God

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of God

  • of god

  • Terms modified by God

  • god being

  • Selected Abstracts


    IMAGES OF GOD AND PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR CAPITAL PUNISHMENT: DOES A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH A LOVING GOD MATTER?,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    JAMES D. UNNEVER
    This study argues that the nature and intensity of a person's relationship with God creates a transposable cognitive schema that shapes people's views toward public policies such as executing convicted murderers. In this context, we investigate whether Americans who report having a close personal relationship with a loving God are less likely to support the death penalty. We hypothesize that such a relationship tempers the tendency to see punitiveness as an appropriate response to human failings. Individuals who hold a loving God image are more likely to believe that God responds to those who have "failed" or "sinned" by demonstrating unconditional love, forgiveness, and mercy. Accordingly, support for capital punishment is problematic because it contradicts the image of a merciful, forgiving deity; God's purpose,and admonition to believers,is to demonstrate compassion toward those who have trespassed against others. We test these possibilities using the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS). Controlling for a range of religious factors and other known predictors of death penalty attitudes, the results show that Americans with a personal relationship with a loving God are less likely to support capital punishment for convicted murderers. [source]


    Study on Glucose Biofuel Cells Using an Electrochemical Noise Device

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 14 2008
    Yueming Tan
    Abstract An electrochemical noise (ECN) device was utilized for the first time to study and characterize a glucose/O2 membraneless biofuel cell (BFC) and a monopolar glucose BFC. In the glucose/O2 membraneless BFC, ferrocene (Fc) and glucose oxidase (GOD) were immobilized on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/Au electrode with a gelatin film at the anode; and laccase (Lac) and an electron mediator, 2,2,-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS), were immobilized on a MWCNTs/Au electrode with polypyrrole at the cathode. This BFC was performed in a stirred acetate buffer solution (pH,5.0) containing 40,mmol/L glucose in air, with a maximum power density of 8,,W/cm2, an open-circuit cell voltage of 0.29,V, and a short-circuit current density of 85,,A/cm2, respectively. The cell current at the load of 100,k, retained 78.9% of the initial value after continuous discharging for 15,h in a stirred acetate buffer solution (pH,5.0) containing 40,mmol/L glucose in air. The performance decrease of the BFC resulted mainly from the leakage of the ABTS mediator immobilized at the cathode, as revealed by the two-channel quartz crystal microbalance technique. In addition, a monopolar glucose BFC was performed with the same anode as that in the glucose/O2 membraneless BFC in a stirred phosphate buffer solution (pH,7.0) containing 40,mmol/L glucose, and a carbon cathode in Nafion-membrane-isolated acidic KMnO4, with a maximum power density of 115,,W/cm2, an open-circuit cell voltage of 1.24,V, and a short-circuit current density of 202,,A/cm2, respectively, which are superior to those of the glucose/O2 membraneless BFC. A modification of the anode with MWCNTs for the monopolar glucose BFC increased the maximum power density by a factor of 1.8. The ECN device is highly recommended as a convenient, real-time and sensitive technique for BFC studies. [source]


    Integrating an Enzyme-Entrapped Conducting Polymer Electrode and a Prereactor in a Microfluidic System for Sensing Glucose

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 6 2008
    Po-Chin Nien
    Abstract In this study, the flow injection analysis was applied to the enzyme-entrapped electrode on a chip for sensing glucose. The on-chip microelectrode was fabricated by the standard photolithography in clean-room environment and the microfluidic channel height of 100,,m on the chip was formed by poly(dimethylsiloxane). The conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, was electropolymerized to entrap the coexisting glucose oxidase (GOD) by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The amount of enzyme entrapped in the matrix measured spectroscopically was about 0.101,U/cm2. At a flow rate of 10,ml/hr, the working electrode (Pt/PEDOT/GOD, WE1) was set at 0.7,V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and sensing of H2O2 was carried out by injecting samples with various concentrations of glucose (Glu). A linear relationship between the sensing current and the glucose concentration, ranging from 1 to 20,mM, was obtained with a sensitivity of 8,nA mm,2 mM,1. The response time and the recovery time were about 30 and 230,s, respectively. For a single-potential test, the oxidation currents of 0.08,mM ascorbic acid (AA) and a blend of 0.08,mM AA and 10,mM Glu reached 31.3% and 145.5%, respectively, when compared with the oxidation current of 10,mM Glu alone. However, when a pre-reactor (WE2) was set at the same potential (0.7,V) before the main enzyme integrated electrode (WE1), the oxidation current for the above mixed solution reached 99.6% of the original one. [source]


    Reagentless Glucose Biosensor Based on the Direct Electrochemistry of Glucose Oxidase on Carbon Nanotube-Modified Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 11 2006
    Xiliang Luo
    Abstract The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was revealed at a carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode, where the enzyme was immobilized with a chitosan film containing gold nanoparticles. The immobilized GOD displays a pair of redox peaks in pH,7.4 phosphate buffer solutions (PBS) with the formal potential of about ,455,mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) and shows a surface-controlled electrode process. Bioactivity remains good, along with effective catalysis of the reduction of oxygen. In the presence of dissolved oxygen, the reduction peak current decreased gradually with the addition of glucose, which could be used for reagentless detection of glucose with a linear range from 0.04 to 1.0,mM. The proposed glucose biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good stability and reproducibility, and was also insensitive to common interferences such as ascorbic and uric acid. The excellent performance of the reagentless biosensor is attributed to the effective enhancement of electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface by CNTs, and the biocompatible environment that the chitosan film containing gold nanoparticles provides for immobilized GOD. [source]


    Composite Multienzyme Amperometric Biosensors for an Improved Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 22 2003
    B. Serra
    Abstract A biosensor design, in which glucose oxidase and peroxidase are coimmobilized by simple physical inclusion into the bulk of graphite-Teflon pellets, is reported for the detection of phenolic compounds. This design allows the "in situ" generation of the H2O2 needed for the enzyme reaction with the phenolic compounds, which avoids several problems detected in the performance of single peroxidase biosensors as a consequence of the presence of a high H2O2 concentration. So, a much lower surface fouling was found at the GOD-HRP biosensor in comparison with a graphite-Teflon-HRP electrode, suggesting that the controlled generation of H2O2 makes more difficult the formation of polymers from the enzyme reaction products. The construction of trienzyme biosensors, in which GOD, HRP and tyrosinase were coimmobilized into the graphite-Teflon matrix is also reported, and their performance was compared with that of GOD-HRP bienzyme electrodes. The practical applicability of the composite multienzyme amperometric biosensors was evaluated by the estimation of the phenolic compounds content in waste waters from a refinery, and the results were compared with those obtained by using a colorimetric official method based on the reaction with 4-aminoantipyrine. [source]


    On-line biosensors for simultaneous determination of glucose, choline, and glutamate integrated with a microseparation system

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 18 2003
    Guoyue Shi
    Abstract An effective microseparation system integrated with ring-disc electrodes and two microfluidic devices was fabricated for in vivo determination using a microdialysis pump. The major interference of ascorbic acid (AA) was excluded by direct oxidation with ascorbate oxidase. Glucose, glutamate, and choline were successfully determined simultaneously through the biosensors modified with a bilayer of osmium-poly(4-vinylpyridine)gel-horseradish peroxidase (Os-gel-HRP)/glucose oxidase (GOD), glutamate oxidase (GlutaOD) or choline oxidase (ChOD). To stabilize the biosensors, 0.2% polyethylenimine (PEI) was mixed with the oxidases. The cathodic currents of glucose, glutamate, and choline biosensors started to increase after the standard solutions were injected into the microseparation system. The on-line biosensors show a wide calibration range (10,7,10,5 mol/L) with a detection limit of 10,8 mol/L at the working potential of ,50 mV. The variations of glucose, glutamate, and choline were determined simultaneously in a free moving rat when we perfused the medial frontal cortex with 100 ,mol/L N -methyl- D -aspartate (NMDA) solution, which is the agonist of the NMDA receptor. [source]


    [Commentary] POOR MEXICO: SO FAR AWAY FROM GOD, SO CLOSE TO THE UNITED STATES

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2009
    RAUL CAETANO
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Optimization of culture conditions for glucose oxidase production by a Penicillium chrysogenum SRT 19 strain

    ENGINEERING IN LIFE SCIENCES (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2010
    Ragini G. Bodade
    Abstract The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) has been used for a variety of biotechnological applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the optimization of extracellular GOD production was carried out in a Penicillium chrysogenum SRT 19 strain isolated from contaminated and decaying cheese samples. Maximum GOD production was attained at pH 6 and 20C in fermentation broth after 72,h of incubation. The effects of metal ions and sugars were screened for the induction of higher GOD production. The results revealed that glucose and lactose give the highest production of enzyme (0.670 and 0.552,U/mL, respectively) as compared with other sugars (sucrose, cellulose, mannitol and fructose). Out of the seven metal ions studied, CaCO3 (1.123,U/mL) and FeSO4 (0.822,U/mL) act as modulators, while MgSO4 (0.535,U/mL), CuSO4 (0.498,U/mL), HgCl2 (0.476,U/mL), ZnSO4 (0.457,U/mL) and BaSO4 (0.422,U/mL) yield lower production. The study therefore suggests that a strain of P. chrysogenum SRT 19 can be used as a new strain for GOD production. [source]


    3. HISTORIOGRAPHY WITHOUT GOD: A REPLY TO GREGORY,

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 4 2008
    TOR EGIL FRLAND
    ABSTRACT This reply aims both to respond to Gregory and to move forward the debate about God's place in historiography. The first section is devoted to the nature of science and God. Whereas Gregory thinks science is based on metaphysical naturalism with a methodological corollary of critical-realist empiricism, I see critical, empiricist methodology as basic, and naturalism as a consequence. Gregory's exposition of his apophatic theology, in which univocity is eschewed, illustrates the fissure between religious and scientific worldviews,no matter which basic scientific theory one subscribes to. The second section is allotted to miracles. As I do, Gregory thinks no miracle occurred on Fox Lakes in 1652, but he restricts himself to understanding the actors and explaining change over time, and refuses to explain past or contemporary actions and events. Marc Bloch, in his book The Royal Touch: Sacred Monarchy and Scrofula in England and France, is willing to go much further than Gregory. Using his superior medical knowledge to substitute his own explanation of the phenomenon for that of the actors, Bloch dismisses the actors' beliefs that they or others had been miraculously cured, and explains that they believed they saw miraculous healing because they were expecting to see it. In the third section, on historical explanation, I rephrase the question whether historians can accommodate both believers in God and naturalist scientists, asking whether God, acting miraculously or not, can be part of the ideal explanatory text. I reply in the negative, and explicate how the concept of a plural subject suggests how scientists can also be believers. This approach may be compatible with two options presented by Peter Lipton for resolving the tension between religion and science. The first is to see the truth claims of religious texts as untranslatable into scientific language (and vice versa); the other is to immerse oneself in religious texts by accepting them as a guide but not believing in their truth claims when these contradict science. [source]


    GOD CAN MAKE US HEALTHY THROUGH AND THROUGH

    INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF MISSION, Issue 356-357 2001
    ON PRAYERS FOR THE SICK AND THE INTERPRETATION OF HEALING EXPERIENCES IN CHRISTIAN CHURCHES IN CHINA AND AFRICAN IMMIGRANT CONGREGATIONS IN GERMANY
    First page of article [source]


    FINDING FAITH, LOSING FAITH: STORIES OF CONVERSION AND APOSTASY by Scot McKnight and Hauna Ondrey SOCIETY WITHOUT GOD: WHAT THE LEAST RELIGIOUS NATIONS CAN TELL US ABOUT CONTENTMENT by Phil Zuckerman

    JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION, Issue 2 2009
    RYAN T. CRAGUN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Chitosan-grafted poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate- co -glycidyl methacrylate) membranes for reversible enzyme immobilization

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2007
    M. Yakup Ar
    Abstract Epoxy group-containing poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/glycidyl methacrylate), p(HEMA/GMA), membrane was prepared by UV initiated photopolymerization. The membrane was grafted with chitosan (CH) and some of them were chelated with Fe(III) ions. The CH grafted, p(HEMA/GMA), and Fe(III) ions incorporated p(HEMA/GMA)-CH-Fe(III) membranes were used for glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilization via adsorption. The maximum enzyme immobilization capacity of the p(HEMA/GMA)-CH and p(HEMA/GMA)-CH-Fe(III) membranes were 0.89 and 1.36 mg/mL, respectively. The optimal pH value for the immobilized GOD preparations is found to have shifted 0.5 units to more acidic pH 5.0. Optimum temperature for both immobilized preparations was 10C higher than that of the free enzyme and was significantly broader at higher temperatures. The apparent Km values were found to be 6.9 and 5.8 mM for the adsorbed GOD on p(HEMA/GMA)-CH and p(HEMA/GMA)-CH-Fe(III) membranes, respectively. In addition, all the membranes surfaces were characterized by contact angle measurements. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 3084,3093, 2007 [source]


    Improvement of the catalytic performance of lignin peroxidase in reversed micelles

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Jing Lan
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Anionic surfactant sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) had an inhibiting effect on lignin peroxidase (LiP). To improve the catalytic activity of LiP in an AOT reversed micelle in isooctane, nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (Brij30) was incorporated into the interfacial membrane. H2O2 played dual roles in the LiP-catalyzed oxidation of substrates. To obtain a sustainable high activity of LiP, a coupled enzymatic reaction, i.e. the glucose oxidase (GOD)-catalyzed oxidation of glucose was used as an H2O2 source. RESULTS: Owing to modification of the charge density of the interfacial membrane, the activity of LiP in an optimized AOT/Brij30 reversed micellar medium (,B (the molar percentage of Brij30) = 0.53, ,0 ([H2O]/([AOT] + [Brij30]) = 23, pH = 4.8) was 40 times that in a single AOT reversed micelle. Due to the controlled release of H2O2, the concentration of H2O2 in the mixed reversed micellar medium was maintained at a moderately high level throughout, which made the LiP-catalyzed oxidation of substrates proceed at a higher conversion rate than counterparts in which H2O2 was supplied externally in one batch at the beginning of the reaction. Decolourization of two waterless-soluble aromatic dyes (pyrogallol red and bromopyrogallol red) using LiP coupled with GOD in the medium also demonstrated that a higher decolourization percentage was obtained if H2O2 was supplied enzymatically. CONCLUSION: The proposed measures (both physicochemical and biochemical) were very effective, giving significant improvement in the catalytic performance of LiP in a single AOT reversed micelle in isooctane, which helped to degrade or transform hydrophobic aromatic compounds with LiP in reversed micelles more efficiently. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Photoinduced electron transfer in glucose oxidase: a picosecond time-resolved ultraviolet resonance Raman study

    JOURNAL OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, Issue 11 2008
    Akiko Fujiwara
    Abstract Picosecond time-resolved ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy has been applied to photoinduced electron transfer (ET) of glucose oxidase (GOD). In this study, we succeeded in directly observing changes in the aromatic amino acid residues in the photoinduced ET of GOD for the first time. UVRR spectra excited at 226 nm showed bands from Trp and Tyr residues. An intensity decrease of the Trp UVRR bands and the appearance of the UVRR bands attributable to Trp,+ were observed in the time-resolved spectra. In the time-resolved UVRR spectra excited at 240 nm, the intensity decrease of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) bands was also observed on the same time scale. These results showed that the Trp residue(s) serves as an electron donor to excited-state FAD in the photoinduced ET of GOD. The comparison of the temporal changes of the Trp and FAD band intensities suggested that the ET from the Trp residue(s) to the FAD occurs with a time constant of ,1.5 ps. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    GOD IN POSTLIBERAL PERSPECTIVE: BETWEEN REALISM AND NON-REALISM

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1034 2010
    ANDREW MOORE
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE KINDNESS OF GOD: METAPHOR, GENDER AND RELIGIOUS LANGUAGE by Janet Martin Soskice

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1032 2010
    MARGARET ATKINS OSA
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    WEDDING FEAST OF THE LAMB: EUCHARISTIC THEOLOGY FROM A HISTORICAL, BIBLICAL AND SYSTEMATIC PERSPECTIVE by Roch A. Kereszty OCist SHEER GRACE: LIVING THE MYSTERY OF GOD by Dra,ko Dizdar

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1031 2010
    DOMINIC WHITE OP
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE TRIUNE GOD: AN ESSAY IN POSTLIBERAL THEOLOGY by William C. Placher

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1017 2007
    TODD C. REAM
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    POETS AND GOD: CHAUCER, SHAKESPEARE, HERBERT, MILTON, WORDSWORTH, COLERIDGE, BLAKE by David L. Edwards, Darton, Longman and Todd, London, 2005, pp. xv + 256, 12.95 pbk.

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1009 2006
    ISBN: 0-232-52577-3.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    PRESENTISM, TRUTHMAKERS, AND GOD

    PACIFIC PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2009
    ALAN R. RHODA
    The truthmaker objection to presentism (the view that only what exists now exists simpliciter) is that it lacks sufficient metaphysical resources to ground truths about the past. In this paper I identify five constraints that an adequate presentist response must satisfy. In light of these constraints, I examine and reject responses by Bigelow, Keller, Crisp, and Bourne. Consideration of how these responses fail, however, points toward a proposal that works; one that posits God's memories as truthmakers for truths about the past. I conclude that presentists have, in the truthmaker objection, considerable incentive to endorse theism. [source]


    Glucose oxidase electrodes of polyaniline, poly(o -toluidine) and their copolymer as a biosensor: a comparative study

    POLYMERS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, Issue 6 2004
    D. D. Borole
    Abstract A simple technique is described for constructing a glucose sensor by the entrapment of glucose oxidase (GOD) in a polyaniline (PA), poly(o -toluidine) (POT) and their copolymer poly(aniline-co- o -toluidine) (PA-co-POT) thin films, which were electrochemically deposited on a platinum plate in phosphate and acetate buffer. The maximum current response was observed for PA, POT, and PA-co-POT GOD electrodes at pH 5.5 and potential 0.60,V (v. Ag/AgCl). The phosphate buffer gives fast response as compared to acetate buffer in amperometric measurements. PA GOD electrode shows the fastest response followed by PA-co-POT and POT GOD electrodes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    WORSHIPPING AN UNKNOWN GOD

    RATIO, Issue 4 2006
    Anthony Kenny
    This paper examines the religious tradition of ,negative theology', and argues that it is doubtful whether it leaves room for belief in God at all. Three theologians belonging in different degrees to this tradition are discussed, namely John Scotus Eriugena, Anselm of Canterbury and Nicolas of Cusa, and it is argued that all three, in maintaining the ineffability of God, reach positions that are in effect forms of agnosticism. There is a paradox here: if God is inconceivable, is it not self-refuting to talk about him at all, even to state his inconceivability? The final part of the paper examines the work of the nineteenth-century poet Arthur Hugh Clough, two of whose poems, Hymnos Aumnos, and Qui Laborat Orat, explore the paradox of talking about the inconceivable Godhead. Clough gives eloquent expression to the idea that leaving God unnamed is not equivalent to disowning him. There is room for a devout agnosticism. [source]


    FRIENDSHIP, THE KISS OF DEATH, AND GOD: H. RICHARD NIEBUHR AND JACQUES DERRIDA ON THE OTHER

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    ZACHARY SIMPSON
    First page of article [source]


    ACKNOWLEDGING A HIDDEN GOD: A THEOLOGICAL CRITIQUE OF STANLEY CAVELL ON SCEPTICISM

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 3 2007
    JUDITH E. TONNING
    In his early work, the philosopher Stanley Cavell offers a sustained engagement with the threat of epistemological scepticism, shaped by the intuition that although (as the late Wittgenstein shows) ordinary language use is the practice within which alone meaning is possible (and which can thus not be further analysed or rationalised), it is also a basic human inclination to wish to escape the limitations of the ,ordinary'. This, for Cavell, is the root of scepticism. Scepticism, on this view, thus appears not primarily as an epistemological but as an (injurious) moral stance, which cannot be refuted but must be continually confronted and overcome. Vis--vis scepticism, ,acknowledgement' is the practice-based recognition of the world and other people in their continuing elusiveness, which ineluctably involves risk, but just so is the only way of knowing that is appropriate to and honours the (finite) human condition. One problematic aspect of this (very fertile) approach is that Cavell's secular viewpoint makes it difficult for him to say both why the desire for a ,beyond' arises in the first place, and why its expression as denial is morally wrong (rather than merely misguided). His approach thus invites a theological ,supplementation' which grounds the human condition in an original and real relation to God that is meant to draw the believer, through Christ, into the divine life itself. Such a reinterpretation both elucidates the concepts of scepticism and acknowledgement, and makes these concepts available for a theological outlook that is able to accommodate Cavell's profound insights into ,the human'. [source]


    PROBLEMS ARISING FROM AN INCONSISTENT VIEW OF GOD

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 1 2005
    Conor Farrington
    First page of article [source]


    Stimulation of glucose oxidase with white linearly polarized light

    BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 2 2010
    Anna Konieczna-Molenda
    Abstract Glucose oxidase (GOD) was illuminated with white linearly polarized light (WLPL). The enzyme was illuminated at room temperature in separate vessels then admixed to a reactor filled with D -glucose. The illumination of the enzyme for 60 min at 25,30C and pH 6.5,7.0 provided its superior stimulation as proven in the oxidation of ,- D -glucose. Lyophilization of the illuminated enzyme reduced its activity by, approximately, 30%. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]


    Amyloid fibrils as a nanoscaffold for enzyme immobilization

    BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 1 2010
    Sarah M. Pilkington
    Abstract Amyloid fibrils are a misfolded state, formed by many proteins when subjected to denaturing conditions. Their constituent amino acids make them ideally suited as a readily functionalized nanoscaffold for enzyme immobilization and their strength, stability, and nanometer size are attractive features for exploitation in the creation of new bionanomaterials. We report successful functionalization of amyloid fibrils by conjugation to glucose oxidase (GOD) using glutaraldehyde. GOD retained activity upon attachment and successful cross-linking was determined using electrophoresis, centrifugation, sucrose gradient centrifugation, and TEM. The resulting functionalized enzyme scaffold was then incorporated into a model poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) film, to create a new bionanomaterial. The antibacterial effect of the functionalized film was then tested on E. coli, the growth of which was inhibited, demonstrating the incorporation of GOD antibacterial activity into the PVOH film. The incorporation of the GOD-functionalized amyloid fibrils into PVOH provides an excellent ,proof of concept' model for the creation of a new bionanomaterial using a functionalized amyloid fibril scaffold. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]


    Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies on Enzymatic Specific Activity and Direct Electrochemistry of Immobilized Glucose Oxidase in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 1 2008
    Yuhua Su
    The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) technique was utilized to monitor in situ the adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD) and the mixture of GOD and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) onto Au electrodes with and without modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or SDBS/MWCNTs composite, and the relationship between enzymatic specific activity (ESA) and direct electrochemistry of the immobilized GOD was quantitatively evaluated for the first time. Compared with the bare gold electrode at which a little GOD was adsorbed and the direct electrochemistry of the adsorbed GOD was negligible, the amount and electroactivity of adsorbed GOD were greatly enhanced when the GOD was mixed with SDBS and then adsorbed onto the SDBS/MWCNTs modified Au electrode. However, the ESA of the adsorbed GOD was fiercely decreased to only 16.1% of the value obtained on the bare gold electrode, and the portion of adsorbed GOD showing electrochemical activity exhibited very low enzymatic activity, demonstrating that the electroactivity and ESA of immobilized GOD responded oppositely to the presence of MWCNTs and SDBS. The ESA results obtained from the EQCM method were well supported by conventional UV-vis spectrophotometry. The direct electrochemistry of redox proteins including enzymes as a function of their biological activities is an important concern in biotechnology, and this work may have presented a new and useful protocol to quantitatively evaluate both the electroactivity and ESA of trace immobilized enzymes, which is expected to find wider applications in biocatalysis and biosensing fields. [source]


    INTRODUCTION TO ,GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS'

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, Issue 3 2002
    David M. Black
    First page of article [source]


    PIGS FOR THE GODS: BURNT ANIMAL SACRIFICES AS EMBODIED RITUALS AT A MYCENAEAN SANCTUARY

    OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    YANNIS HAMILAKIS
    Summary. The archaeology of animal sacrifice has attracted considerable attention, although discussions on the meanings and social effects of the practice in different contexts are rather under-developed. In the Aegean, classical antiquity has provided abundant literary, zooarchaeological and iconographic evidence (and has inspired some excellent studies) but it has also overshadowed discussion on sacrifice in other periods. Until recently, it was assumed that burnt animal sacrifices (i.e. the ritual burning of bones or parts of the carcass, often taken to be offerings to the deities) were absent from the pre-classical contexts. Recent studies have shown this not to be the case. This article reports and discusses evidence for burnt animal sacrifices from the sanctuary of Ayios Konstantinos at Methana, north-east Peloponnese. It constitutes the first, zooarchaeologically verified such evidence from a sanctuary context. The main sacrificial animals seem to have been juvenile pigs, which were transported as whole carcasses into the main cultic room; non-meaty parts were selected for burning whereas their meaty parts were first consumed by humans and then thrown into the fire (some neonatal pigs may have been thrown into the fire whole). The article integrates zooarchaeological, other contextual, and comparative archaeological evidence and explores the social roles and meanings of sacrifice in the Mycenaean context and more broadly. It is suggested that, rather than focusing on possible continuities of the practice through to the classical period (an issue which remains ambiguous), sacrifice should be meaningfully discussed within the broader framework of the archaeology of feasting, and more generally food consumption, as a socially important, sensory embodied experience. The evidence from Ayios Konstantinos may reveal a hitherto eluding phenomenon: small-scale, sacrificial-feasting ritual in a religious context, conferring cosmological and ideological powers on few individuals, through the participation in an intense, embodied, transcendental experience. [source]