Global Scope (global + scope)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The pervasive influence of sampling and methodological artefacts on a macroecological pattern: the abundance,occupancy relationship

GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
Peter D. Wilson
ABSTRACT Aim To investigate the influence of sampling and methodological artefacts on the correlation between abundance and occupancy. Location Global scope. Methods A fixed effects weighted regression model was fitted to standardized effect size for 175 examples of correlations between abundance and occupancy. A regression tree model with standard effect size as the dependent variable was also fitted to the data. Results Standard effect size, and therefore the correlation between abundance and occupancy, was found to be strongly influenced by the type of abundance measure used to characterize the abundance,occupancy relationship. Local mean abundance (also referred to as ecological mean abundance) was primarily responsible for negative correlations. Negative correlations also resulted from a mismatch in the sampling extents of abundance and occupancy measures. Main conclusions The combination of abundance and occupancy measures selected to characterize the abundance,occupancy relationship for a given set of data has a profound impact on the sign of the correlation between the selected measures. Previous attempts to understand the processes giving rise to the pattern represented by the abundance,occupancy relationship have confounded sampling artefacts (e.g. spatial extent of abundance and occupancy information) and methodological artefacts (e.g. combining a truncated abundance measure such as local mean abundance with an untruncated occupancy measure such as proportion of occupied samples). Thus, a revision of the approach currently used to define and evaluate competing explanatory models of the abundance,occupancy relationship appears to be necessary. [source]

Size-dependent species-area relationships in benthos: is the world more diverse for microbes?

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2002
Andrey I. Azovsky
Using original and literature data on species richness, I compared the species-area relations for 5 different size classes of the Arctic benthos: macrofauna sensu lato, polychaetes, nematodes, ciliates and diatom algae. The data pool covered a wide range of areas from single samples to the whole seas. Both the slopes and intercepts of the curves depended significantly on the logarithm of the mean body size of the group. The number of small species (ciliates and diatom algae) showed relatively higher local diversity but increased more slowly with the area than the number of larger ones. Thus, both ,- and ,-components of species diversity of the marine benthos were size-dependent. As a consequence, the actual relations between number of species and their physical size are spatially scale-dependent: there are many more species of smaller size classes in any one local community, but at a global scope the situation changes drastically. The possible reasons are discussed, including dispersal efficiency, rates of speciation and size-dependent perception of environmental heterogeneity. Body size is suggested to be the important scaling factor in manifestation of so-called "general ecological laws". [source]

Buddhism, Politics, and Nationalism in the Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries

Thomas Borchert
Buddhism is widely understood as a religion with a global scope. Particularly from the end of the twentieth century, the widespread growth of Buddhism internationally, and the extensive ties between Buddhists institutions, leave the impression of unity within contemporary Buddhism. Nevertheless, in this article, I argue that Buddhism cannot be understood outside of a national context. Although international ties between Buddhists are real and important, Sanghas generally remain under the governance by national governments and monks and nuns remain citizens of particular nation-states. As a result, contemporary Buddhism is marked by a tension between the transnational and the national. [source]

Climate Change and Emergency Medicine: Impacts and Opportunities

Jeremy J. Hess MD
Abstract There is scientific consensus that the climate is changing, that human activity plays a major role, and that the changes will continue through this century. Expert consensus holds that significant health effects are very likely. Public health and health care systems must understand these impacts to properly pursue preparedness and prevention activities. All of medicine will very likely be affected, and certain medical specialties are likely to be more significantly burdened based on their clinical activity, ease of public access, public health roles, and energy use profiles. These specialties have been called on to consider the likely impacts on their patients and practice and to prepare their practitioners. Emergency medicine (EM), with its focus on urgent and emergent ambulatory care, role as a safety-net provider, urban concentration, and broad-based clinical mission, will very likely experience a significant rise in demand for its services over and above current annual increases. Clinically, EM will see amplification of weather-related disease patterns and shifts in disease distribution. In EM's prehospital care and disaster response activities, both emergency medical services (EMS) activity and disaster medical assistance team (DMAT) deployment activities will likely increase. EM's public health roles, including disaster preparedness, emergency department (ED)-based surveillance, and safety-net care, are likely to face increasing demands, along with pressures to improve fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, EM's roles in ED and hospital management, particularly related to building and purchasing, are likely to be impacted by efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy efficiency. Climate change thus presents multiple clinical and public health challenges to EM, but also creates numerous opportunities for research, education, and leadership on an emerging health issue of global scope. [source]