Global Demand (global + demand)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Birds select conventional over organic wheat when given free choice

Ailsa J McKenzie
Abstract BACKGROUND: Global demand for organic produce is increasing by ,4 billion annually. One key reason why consumers buy organic food is because they consider it to be better for human and animal health. Reviews comparing organic and conventional food have stated that organic food is preferred by birds and mammals in choice tests. RESULTS: This study shows the opposite result,that captive birds in the laboratory and wild garden birds both consumed more conventional than organic wheat when given free choice. There was a lag in preference formation during which time birds learnt to distinguish between the two food types, which is likely to explain why the present results differ from those of previous studies. A further experiment confirmed that, of 16 potential causal factors, detection by birds of consistently higher levels of protein in conventional seeds (a common difference between many organic and conventional foodstuffs) is the likely mechanism behind this pattern. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the current dogma that organic food is preferred to conventional food may not always be true, which is of considerable importance for consumer perceptions of organically grown food. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

An object-oriented design and reference implementation for web-based instructional software

Shrimalini Jayaramaraja
Abstract There is an increasing global demand for web-based instructional software. The functional requirements and object-oriented design for a typical web-based instructional system are presented here using the Unified Modeling Language (UML). An interactive, reusable and scalable reference implementation of this model is developed in Java. Several deployment strategies are discussed. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 13: 26,39, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20027 [source]


The effect of terrorism on global oil prices has been largely explained through demand-side effects. We estimate an empirical model to re-examine the effect of terrorism on the price of global oil stocks across oil market regimes that reflect different supply constraints. We believe that terrorism will have larger impacts when global capacity is tight (i.e. when global demand is close to global supply). This means that any shock to capacity (say by conflict) should have the largest impact on profits before the first OPEC shock in the early 1970s. Since then, conflict shocks would not allow firms to exploit production in the same way, thus reducing the available profits that could be garnered by such production manipulation. If capacity constraints are binding when a conflict occurs, then we predict that a positive stock price reaction can be expected for oil firms from such a shock. We exploit a new panel dataset to investigate the relationship between oil profitability and conflict, using conflict data from the top 20 oil producing and exporting countries in the world. We show that in the later part of our sample, 1974,2005, as cartel behavior of OPEC member countries has diminished and as conflict has become more regular and thus the information surrounding it noisier, oil stock prices do not increase in response to conflict. However, in earlier capacity constrained eras, we find that oil stocks can in fact increase in response to conflict. In some cases, the impact of conflict may cause the return of oil stocks to increase by as much as 10 percentage points. [source]

Non-Linear Oil Price Dynamics: A Tale of Heterogeneous Speculators?

Stefan Reitz
Oil price dynamics; endogenous bubbles; STR-GARCH model Abstract. While some of the recent surges in oil prices can be attributed to a robust global demand at a time of tight production capacities, commentators occasionally also blame the impact of speculators for part of the price pressure. We propose an empirical oil market model with heterogeneous speculators. Whereas trend-extrapolating chartists may tend to destabilize the market, fundamentalists exercise a stabilizing effect on the price dynamics. Using monthly data for West Texas Intermediate oil prices, our STR-GARCH estimates indicate that oil price cycles may indeed emerge due to the non-linear interplay between different trader types. [source]

On the global distribution and dissemination of knowledge

Nico Stehr
Our article centres on the question in the sense in which it may be possible to speak of global knowledge, in the first instance. Is it the necessary outcome and the intellectual mark of an age of globalising knowledge societies or is the global demand for the dissemination of knowledge systems trying to answer universally perceived problems? What changes occur to knowledge as it travels and for whom does its globalisation yield benefit or harm? Knowledge must be differentiated from mere information and its locally embedded nature poses serious challenges to opportunities and obstacles for its horizontal and vertical dissemination. Further, global worlds of knowledge raise questions over the ownership of knowledge. Intellectual property claims should be discussed with reference to opposing views, such as those concerning the thesis of knowledge's self-protective character. Some political and certain idealistic conceptions regard knowledge as common property par excellence. While trade in services and products as well as the digital communications revolution are identified as major vehicles for the dissemination of knowledge, it is yet an open question as to whether they will result in the unhindered dissemination of knowledge or in concentrating it. The second section of the article overviews and introduces the articles in this volume. [source]

Can oil palm plantations be made more hospitable for forest butterflies and birds?

Lian Pin Koh
Summary 1Rising global demand for palm oil is likely to exacerbate deforestation rates in oil palm-producing countries. This will lead to a net reduction in biodiversity unless measures can be taken to improve the value of oil palm plantations. 2Here, I investigate whether the biodiversity of oil palm plantations can be increased by determining how forest-dwelling butterflies and birds in these plantations are affected by vegetation characteristics at the local level (e.g. epiphyte prevalence) and by natural forest cover at the landscape level (e.g. old-growth forests surrounding oil palm estates). 3Across transects, vegetation variables explained 0,1·2% of the variation in butterfly species richness and 0,7% of that in bird species richness. The most important predictors of species richness across transects were percentage ground cover of weeds for butterflies; and epiphyte prevalence and presence of leguminous crops for birds. Across estates, natural forest cover explained 1·2,12·9% of the variation in butterfly species richness and 0·6,53·3% of variation in bird species richness. The most important predictors of species richness across estates were percentage cover of old-growth forests surrounding an estate for butterflies; and percentage cover of young secondary forests surrounding an estate for birds. 4Synthesis and applications. In order to maximize biodiversity in oil palm plantations, oil palm companies and local governments should work together to preserve as much of the remaining natural forests as possible by, for example, creating forested buffer zones around oil palm estates or protecting remnant forest patches in the landscape. [source]

Nurses' perception of disaster: implications for disaster nursing curriculum

Fung WM Olivia
Aims and objectives., The aims of the study were to identify nurses' perception of disaster, whether they considered some of the events that have occurred in Hong Kong to be disasters and the types of disastrous events that they considered likely in Hong Kong. Background., The frequent occurrence of disasters has caused concern internationally. When disaster strikes, the demands on nursing staff are much higher than those on other healthcare professionals. There is little understanding of the concept of disaster among nurses in Hong Kong. Design., This was a descriptive study. A questionnaire was used to explore nurses' perception of disaster. Method., The questionnaire was distributed to all registered nurses studying in a master's degree programme in a university in Hong Kong. Findings., Only 123 out of the 164 respondents (75%) gave a description of disaster in the open-ended question. Sixty-one per cent of them described unfortunate events with large numbers of victims as disasters. The ,Lan Kwai Fong tragedy , stampede caused by over-crowdedness' (90·9%) and the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak (89·6%) were commonly referred to as disasters in Hong Kong. Fires in tall buildings (61·6%), infectious disease outbreaks (61%) and stampedes caused by overcrowding (48·8%) were rated as the events most likely to happen in Hong Kong. Conclusion., Understanding how nurses perceive disaster and the likelihood of disastrous events is the initial step for disaster planning and the development of a disaster nursing curriculum in Hong Kong. Relevance to clinical practice., All nurses around the world should be equipped with knowledge and skills for disaster care. This study provides information and implications for related research and the development of a disaster nursing curriculum to meet the global demand for disaster preparedness. [source]

Cultivation of medicinal isabgol (Plantago ovata) in alkali soils in semiarid regions of Northern India

J. C. Dagar
Abstract There is growing global demand for medicinal drugs including isabgol (Plantago ovata). With increasing demand of food for an ever-increasing population in India, it is not possible to bring arable lands under cultivation for aromatic and medicinal plants. Salt-affected lands (both saline and alkali) occupy about 8·6 million ha. Due to poor physical properties and excessive exchangeable Na+, most of these lands do not support good vegetation cover. The marginal and salt-affected lands could be successfully utilized for the cultivation of aromatic and medicinal plants. We achieved almost complete germination of isabgol seeds using up to 5000,ppm salt-solution. Grain yield (including husk) was 1·47 to 1·58,t,ha,1 at pH 9·2 showing no significant yield reduction as compared to normal soil. At pH 9·6 the grain yield was 1·03 to 1·12,t,ha,1. At higher pH there was significant reduction in yield. Sowing in good moisture (at field capacity) of soil was found best, but to save time sowing at shallow depth in dry soil, followed by irrigation was also suitable as compared to broadcasting seeds. The chlorophyll content was greater 70 days after sowing compared to younger stages (50 days after sowing). The total chlorophyll and plant biomass were lower from crops grown by broadcasting methods of sowing as compared to two other methods of sowing. The leaf area index (LAI) was higher for the broadcasting method of sowing as compared to the other two methods. Na+ absorption increased and K+ and K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increase in pH. Results reported in this paper clearly indicate that isabgol can successfully be grown on moderately alkali soils up to pH 9·6 without the application of any amendment. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Utilization of plant proteins in fish diets: effects of global demand and supplies of fishmeal

Ronald W Hardy
Abstract Aquafeed ingredients are global commodities used in livestock, poultry and companion animal feeds. Cost and availability are ditated less by demand from the aquafeed sector than by demand from other animal feed sectors and global production of grains and oilseeds. The exceptions are fishmeal and fish oil; use patterns have shifted over the past two decades resulting in nearly exclusive use of these products in aquafeeds. Supplies of fishmeal and oil are finite, making it necessary for the aquafeed sector to seek alternative ingredients from plant sources whose global production is sufficient to supply the needs of aquafeeds for the foreseeable future. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in reducing levels of fishmeal in commercial feeds for farmed fish. Despite these advances, the quantity of fishmeal used by the aquafeed sector has increased as aquaculture production has expanded. Thus, further reduction in percentages of fishmeal in aquafeeds will be necessary. For some species of farmed fish, continued reduction in fishmeal and fish oil levels is likely; complete replacement of fishmeal has been achieved in research studies. However, complete replacement of fishmeal in feeds for marine species is more difficult and will require further research efforts to attain. [source]

Developing native fish species for aquaculture: the interacting demands of biodiversity, sustainable aquaculture and livelihoods

Lindsay G Ross
Abstract Aquaculture continues to be the fastest growing animal production industry and this rate of expansion must continue if aquaculture is to satisfy global demand for fish products in the face of dwindling capture fisheries. The relationship between aquaculture and biodiversity is complex, with examples of positive and negative impacts having been reported. To enable this expansion while avoiding negative impacts from introductions of exotic species, the investigation of indigenous species becomes important and worthwhile. This paper establishes the background to development of new species for culture and describes the example of the Mexican silverside Menidia estor, which has for centuries been the principal species in an artesanal fishery in Lake Pátzcuaro, Mexico. The species is geographically isolated and is unique but is now endangered because of a range of factors including overfishing, environmental degradation and introduction of exotic species. Considerable advances have been made recently in developing a closed reproductive cycle, understanding feeding and small-scale on-growing technology for the species. Based on this, a Darwin Initiative programme was developed focused on technology transfer to implement small-scale pilot on-growing thus helping to conserve the species and to improve livelihoods. This has allowed successful pilot scale development of aquaculture for the species while at the same time addressing the objectives of the international Convention on Biodiversity. [source]

Structure of endoglucanase Cel9A from the thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius

Jose Henrique Pereira
The production of biofuels using biomass is an alternative route to support the growing global demand for energy and to also reduce the environmental problems caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Cellulases are likely to play an important role in the degradation of biomass and the production of sugars for subsequent fermentation to fuel. Here, the crystal structure of an endoglucanase, Cel9A, from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (Aa_Cel9A) is reported which displays a modular architecture composed of an N-terminal Ig-like domain connected to the catalytic domain. This paper describes the overall structure and the detailed contacts between the two modules. Analysis suggests that the interaction involving the residues Gln13 (from the Ig-like module) and Phe439 (from the catalytic module) is important in maintaining the correct conformation of the catalytic module required for protein activity. Moreover, the Aa_Cel9A structure shows three metal-binding sites that are associated with the thermostability and/or substrate affinity of the enzyme. [source]

Commercializing lignocellulosic bioethanol: technology bottlenecks and possible remedies

Saumita Banerjee
Abstract With diminishing oil supplies and growing political instability in oil-producing nations, the world is facing a major energy threat which needs to be solved by virtue of alternative energy sources. Bioethanol has received considerable attention in the transportation sector because of its utility as an octane booster, fuel additive, and even as neat fuel. Brazil and the USA have been producing ethanol on a large scale from sugarcane and corn, respectively. However, due to their primary utility as food and feed, these crops cannot meet the global demand for ethanol production as an alternative transportation fuel. Lignocellulosic biomass is projected as a virtually eternal raw material for fuel ethanol production. The main bottleneck so far has been the technology concerns, which do not support cost-effective and competitive production of lignocellulosic bioethanol. This review sheds light on some of the practical approaches that can be adopted to make the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol economically attractive. These include the use of cheaper substrates, cost-effective pre-treatment techniques, overproducing and recombinant strains for maximized ethanol tolerance and yields, improved recovery processes, efficient bioprocess integration, economic exploitation of side products, and energy and waste minimization. An integrated and dedicated approach can help in realizing large-scale commercial production of lignocellulosic bioethanol, and can contribute toward a cleaner and more energy efficient world. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd [source]