Global Developmental Delay (global + developmental_delay)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Global developmental delay , globally helpful?

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Update on the clinical features and natural history of Wolf,Hirschhorn (4p-) syndrome: Experience with 87 patients and recommendations for routine health supervision,

Agatino Battaglia
Abstract Wolf,Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a well-known multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome, firstly described in 1961 by Cooper and Hirschhorn. Its frequency is estimated as 1/50,000,1/20,000 births, with a female predilection of 2:1. The disorder is caused by partial loss of material from the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3), and is considered a contiguous gene syndrome. No single gene deletions or intragenic mutations have been shown to confer the full WHS phenotype. Since the disorder was brought to the attention of geneticists, many additional cases have been published. Only in 1999, however, were the first data on the natural history brought to the attention of the medical community. The purpose of the present study is to help delineate in more detail and over a longer period of time, the natural history of WHS, in order to establish appropriate health supervision and anticipatory guidance for individuals with this disorder. We have collected information on 87 patients diagnosed with WHS (54 females and 33 males) both in USA and Italy. Age at first observation ranged between newborn and 17 years. Twenty patients have been followed from 4 months to 23 years. The deletion proximal breakpoint varied from 4p15.32 to 4p16.3, and, by FISH, was terminal and included both WHSCR. Deletion was detected by standard cytogenetics in 44/87 (50.5%) patients, whereas FISH was necessary in the other 43 (49.5%). Array-CGH analysis at 1 Mb resolution was performed in 34/87 patients, and, in 15/34 (44%), showed an unbalanced translocation leading to both a 4p monosomy and a partial trisomy for another chromosome arm. Six more patients had been previously shown to have an unbalanced translocation by karyotype analysis or FISH with a WHS-specific probe. Sixty-five of 87 patients had an apparent pure, de novo, terminal deletion; and 1/87 a tandem duplication of 4p16.1p16.3 associated with 4p16.3pter deletion. Age at diagnosis varied between 7 months gestation and 16 years. Ninety-three percent had a seizure disorder with a good outcome; 80% had prenatal onset growth deficiency followed by short stature and slow weight gain; 60% had skeletal anomalies; 50% had heart lesions; 50% had abnormal tooth development; and 40% had hearing loss. Distinctive EEG findings were seen in 90%. Structural CNS anomalies were detected in 80%. Global developmental delay of varying degrees was present in all patients. Almost 50% was able to walk either alone or with support. Hypotonia was present in virtually all patients. A global improvement was observed in all individuals, over time. Our survey has also shown how the characteristic facial phenotype tends to be less pronounced in those patients with a smaller deletion, and microcephaly is not observed in the patients with certain cryptic unbalanced translocations. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cerebral palsy in siblings caused by compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding protein C

We report two sisters with extensive bilateral periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) causing cerebral palsy (CP). The older sister presented at 20 months with cortical visual blindness, spastic diplegia, and purpura fulminans. The younger sister presented aged 3 days old with apnoeas and multifocal seizures. She subsequently had global developmental delay, cortical visual blindness, spastic quadriplegia, epilepsy, and purpura fulminans at age 2 years. Neuroimaging of both siblings showed bilateral PVHI consistent with bilateral cerebral intramedullary venous thrombosis occurring at under 28 weeks' gestation for the older sister and around time of birth for the younger sister. At latest follow-up, the older sister (13y) has spastic diplegia at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II, and the younger sister (10y) has spastic quadriplegia at GMFCS level IV. Both sisters showed partial quantitative reduction in plasma protein C antigen and severe qualitative reduction in plasma protein C anticoagulant activity. They were heterozygous for two independent mutations in the protein C gene (PROC). There was no other risk factor for CP. To our knowledge, this is the first family reported with compound heterozygous PROC mutations as the likely genetic cause of familial CP. This report adds to the list of known monogenic causes of CP. [source]

Aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase deficiency associated with epilepsy mimicking non-epileptic involuntary movements

Susumu Ito MD
Aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare inborn error of neurotransmitter biosynthesis that leads to a combined deficiency of catecholamines and serotonin and is characterized by global developmental delay, involuntary movements, and autonomic dysfunction. We report the case of an 11-year-old male patient with AADC deficiency who also had epileptic spasms and generalized tonic seizures with asymmetrical features, in addition to frequent involuntary non-epileptic movements. The clinical manifestation of the epileptic attacks apparently resembled that of non-epileptic attacks. It was difficult to differentiate between both attacks without the help of an ictal electroencephalographic study. The epileptic attacks were finally controlled by appropriate antiepileptic drugs. Because an association with epileptic seizures is uncommon in AADC deficiency, some cases may have been regarded as involuntary non-epileptic movements. This indicates that the differentiation of epileptic attacks from non-epileptic ones is indispensable for the adequate treatment of patients with AADC deficiency. [source]

Polymicrogyria in monozygous twins and an elder sibling

Po-Cheng Hung MD
Monozygous twin births have been associated with brain lesions such as hydranencephaly, multicystic encephalomalacia, and porencephaly. Prenatal circulatory injury has been considered to be the cause. Polymicrogyria is rare but has been reported in autopsied cases. The sibship in this case report, comprising monozygotic male twins and their elder sister from the same non-consanguineous parents, all had global developmental delay. Brain MRI showed polymicrogyria. We suggest that, apart from circulatory compromise, genetic etiology must be implicated as the cause of polymicrogyria. [source]

Joubert syndrome: review and report of seven new cases

S. Kumandas
Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder, characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, global developmental delay and molar tooth sign on magnetic resonance imaging. A variety of other abnormalities have been described in children with JS, including abnormal breathing, abnormal eye movements, a characteristic facial appearance, delayed language, hypersensitivity to noise, autism, ocular and oculomotor abnormalities, meningoencephaloceles, microcephaly, low-set ears, polydactyly, retinal dysplasia, kidney abnormalities (renal cysts), soft tissue tumor of the tongue, liver disease and duodenal atresia. Even within siblings the phenotype may vary, making it difficult to establish the exact clinical diagnostic boundaries of JS. We review the clinical characteristics of seven cases that fulfill the criteria of JS. [source]

Seasonality and clinical features of human metapneumovirus infection in children in Northern Alberta

Joan L. Robinson
Abstract Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causes respiratory tract infections in all age groups. The characteristics of pediatric hMPV infection in Northern Alberta have not been studied. The objectives of this study were to determine the seasonality of pediatric hMPV infections over a 13-month period, the genetic relationship of hMPV isolates to hMPV detected in other parts of Canada, and the burden of illness and possible risk factors for pediatric hMPV hospitalization. Detection of hMPV by polymerase chain reaction was performed on nasopharyngeal specimens collected from outpatients and inpatients at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta, November 12, 2002,December 31, 2003. Forty-two of 1,079 specimens were positive for hMPV (3.9%) from 41 patients (14 outpatients and 27 inpatients), with a peak incidence during January,April, but isolates were detected 10 months of the year. Co-infection was not detected in 39 specimens from which RSV had been detected. Two hMPV genetic clusters were detected, and the isolates were homologous to those of previous Canadian isolates. Four of the 14 outpatients had reactive airways disease. Possible risk factors in the 27 inpatients included prematurity (n,=,8), congenital heart disease (n,=,6), gastroesophageal reflux disease or aspiration (n,=,6), global developmental delay (n,=,5), and multiple congenital anomalies (n,=,4). Risk factors for hospitalization appear to be similar to risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization. J. Med. Virol. 76:98,105, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genetic testing in global developmental delay: the well-intended clinician and the principle of double effect

RC Tervo
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Medical and developmental impact of transition from subcutaneous insulin to oral glyburide in a 15-yr-old boy with neonatal diabetes mellitus and intermediate DEND syndrome: extending the age of KCNJ11 mutation testing in neonatal DM

Ali Mohamadi
Mohamadi A, Clark LM, Lipkin PH, Mahone EM, Wodka EL, Plotnick LP. Medical and developmental impact of transition from subcutaneous insulin to oral glyburide in a 15-yr-old boy with neonatal diabetes mellitus and intermediate DEND syndrome: extending the age of KCNJ11 mutation testing in neonatal DM. Mutations in the KCNJ11 gene, which encodes the Kir6.2 subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, often result in neonatal diabetes. Patients with this mutation have been successfully transitioned from insulin to sulfonylurea (SU) therapy without compromise in their glycemic control. Among patients with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutations, approximately 25% have neurological findings including developmental delay, motor dysfunction, and epilepsy, known as DEND syndrome. There have been rare cases of juvenile patients with intermediate DEND syndrome (iDEND) reporting variable improvement in neurological function following transition from insulin to SU treatment. We describe the response to glyburide in a 15-yr-old boy with severe global developmental delays resulting from the KCNJ11 mutation V59M. The patient was discovered to have diabetes mellitus at 11.5 months of age, making this the oldest age at diagnosis of a KCNJ11 mutation-related case of neonatal diabetes. Because consensus has been to screen patients for this mutation only if younger than 6 months at the time of diagnosis, we suggest that all patients under the age of 12 months at diagnosis should receive genetic testing for monogenic causes of diabetes. [source]