraine is often managed suboptimally in primary care. Migraineurs frequently come into contact with community pharmacists, who have the opportunity to make a positive impact on migraineur treatment outcomes. A valid and reliable tool that measures and documents the care provided by pharmacists to migraineurs is critical to the development and evaluation of educational programs and interventions. Methods., Relevant domains of pharmacist care and their respective composite items (behaviors) were identified through an extensive literature search and the use of 2 pharmacist and 2 migraineur focus groups sessions. The resultant 45 PCMS items composed a survey questionnaire mailed to a nationwide random sample of 6000 pharmacists. Data were subjected to an exploratory principal axis factoring procedure to discern the factor structure, and as such describe the latent domains composing the pharmacist caring behaviors constructs. Results., A total of 580 usable responses were returned, with an additional 60 returned as undeliverable, thus yielding a response rate of 9.7%. Exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring yielded 9 factors. However, upon examining the scree plot, communalities, and factor loadings, a reanalysis forcing a 7-factor solution yielded a more interpretable and plausible factor structure. The 7-factor solution included the following domains: (1) empathy; (2) prospective drug utilization review for newly diagnosed migraineurs; (3) medication counseling; (4) nonpharmacologic treatment plan; (5) headache sufferer triage; (6) dissemination of public health information; (7) maintenance of knowledge on migraine. Following the application of scale purification procedures, the final instrument is composed of 41 items and demonstrated a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.947. Cronbach's alpha reliabilities for the 7 domains ranged from 0.67 to 0.91, indicative of good to excellent internal consistency reliabilities for all the domains. Conclusions., The PCMS demonstrated very good construct validity and reliability. While additional validity testing is warranted, the PCMS should allow for benchmarking in the evaluation of interventions designed to improve pharmacists' care to migraineurs and for identifying correlates to effective community pharmacist migraineur care. [source]

A validity and reliability study of assessment and screening for sustained withdrawal reaction in infancy: The Alarm Distress Baby scale,

Antoine Guedeney
Sustained withdrawal behavior in infancy is an important alarm signal to draw attention to both organic and relationship disorders. A withdrawal scale, the Alarm Distress Baby scale (ADBB), for infants between 2 and 24 months of age was built. This article describes the construction of the scale and the assessment of its psychometric properties. The ADBB has good content validity, based on the advice of seven experts. The scale has good criterion validity: first, as a measure of the infant's withdrawal reaction, with a very good correlation between nurse and pediatrician on the ADBB (rs = 0.84), and second, as a screening procedure for detecting the developmental risk of the infant. The cutoff score of 5 with a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.78 was determined to be optimal for screening purposes. The scale has good construct validity, with good convergent validity with both the Spitz (1951) and the Herzog & Rathbun (1982) lists of symptoms of infant depression (rs = 0.61 and 0.60, respectively). Exploratory factor analysis showed two different factors, consistent with the scale's construct. Reliability was satisfactory with good internal consistency for both subscales (the Cronbach , = 0.80 for the first subscale and 0.79 for the second) and for the global scale (, = 0.83). The test-retest procedure showed good stability over time (rs = 0.90 and 0.84 for the two different raters). The scale could be used in different clinical settings, provided a sufficient level of social stimulation is given to the infant in a relatively brief period of time. The scale can be used by nurses and psychologists or by medical doctors after a short period of training. 2001 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

Oral health-related quality of life in children: Part I. How well do children know themselves?

A systematic review
Abstract:, Objective:, Paediatric oral disorders are likely to have a negative effect on the quality of life. Until recently, children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using parents as informants. Instruments have now been developed, which have demonstrated that with appropriate questionnaire techniques, valid and reliable information can be obtained from children. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of the existing literature about child perceptions of OHRQoL and their validation. Methods:, A computerized search was conducted using Medline, ISI, Lilacs and Scielo for children's perception of OHRQoL. The inclusion criteria were: the articles should contain well-validated instruments and provide child perceptions of OHRQoL. Results:, From 89 records found, 13 fulfilled the criteria. All studies included in the critical appraisal of the project suggested good construct validity of overall child perceptions of OHRQoL. However, children's understanding of oral health and well-being are also affected by variables (age, age-related experiences, gender, race, education, culture, experiences related to oral conditions, opportunities for treatment, childhood period of changes, back-translating questionnaire, children self-perceived treatment need). Conclusions:, The structure of children's self-concept and health cognition is age-dependent as a result of their continuous cognitive, emotional, social and language development. By using appropriate questionnaire techniques, valid and reliable information can be obtained from children concerning their OHRQoL. [source]

The psychometric properties of the Miller Behavioural Style Scale with adult daughters of women with early breast cancer: a literature review and empirical study

Charlotte E. Rees BSc PhD
The psychometric properties of the Miller Behavioural Style Scale with adult daughters of women with early breast cancer: a literature review and empirical study Several researchers have suggested that the information-seeking behaviours of patients need to be taken into consideration when assessing their information needs. This study reviews published evidence of the psychometric properties of the Miller Behavioural Style Scale, a tool commonly used to identify the information-seeking behaviours of individuals under threat, and examines its reliability and validity with adult daughters of women with early breast cancer. Ninety-seven adult daughters completed the MBSS and a 30-item, self-administered questionnaire, a tool designed to explore the information needs of adult daughters of women with breast cancer. The internal consistency of the monitoring and blunting sub-scales of the MBSS was ,=065 and 041 respectively. The blunting sub-scale fell substantially below acceptable limits and was discarded from subsequent analyses. The monitoring sub-scale possessed good test,retest reliability (n=17) with a 5-week time interval (r=071, P < 0005), as measured using a Pearson's correlation coefficient. Furthermore, the majority (734%) of monitoring items possessed moderate or substantial test,retest reliability, as indicated by kappa coefficients. Finally, the monitoring sub-scale possessed good construct validity, both discriminant and convergent validity, as measured by the univariate associations between monitoring behaviour and selected items from the information questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. In conclusion, adequate support exists for the psychometric properties of the monitoring sub-scale of the MBSS and its use with adult daughters of women with early breast cancer in future research. These findings have a number of implications for nursing research and these are discussed in this paper. [source]

Measuring Parental Perceptions of Child Oral Health-related Quality of Life

Aleksandra Jokovic MSc
Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the P-CPQ, a measure of parental/caregiver perceptions of the oral health-related quality of life of children. This forms one component of the Child Oral Health Quality of Life Questionnaire (COHQOL). Methods: An item pool was developed through a review of existing child health questionnaires and interviews with parents/caregivers of children with pedodontic, orthodontic, and orofacial conditions. The resulting 47 items were used in a study in which 208 parents/caregivers provided data on their frequency and importance. The 31 items rated the most frequent and important were selected for the final questionnaire (P-CPQ). The P-CPQ validity and reliability were assessed by a new sample of 231 parents, 79 of whom completed two copies for the assessment of test-retest reliability. Results: The P-CPQ discriminated among the three clinical groups included in the expected direction. Within-group analyses using clinical data provided some evidence that scores were associated with the severity of the condition. The P-CPQ also showed good construct validity. It had excellent internal consistency reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 and demonstrated perfect test-retest reliability (ICC=0.85). Conclusion: The study provides data to indicate that the P-CPQ is valid and reliable. [source]

Development of chemistry attitudes and experiences questionnaire (CAEQ)

Jacinta Dalgety
In this article we describe the development of the Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ) that measures first-year university chemistry students' attitude toward chemistry, chemistry self-efficacy, and learning experiences. The instrument was developed as part of a larger study and sought to fulfill a need for an instrument to investigate factors that influence student enrollment choice. We set out to design the instrument in a manner that would maximize construct validity. The CAEQ was piloted with a cohort of science and technology students (n,=,129) at the end of their first year. Based on statistical analysis the instrument was modified and subsequently administered on two occasions at two tertiary institutions (n,=,669). Statistical data along with additional data gathered from interviews suggest that the CAEQ possesses good construct validity and will prove a useful tool for tertiary level educators who wish to gain an understanding of factors that influence student choice of chemistry enrolment. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 40: 649,668, 2003 [source]

Translation and validation of the standard Chinese version of PDQ-39: A quality-of-life measure for patients with Parkinson's disease

Kin-Lun Tsang MBBS
Abstract PDQ-39 has been widely used in the research and clinical management of Parkinson's disease. It has been translated into and validated in various non-English languages. We report here on the validity and reliability results for the translated standard Chinese PDQ-39 questionnaire. Fifty-four patients were recruited from a movement disorder clinic and two regional patient groups, and data were collected by direct interview. Nineteen patients had the tests repeated 4 weeks later to assess the test,retest and interrater reliability. The standard Chinese version of PDQ-39 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's , = 0.54,0.90) and was comparable to versions in other languages. Further analysis showed good construct validity and test,retest reliability. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed. 2002 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Psychometric Properties of Commonly Used Low Back Disability Questionnaires: Are They Useful for Older Adults with Low Back Pain?

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 1 2009
Gregory E. Hicks PT
ABSTRACT Objectives., To evaluate the psychometric properties of two commonly used low back pain (LBP) disability questionnaires in a sample solely comprising community-dwelling older adults. Design., Single-group repeated measures design. Setting., Four continuing care retirement communities in Maryland and in Virginia. Participants., Convenience sample of 107 community-dwelling men and women (71.9%) aged 62 years or older with current LBP. Outcome Measures., All participants completed modified Oswestry Disability (mOSW) and Quebec Back Pain Disability (QUE) questionnaires, as well as the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36 questionnaire at baseline. At follow-up, 56 participants completed the mOSW and the QUE for reliability assessment. Results., Test,retest reliability of the mOSW and QUE were excellent with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86, 0.95) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.97), respectively. Participants with high pain severity and high levels of functional limitation had higher scores on the mOSW (P < 0.0001) and QUE (P < 0.001) scales than other participants, which represents good construct validity for both scales. The threshold for minimum detectable change is 10.66 points for the mOSW and 11.04 points for the QUE. Both questionnaires had sufficient scale width to accurately measure changes in patient status. Conclusions., It appears that both questionnaires have excellent test,retest reliability and good construct validity when used to evaluate LBP-related disability for older adults with varying degrees of LBP. Neither questionnaire appears to have superior psychometric properties; therefore, both the Oswestry and Quebec can be recommended for use among geriatric patients with LBP. [source]

Assessment of the abbreviated Duke Social Support Index in a cohort of older Australian women

Jennifer R Powers
Objectives: To assess the acceptability, reliability and validity of the 11-item Duke Social Support Index (DSSI) in community-dwelling older Australian women, and to describe its relationship with the women's sociodemographic and health characteristics. Methods: Women aged 70,75 years were randomly selected from the national Medicare database, with over-sampling of rural and remote areas. The mailed survey included items about social support, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), health service use, recent life events and sociodemographics. Results: All DSSI items were completed by 94% of the 12 939 participants. Internal reliability was reasonable for 10 of the 11 DSSI items and its factors, social interaction (four items) and satisfaction with social support (six items; Cronbach's alpha of 0.8, 0.6, 0.8). The factor structure was consistent for subgroups of women: urban/non-urban; English speaking/non-English speaking background; married/widowed. Summed scores were highly correlated with factor scores and showed good construct validity. Higher social support was associated with better physical and mental health, being Australian born, more educated and better able to manage on income. Conclusion: Ten of the 11 DSSI items provided an acceptable, brief and valid measure of social support for use in mailed surveys to community-dwelling older women. [source]