Global Crisis (global + crisis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

AFRICA,IMF: Response To Global Crisis

Article first published online: 1 OCT 200
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Global Crisis and Latin America

William I. Robinson
This essay examines Latin America's experience in the crisis and restructuring of world capitalism from the 1970s into the twenty-first century, with particular emphasis on the neo-liberal model, social conflicts and institutional quagmires that have engulfed the region, and the rise of a new resistance politics. The empirical and analytical sections look at: Latin America's changing profile in the global division of labour; the domination of speculative finance capital; the continued debt crisis, its social effects and political implications; capital,labour restructuring, the spread of informalisation and the new inequality; the passage from social explosions to institutional crises; the new popular electoral politics and the fragility of the neo-liberal state. These issues are approached through the lens of global capitalism theory. This theory sees the turn-of-century global system as a new epoch in the history of world capitalism, emphasising new patterns of power and social polarisation worldwide and such concepts as a transnational accumulation, transnational capitalists and a transnational state. Finally, the essay argues that global capitalism faces a twin crisis in the early twenty-first century, of overaccumulation and of legitimacy, and explores the prospects for social change in Latin America and worldwide. [source]

Global crisis and beyond: Sustainable growth trajectories for the developing world

Jayati GHOSH
Abstract. Despite recent signs of output recovery, casual resumption of the growth model that crashed in 2008,09 will exacerbate the domestic and global imbalances that caused the crisis in the first place , to the detriment of the real economy, equitable development, and employment recovery. The model's environmental unsustainability is also evident. The author therefore argues for a broad policy agenda including reform of the international financial system, development strategies re-focused on wage-driven domestic demand and viable agriculture, fiscal promotion of greener technologies and demand patterns, and redistributive social policies to reduce inequalities and act as macroeconomic stabilizers in downturns. [source]

The Global Financial Crisis and Migrant Workers in China: ,There is No Future as a Labourer; Returning to the Village has No Meaning'

Abstract This essay examines the impact of the global financial crisis on rural migrant labour in China, with a focus on unemployment. It illustrates the interaction of global and China-specific processes in the context of the worldwide recession. The essay first summarizes China's unique socio-economic system and the mechanisms that have created a system of ,rural migrant labour' and ,super-cheapened' it to help make China the ,world's factory'. The main part of the essay examines the unemployment situation for migrants in late 2008 and the first half of 2009, and the dislocations and problems migrant labourers are facing. The China story is complex but interesting, not only for its rather complicated lexicon and statistics that often confuse outside observers, but also for its distinctive system of exploiting the rural population and internal migrant labour. This system makes the impact of the global crisis on migrant labourers, which are at the bottom of the global supply chain, all the more apparent. The last part of this essay analyses recent governmental fiscal-stimulus policies and measures as well as their impact on rural migrant labour, making some broader observations and linking the crisis to China's model of development. Résumé Ce texte examine l'impact de la crise financière mondiale sur la main-d',uvre migrante rurale chinoise en s'intéressant notamment au chômage. Il illustre l'interaction des processus planétaires et nationaux dans le cadre de la récession mondiale. Une synthèse présente d'abord le régime socio-économique unique du pays, ainsi que les mécanismes qui ont créé un système de ,main-d',uvre migrante rurale' tout en ,hyper-dépréciant' ces travailleurs afin de faire de la Chine ,l'usine du monde'. L'étude centrale porte sur le chômage des migrants entre la fin 2008 et le premier semestre 2009, ainsi que sur les bouleversements et problèmes que rencontrent les ouvriers migrants. L'histoire chinoise est complexe mais intéressante, non seulement à cause d'un vocabulaire et de statistiques compliqués qui déroutent souvent les observateurs extérieurs, mais aussi par son système spécifique d'exploitation de la population rurale et de la main-d',uvre migrante. Ce système renforce d'autant plus l'impact de la crise mondiale sur les ouvriers migrants, lesquels se trouvent tout en bas de la chaîne d'approvisionnement mondial. En revenant sur les récentes politiques et mesures d'incitation fiscale du gouvernement et sur leurs conséquences pour la main-d',uvre migrante rurale, la dernière partie élargit le champ des observations et relie la crise au modèle de développement chinois. [source]

What Is the Polity?

Yale H. Ferguson
The sovereign state became the dominant political form in a relatively brief period that began in Westphalian Europe and continued with European colonization. Contemporary states face increased challenges from inside and outside, and a global crisis of authority looms. Although the state as a form is highly variable and not about to disappear, a growing number and variety of other polities are moving toward center stage. The initiators of this roundtable asked several distinguished social scientists interested in historical perspective how they might redraw the map of global political space to reflect better current polities, boundaries, and identities and what future changes in that map they might foresee. Each contributor approached the questions in distinctive ways. Robert A. Denemark argues for more attention to world system history. Hendrik Spruyt looks for historical sociological insights into international systems change. Barry Buzan and Richard Little predict a rapidly shifting world of postmodern states and a different zone of conflict. Janice Gross Stein focuses on the privatization of security. Michael Mann finds that states as "polymorphous' entities still have a future. Yale H. Ferguson and Richard W. Mansbach close with a discussion of their "polities" model. [source]

Assessing oil resources in the Middle East and North Africa

Roberto F. Aguilera
Some energy experts are concerned that the world will soon face a global crisis to dwindling oil resources and a peak in production. This paper analyses the concern by estimating a cumulative supply curve for conventional oil in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It does so by attaching production costs to the endowment volumes of oil in the region, including volumes from provinces not previously assessed. A Variable Shape Distribution model is used to estimate the volumes of the previously unassessed provinces. The findings show that MENA oil should last far longer than some concerned experts claim. In addition, the production costs are lower than current market oil prices and significantly lower than prices observed in mid-2008. [source]

Guidance on Novel Influenza A/H1N1 in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients,

Officially endorsed by the American Society of Transplantation (AST), The Transplantation Society (TTS), the Canadian Society of Transplantation (CST)
Novel influenza A/H1N1 virus has caused significant illness worldwide. In response to this global crisis, the American Society of Transplantation (AST) Infectious Diseases Community of Practice and the Transplant Infectious Diseases section of The Transplantation Society (TTS) developed a guidance document for novel H1N1. In this paper, we discuss current guidance for H1N1 as it relates to solid organ transplantation. We include discussion around clinical presentation, diagnosis, therapy and prevention specifically addressing areas such as chemoprophylaxis, immunization and donor-derived infection. Although this document addresses conditions specific to novel H1N1, many principles could be applied to future pandemics. As new information emerges about novel H1N1, updates will be made to the electronic version of the document posted on the websites of the AST and TTS. [source]

The Idea of Socialism: From 1968 to the Present-day Crisis

ANTIPODE, Issue 2010
Hugo Radice
Abstract:, In 2008 the 40th anniversary of that iconic year, 1968, was celebrated in the media in relation to student uprisings and cultural revolts, largely neglecting the very significant movements of workers and peasants who were challenging power structures around the world at that time. This omission reflects the failures of socialism in the twentieth century, which are explored in this essay. Beginning from a more complete picture of 1968, the essay examines the history of socialism, identifying the main sources of failure in its theory and practice, in particular that of the revolutionary left. If the failure lies in the elite character of socialist politics and its focus on distribution rather than production, it is to be remedied by a firm focus on the politics of the workplace and the goal of substantive equality. The concluding section reviews the prospects for such an alternative in the current circumstances of global crisis. [source]

Significance of Biodiversity to Health

BIOTROPICA, Issue 5 2010
Christopher N. Herndon
ABSTRACT The United Nations declared 2010 the International Year of Biodiversity. Despite the magnitude of the global crisis of biodiversity loss, its far-reaching consequences to human health remain largely unappreciated. The legacy of the natural world to medicine is profound and its potential to yield new therapeutics and advancements in biomedical science undervalued. The enormity of the global crisis underscores a fundamental truth, one that is seemingly obvious but has been tragically overlooked: Our species does not exist in isolation from the biosphere. Rather, our fate depends on it. [source]