Global Development (global + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

European Trade Diplomacy and the Politics of Global Development: Reflections on the EU,China ,Bra Wars' Dispute

Tony Heron
The article analyses the so-called ,bra wars' trade dispute that took place between the EU and China in 2005. This dispute raised a number of important questions linked, not only to the textiles and clothing (T&C) trade regime, but to the broader conduct of the EU in relation to the developing world. Over the years, the EU has attempted to construct a discourse towards developing countries that has sought to articulate a distinctively ,European' approach to issues like preferential trade, equitable growth, poverty reduction and so on. This article thus centres on the broader analytical question raised by ,bra wars': namely, the mounting incongruity between the theory and practice of the development policies of the EU. [source]

Sub-Saharan Africa's Future: A US National Intelligence Council Conference Report

Article first published online: 23 MAR 200
The US National Intelligence Council's 2020 Report, Mapping the Global Future, was issued in December 2004. It presented an assessment of geopolitical trends and set out some speculative scenarios for global development over the next 15 years. Excerpts were carried in the Documents section of PDR 31, no. 1. A follow-up conference in 2005 brought together a group of US experts on Africa to explore likely trends and drivers of change in sub-Saharan Africa over the same period, partly in the light of the Report's treatment of that region. Part of the NIC's summary of the conference discussions is reproduced below. (Omitted sections discuss globalization, terrorism, democratization, foreign influences, and religion. The full summary is available at It is notable that the topic of population, which once would have figured heavily in such prognostications, nowhere appears in the conference deliberations. Yet the region's population growth is still rapid,and is plausibly a major driver of change. In the UN's medium projections, sub-Saharan Africa's population, estimated at 906 million in 2005, will more than double by 2050, its share of world population rising from 12 percent to 19 percent. In the 15-year time frame of the NIC it will likely grow by 200 million. Those numbers are of course tenuous, contingent on the expectations they embody about the timing of the region's transition to low death and birth rates (and specifically in their assessment of the future course of the AIDS epidemic),which in turn will be influenced by many of the factors that the NIC conferees considered. [source]

Tuberculosis and leprosy in perspective

Anne C. Stone
Abstract Two of humankind's most socially and psychologically devastating diseases, tuberculosis and leprosy, have been the subject of intensive paleopathological research due to their antiquity, a presumed association with human settlement and subsistence patterns, and their propensity to leave characteristic lesions on skeletal and mummified remains. Despite a long history of medical research and the development of effective chemotherapy, these diseases remain global health threats even in the 21st century, and as such, their causative agents Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae, respectively, have recently been the subject of molecular genetics research. The new genome-level data for several mycobacterial species have informed extensive phylogenetic analyses that call into question previously accepted theories concerning the origins and antiquity of these diseases. Of special note is the fact that all new models are in broad agreement that human TB predated that in other animals, including cattle and other domesticates, and that this disease originated at least 35,000 years ago and probably closer to 2.6 million years ago. In this work, we review current phylogenetic and biogeographic models derived from molecular biology and explore their implications for the global development of TB and leprosy, past and present. In so doing, we also briefly review the skeletal evidence for TB and leprosy, explore the current status of these pathogens, critically consider current methods for identifying ancient mycobacterial DNA, and evaluate coevolutionary models. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 52:66,94, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

International Emergency Medicine and the Role for Academic Emergency Medicine

Kumar Alagappan MD
International emergency medicine continues to grow and expand. There are now more than 30 countries that recognize emergency medicine as a specialty. As the field continues to develop, many physicians are reaching across borders and working with their colleagues to improve patient care, education, and research. The future growth and success of the specialty are based on several key components. These include faculty development (because this is the key driver of education), research, and curriculum development. Each country knows what resources it has and how best to utilize them. Countries that are developing the specialty can seek consultation from successful countries and develop their academic and community practice of emergency medicine. There are many resources available to these countries, including distance learning and access to medical journals via the Internet; international exchanges by faculty, residents, and medical students; and physicians who are in fellowship training programs. International research efforts require more support and effort to be successful. This report discusses some of the advantages and hurdles to such research efforts. Physicians have a responsibility to help one another succeed. It is the hope of the authors that many more emergency physicians will lend their skills to further global development of the specialty. [source]

Does Global Liquidity Matter for Monetary Policy in the Euro Area?,

Helge Berger
Global excess liquidity prevalent across the world's financial markets (or its sudden absence) is sometimes believed to limit sovereign monetary policy even in large economies such as the euro area. However, there is still discussion about what constitutes global excess liquidity and how exactly it shapes the policy environment. Our approach adjusts liquidity for a longer-term interest rate and output effects and focuses on US and Japanese liquidity as relevant proxies for global developments from a euro area perspective. We find that, in particular, excess liquidity in the US tends to lead developments in euro area liquidity. US excess liquidity is also consistently positive as a determinant of euro area inflation and is shown to be Granger-causal for euro area inflation in an out-of-sample forecasting exercise. There is some evidence that, at least in part, this result seems to be related to a weakening of the effectiveness of monetary policy in the euro area interest during times of excessive US liquidity. In contrast, the influence of euro area excess liquidity on euro area inflation is more limited. [source]

Explaining Europe's Monetary Union: A Survey of the Literature

Tal Sadeh
This article offers a survey of the literature on European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), in particular works that deal with the question why EMU happened and, based on this literature, what one might be able to conclude about its sustainability. It reviews the literature by dividing up the analyses into four categories: those that explain EMU at the global and at the European Union (EU) levels of analysis, explanations at the national level, and explanations at the domestic level of analysis. The review suggests that EMU was a particular European response to global developments, which was possible because of existing EU institutions. EMU was causally motivated by a Franco-German deal, balancing national interests. Domestic motives reflect essentially opportunistic motives, and thus, cannot explain EMU. In our judgment the review suggests that Europe's single currency will remain sustainable as long as the Franco-German political deal sticks, the belief in the "sound money" idea remains hegemonic in Europe, and the losers from EMU are underrepresented in national and EU institutions. While opportunistic domestic motives cannot explain embarking on a long-term project, they can definitely be sufficient to derail such a project. [source]

Free Enrichment or Hidden Indexicals?

MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 4 2008
In this paper, I defend the latter position. The main objection to this view is that free enrichment appears to overgenerate, not predicting where context cannot affect truth conditions, so that a systematic account is unlikely (Stanley, 2002a). I first examine the semantic alternative proposed by Stanley and others, which assumes extensive hidden structure acting as a linguistic trigger for pragmatic processes, so that all truth-conditional effects of context turn out to be instances of saturation. I show that there are cases of optional pragmatic contributions to the proposition expressed that cannot plausibly be accounted for in this way, and that advocates of this approach will therefore also have to appeal to free enrichment. The final section starts to address the question of how free enrichment is constrained: I argue that it involves only local development or adjustment of parts of logical form, any global developments being excluded by the requirement for the proposition expressed to provide an inferential warrant for the intended implications of the utterance. [source]