Global Corporations (global + corporation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Global Corporations and Sovereign Nations: Collision or Cooperation? by David J. Saari

Daniel J.B. Mitchell

Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity , a summary of the second edition

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
Alcohol, Public Policy Group
ABSTRACT This article summarizes the contents of Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity (2nd edn). The first part of the book describes why alcohol is not an ordinary commodity, and reviews epidemiological data that establish alcohol as a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. This section also documents how international beer and spirits production has been consolidated recently by a small number of global corporations that are expanding their operations in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the second part of the book, the scientific evidence for strategies and interventions that can prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm is reviewed critically in seven key areas: pricing and taxation, regulating the physical availability of alcohol, modifying the drinking context, drink-driving countermeasures, restrictions on marketing, education and persuasion strategies, and treatment and early intervention services. Finally, the book addresses the policy-making process at the local, national and international levels and provides ratings of the effectiveness of strategies and interventions from a public health perspective. Overall, the strongest, most cost-effective strategies include taxation that increases prices, restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol, drink-driving countermeasures, brief interventions with at risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence. [source]

A change process imbued with an Eastern ethos revitalizes an Indian business

Edwina Pio
In the rush to outsource to developing countries, global corporations would do well to understand,and leverage,the cultural differences they are likely to encounter in their offshore alliances. In a story of East meets West, the author describes how the marriage of progressive management concepts with uniquely Eastern values and mental models enabled an Indian firm to improve its processes, quality, and productivity in a quest to assure its own long-term viability and provide better value to its global partners. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The network of global corporations and elite policy groups: a structure for transnational capitalist class formation?

William K. Carroll
This study situates five top transnational policy,planning groups within the larger structure of corporate power that is constituted through interlocking directorates among the world's largest companies. Each group makes a distinct contribution towards transnational capitalist hegemony both by building consensus within the global corporate elite and by educating publics and states on the virtues of one or another variant of the neo,liberal paradigm. Analysis of corporate,policy interlocks reveals that a few dozen cosmopolitans , primarily men based in Europe and North America and actively engaged in corporate management , knit the network together via participation in transnational interlocking and/or multiple policy groups. As a structure underwriting transnational business activism, the network is highly centralized, yet from its core it extends unevenly to corporations and individuals positioned on its fringes. The policy groups pull the directorates of the world's major corporations together, and collaterally integrate the lifeworld of the global corporate elite, but they do so selectively, reproducing regional differences in participation. These findings support the claim that a well,integrated global corporate elite has formed, and that global policy groups have contributed to its formation. Whether this elite confirms the arrival of a transnational capitalist class is a matter partly of semantics and partly of substance. [source]

How virtual are we?

Measuring virtuality, understanding its impact in a global organization
Abstract., Employees in global corporations are increasingly involved in ,virtual teams' on a regular basis. Conflicting definitions of virtuality make it hard to measure such things as how much virtual teaming occurs and how virtual teaming affects performance. As a consequence, it is hard to allocate funding and to design infrastructures and software to support this specific mode of working. Using the concept of discontinuities, or changes in expected conditions, we propose a virtuality index to assess how ,virtual' a given setting is. The discontinuities used include geography, time zone, organization, national culture, work practices, and technology. The index separately measures these aspects of virtuality and their effect on perceived team performance. Data collected at a large multinational corporation clustered into three overarching discontinuities: team distribution, workplace mobility, and variety of work practices. The study revealed that being distributed in and of itself had no impact on self-assessed team performance. Work practice predictability and sociability mitigated effects of working in discontinuous environments, while variety of practices (cultural and work process diversity) and employee mobility negatively impacted performance. [source]

Toward a Psychosocial Theory of Military and Economic Violence in the Era of Globalization

Marc Pilisuk
A theory of the roots of violent conflict in the global era focuses upon a pattern of intervention by the United States, its allies, and proxy forces. It emphasizes a dominant set of beliefs and powerful networks in a position to apply them. The networks protect and extend their concentrations of wealth using violence or the threat of violence to produce compliant governments, to identify enemies, to mobilize consent, and to minimize the perceived costs of such activity. U.S. government agencies and large global corporations are central to this effort. Illustrations are provided by descriptions of military actions in Venezuela, East Timor, and Iraq. Implications for research include the value of using network analysis to identify centers of combined corporate and governmental power and the value of combining the study of belief systems with studies identifying such centers of power. [source]

A Model of Supplier Integration into New Product Development*

Kenneth J. Petersen
In many industries, firms are looking for ways to cut concept-to-customer development time, to improve quality, and to reduce the cost of new products. One approach shown to be successful in Japanese organizations involves the integration of material suppliers early in the new product development cycle. This involvement may range from simple consultation with suppliers on design ideas to making suppliers fully responsible for the design of components or systems they will supply. While prior research shows the benefit of using this approach, execution remains a problem. The processes for identifying and integrating suppliers into the new product development (NPD) process in North American organizations are not understood well. This problem is compounded by the fact that design team members often are reluctant to listen to the technology and cost ideas made by suppliers in new product development efforts. We suggest a model of the key activities required for successful supplier integration into NPD projects, based on case studies with 17 Japanese and American manufacturing organizations. The model is validated using data from a survey of purchasing executives in global corporations with at least one successful and one unsuccessful supplier integration experience. The results suggest that (1) increased knowledge of a supplier is more likely to result in greater information sharing and involvement of the supplier in the product development process; (2) sharing of technology information results in higher levels of supplier involvement and improved outcomes; (3) supplier involvement on teams generally results in a higher achievement of NPD team goals; (4) in cases when technology uncertainty is present, suppliers and buyers are more likely to share information on NPD teams; and (5) the problems associated with technology uncertainty can be mitigated by greater use of technology sharing and direct supplier participation on new product development teams. A supplier's participation as a true member of a new product development team seems to result in the highest level of benefits, especially in cases when a technology is in its formative stages. [source]