Global Context (global + context)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Federalism in a Global Context

Beryl A. Radin
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Stand by the Family: Gender and Taiwan's Small-Scale Industry in the Global Context

Anru Lee
First page of article [source]


ABSTRACT This article discusses what ,global bioethics' means today and what features make bioethical research ,global'. The article provides a historical view of the development of the field of ,bioethics', from medical ethics to the wider study of bioethics in a global context. It critically examines the particular problems that ,global bioethics' research faces across cultural and political borders and suggests some solutions on how to move towards a more balanced and culturally less biased dialogue in the issues of bioethics. The main thesis is that we need to bring global and local aspects closer together, when looking for international guidelines, by paying more attention to particular cultures and local economic and social circumstances in reaching a shared understanding of the main values and principles of bioethics, and in building ,biodemocracy'. [source]

State Collapse and its Implications for Peace,Building and Reconstruction

Alexandros Yannis
At the beginning of the twenty,first century, terms such as state collapse and failed states are becoming familiar, regularly used in international politics to describe a new and frightening challenge to international security. The dramatic events of September 11 have pushed the issue of collapsed states further into the limelight. This article has two aims. Firstly, it explains the contextual factors that gave rise to the phenomenon of state collapse. In the early post,Cold War period, state collapse was usually viewed as a regional phenomenon, and concerns were mainly limited to humanitarian consequences for the local population and destabilizing effects on neighbouring countries. Now, state collapse is seen in a more global context, and concerns are directed at the emergence of groups of non,state actors who are hostile to the fundamental values and interests of the international society such as peace, stability, rule of law, freedom and democracy. Secondly, the article offers some observations about the normative implications of the phenomenon of state collapse for peace,building and reconstruction. [source]


Naomi Hodgson
Hodgson begins by analyzing educational researchers' response to the recent introduction of citizenship education in England, focusing specifically on a review of research, policy, and practice in this area commissioned by the British Educational Research Association (BERA). She argues that the BERA review exemplifies the field of education policy sociology in that it is conducted according to the concepts of its parent discipline of sociology but lacks critical theoretical engagement with them. Instead, such work operationalizes sociological concepts in service of educational policy solutions. Hodgson identifies three dominant discourses of citizenship education within the BERA review, the academic discourse of education policy sociology, contemporary political discourse, and the discourse of inclusive education , and draws attention to the relation of citizenship education to policy initiatives, and thus to educationalization. She then discusses Foucault's concept of normalization in terms of the demand on the contemporary subject to orient the self in a certain relation toward learning informed by the need for competitiveness in the European and global context. Ultimately, Hodgson concludes that the language and rhetoric of education policy sociology implicate such research in the process of educationalization itself. [source]

Near-surface models in Saudi Arabia

Ralph Bridle
ABSTRACT A single-layer model of the near surface throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is available. While this simple model suffices for most areas and large subsurface structures, it fails in situations where the surface topography is complex, the base of weathering is below the datum, or where the time structural closure is less than the uncertainty in the static correction. In such cases, multiple-layered models that incorporate velocities derived from analysis of first arrivals picked from seismic shot records have proved to be successful in defining the lateral heterogeneity of the near surface. The additional velocity information obtained from this first-arrival analysis (direct as well as refracted arrivals) vastly improves the velocity,depth model of the near surface, regardless of the topography. Static corrections computed from these detailed near-surface velocity models have significantly enhanced subsurface image focusing, thereby reducing the uncertainty in the closure of target structures. Other non-seismic methods have been used either to confirm qualitatively or to enhance the layer models previously mentioned. Gravity data may be particularly useful in sandy areas to confirm general structure, while geostatistical modelling of vibrator base-plate attributes has yielded information that enhances the velocity field. In the global context, exploration targets of the oil and gas industry are seeking smaller and lower relief-time structures. Thus, near-surface models will need to enhance and integrate these methods, particularly in areas where the assumption of flat-lying near-surface layers cannot be met. [source]

Comprehensive geriatric assessment of elderly highlanders in Qinghai, China I: Activities of daily living, quality of life and metabolic syndrome

Kozo Matsubayashi
Aim: To reveal the comparison of comprehensive geriatric functions of elderly highlanders in Qinghai Plateau in China among three different ethnic groups. Methods: Activities of daily living (ADL), screening-based depression, quality of life (QOL) and checking-up of metabolic syndrome including community-based oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in 393 community-dwelling elderly subjects aged 60 years or more (247 Han elderly subjects, 49 Mongolian ones and 97 Tibetan ones). Results: Tibetan elderly highlanders were more disabled in ADL, but had higher QOL than Han elderly ones in Qinghai Plateau. Blood pressure measurements, rate of hypertension and hemoglobin concentrations in Tibetan elderly highlanders were lower than Han ones. Rates of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in elderly highlanders were relatively lower than other Asian elderly lowlanders. Conclusion: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in elderly highlanders in Qinghai was still not high, however, we should pay attention to its tendency related with socialglobalism in the near future. Further investigation on physiological adaptability to hypoxic environment and human ageing phenomena in a global context may open a new research frontier for ageing science. [source]

An ethnographer in the global arena: globography perhaps?

Joy Hendry
In this article Hendry addresses the difficulties and apparent contradictions of applying the qualitative rigour of the ethnographic research method to fieldwork carried out in a global context. While pursuing a discourse evidently shared by people indigenous to many different parts of the world, the author reflects on why she feels the work she is doing still draws on elements of the qualitative strength of the method first developed by her own discipline of social anthropology. This subject is now somewhat unfashionable for reasons precisely associated with the discourse she is following, namely a status inequality seen as implicit in the representation of ,other' peoples. In the article she argues against throwing the baby out with the bathwater, however, and seeks to demonstrate how the value the ethnographic method gleaned from social anthropology offers an important contribution to understanding local aspects of global issues. [source]

State Policies, Enterprise Dynamism, and Innovation System in Shanghai, China

ABSTRACT Today rapidly growing economies depend more on the creation, acquisition, distribution, and use of knowledge. As such, strategies for enhancing research and innovation capabilities have come to occupy a more important position in many developing nations, including China. Already the leading production center, and often seen as China's economic locomotive, Shanghai is striving aggressively to retain its national preeminence and has launched concerted efforts to increase local innovative output. The primary purpose of this paper is to understand how state-led efforts have fared in promoting technology innovation. By situating the city in the national and global context, the paper shows that Shanghai has gained a substantial lead in developing an innovation environment with extensive global linkages and leading research institutions. Recent efforts in building up the research and innovation capacity of the enterprise sector have begun to show progress. Although firms are enthusiastic about its future as an innovation center, Shanghai continues to face challenges of inadequate protection of intellectual property, lack of venture capital investment, and the tightening supply of highly qualified knowledge workers. [source]

Harmonising Higher Education and Innovation Policies: Canada from an International Perspective

Marie Lavoie
Abstract This paper focuses on the relevance of harmonising higher education and innovation strategies in the context of fostering economic growth, illustrated by the particular weak point in the case of Canada. The present-day market for highly-skilled labour is global and therefore increasingly porous. A government that wishes to avoid losing its highly-skilled workers to countries that can provide more attractive conditions must aim at investing simultaneously in tertiary education and science and engineering infrastructure. Ideally, supply (higher education) and demand side (innovation) policies would interact in a balanced way. Canada is located at the two extreme ends of investment in higher education and innovation and will be compared to other OECD countries. The paper concludes that seeking policy convergence in innovation and higher education with leading countries is not sufficient to reach growth and can produce disappointing results for talented people whose career expectations may remain unfulfilled. It is therefore crucial for a country to develop higher education and innovation ,in harmony' with the global context and also to achieve harmony between other policies and institutions in its own national context. [source]

Consumer empowerment: global context, UK strategies and vulnerable consumers

Carol Brennan
Abstract Globalization has created new consumer needs and wants, and resulted in consumer confusion regarding the increasing complexity of products and services. This has stimulated global interest in educating and empowering consumers. The UK government has made a very ambitious commitment to ensure that the framework for consumer empowerment and support is at the level of the best in the world by 2008. The government, many consumer organizations and regulators believe that empowered consumers are key to the success of competitive markets. Two national strategies to co-ordinate activities in the UK have been developed by the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) and the Financial Services Authority (FSA). The OFT consumer education strategy aims to deliver targeted, effective consumer education by increasing co-ordination and making the best use of available resources. The FSA is leading a financial capability strategy designed to deliver change to improve the UK's financial capability. Both strategies share a vision of educated and confident consumers making informed choices about the products and services they buy, and both aim to empower vulnerable consumers. Given the global interest and the development of national strategies, it is useful to consider what is meant by the term consumer empowerment. Is there a shared view of consumer empowerment internationally? Does the education of consumers result in empowered consumers? To what extent do the national strategies address the empowerment of vulnerable, disadvantaged, excluded or susceptible consumers? These questions will be addressed in this article which reviews the global context for the consumer education and empowerment agenda and considers key UK developments, with particular reference to the needs of vulnerable consumers. The study found that the language of consumer empowerment is gaining prominence in policy and strategy documents at the highest levels internationally in the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development and the European Community, and nationally in the UK. [source]

Success factors for the effective implementation of renewable energy options for rural electrification in India,Potentials of the CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM

Gudrun Elisabeth Benecke
Abstract Developing countries as well as international development assistance have for a long time aspired to combat energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. However, until now a major part of national and international public and private attempts to provide affordable and stable energy supply have failed due to various economic, political, social and institutional obstacles. This situation is reflected in case of India where in comparison with other South Asian states the status of rural electrification and of energy supply are in a dismal state despite the promotion of renewable energy and rural electrification as early as from the 1960s. Embedded in the global context of the international climate change regime, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol has now emerged as a new option to facilitate investment in climate change mitigating projects. In this respect, promoting the deployment of renewable energy through this project-based mechanism opens new avenues for rural electrification. The main objective of this paper is, hence, to examine the context conditions and factors determining the effective application of renewable energy options for rural electrification in a developing country context, namely India. Understanding contextual requirements for renewable energy investment has proved imminently important in order to appreciate the potentials provided by new market-based mechanisms such as the CDM for rural poverty alleviation. Comparative political science case study research methods are applied to the analysis of CDM biomass projects in the context of the four Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh. This allows for the conclusion that socio-political and historic framework conditions matter for the implementation of new renewable energy options. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Constitutional Privilege and Constituting Pluralism: Religious Freedom in National, Global, and Legal Context

Peter Beyer
Lori Beaman argues that religious freedom in Canada and the United States is well established in theory (or myth) but limited in practice, privileging Protestantism in particular and varieties of Christianity in general. Focusing on the treatment of other religions in the courts of the two countries, she defends the hypothesis that these legal systems tend to reinforce the hegemony of Christianity, using this as an implicit model of what constitutes a religion, and thereby maintaining the marginalization and restricting the freedom of other religions. The present article sets Beaman's arguments in a wider global context, exploring the extent to which Christianity does and does not serve as a global standard for religion; and addressing the question of why issues of religious freedom so frequently end up being the subject of legal judgment and political decision. The main conclusions drawn from this global contextualization are that maintenance of some kind of religious hegemony is the rule all across global society, not just in Canada and the United States, and that unfettered freedom of religion or genuine religious pluralization is correspondingly rare, if it exists anywhere. Moreover, it is argued that such limitations, frequently expressed in legal judgments and political decisions, are more or less to be expected because they flow from the peculiar way that religion has been constructed in the modern and global era as both a privileged and privatized, as both an encompassing and marginalized social domain. The article thereby simultaneously reinforces and takes issue with Beaman's position: the modern and global reconstruction of religion invites its infinite pluralization at the same time as it encourages its politicization and practical restriction. Religions act as important resources both for claims to inclusion and for strategies of relative exclusion. [source]

International and Cultural Variations in Employee Assistance Programmes: Implications for Managerial Health and Effectiveness*

Rabi S. Bhagat
abstract While employee assistance programmes (EAPs) are becoming commonplace in large Western organizations, little is known regarding their prevalence in non-Western cultures. In this paper, we provide a framework for understanding the prevalence of EAPs in four distinct cells of societal culture-based variations. A cultural matrix for analysing the relative emphases of styles of coping, social support systems, rites and rituals, and the prevalence of EAPs is developed. The implications for managerial health and effectiveness in the global context are discussed. [source]

From Antagonistic Autonomy to Relational Autonomy: A Theoretical Reflection from the Southern Cone

Roberto Russell
ABSTRACT The concept of autonomy has acquired a plurality of meanings in international relations; this article analyzes the distinct uses given to this term in Latin America and its relationship to theoretical contributions from outside the region. The authors propose a far-reaching reconceptualization of autonomy appropriate to Latin America's new circumstances in the global context. They argue that these new circumstances favor the shift from autonomy as traditionally defined to what they call relational autonomy, a construct based on contributions from classical political theory, political sociology, gender studies, social and philosophical psychology, and the theory of complex thought. [source]

Contextualizing the Politics of Knowledge: Physicians' Attitudes toward Medicinal Plants

Coral Wayland
This article examines how a group of public health physicians in the urban Amazon values medicinal plant knowledge. As biomedical health care providers, physicians routinely draw on scientific plant knowledge. At the same time, as residents of the Amazon and health care providers to the poor, they are aware of and sometimes participate in local systems of plant knowledge. When discussing medicinal plant use, physicians repeatedly mention three themes: science, superstition, and biopiracy. The way in which physicians construct and negotiate these themes is part of the process of maintaining and legitimating their expertise and authority. This analysis finds that context is key to understanding whether, when, and why physicians value certain bodies of knowledge. Locally, in clinics, scientific plant knowledge is constructed as superior. In a global context, however, local plant knowledge is explicitly valued. This situational valuation/devaluation of plant knowledge relates to the positions of power physicians occupy in each context, [medicinal plants, politics of knowledge, Brazil, Amazon, physicians] [source]

Permafrost monitoring in the high mountains of Europe: the PACE Project in its global context

Charles Harris
Abstract This paper introduces the structure and organization of permafrost monitoring within global climate-related monitoring programmes. The five-tiered principle proposed for the Global Hierarchical Observing Strategy (GHOST) is applied to the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) monitoring system, and the European network of mountain permafrost boreholes established by the PACE project is discussed in the context of GTN-P. Borehole design and standard PACE instrumentation are described and some preliminary data from selected boreholes are presented. The broader research aims of the PACE programme include geophysical investigations, mapping and GIS strategies, numerical distribution modelling, physical modelling of thaw-related slope processes and mountain permafrost hazard assessment. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. RÉSUMÉ Le présent article décrit la structure et l'organisation du programme de surveillance du pergélisol et son intégration dans les programmes de surveillance du climat. Le principe à 5 niveaux proposé pour la stratégie d'observation hiérarchique (GHOST) est appliquée au réseau global de surveillance terrestre du pergélisol (GTN-P). Le réseau européen de sondages dans le pergélisol établi par le projet PACE est discuté dans le contexte du GTN-P. La localisation des sondages et l'instrumentation standard de PACE sont décrites et quelques données préliminaires de certains sondages sélectionnés sont présentées. Les recherches du programme PACE comprennent des recherches géophysiques, des stratégies de cartographie et de systèmes d'information géographique, des modèles de distribution numérique, des modèles physiques des processus de versants en relation avec le dégel et enfin des estimations des risques liés au pergélisol de montagne. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2010
ABSTRACT This essay will focus on the moral issues relating to surrogacy in the global context, and will critique the liberal arguments that have been offered in support of it. Liberal arguments hold sway concerning reproductive arrangements made between commissioning couples from wealthy nations and the surrogates from socioeconomically weak backgrounds that they hire to do their reproductive labor. My argument in this paper is motivated by a concern for controlling harms by putting the practice of globalized commercial surrogacy into the context of care ethics. As I will argue, the unstable situations into which children of global surrogacy arrangements are born is symbolic of the crisis of care that the practice raises. Using the Baby Manji case as my touch point, I will suggest that liberalism cannot address the harms experienced by Manji and children like her who are created through the global practice of assisted reproductive technology. I will argue that, if commissioning couples consider their proposed surrogacy contracts from a care ethics point of view, they will begin to think relationally about their actions, considering the practice from an ethical lens, not just an economic or contractual one. [source]

Perceptions of vaccine safety in a global context

T Callréus
Abstract Given the serious consequences of low vaccine coverage, concerns and misconceptions need to be taken seriously and responded to appropriately to sustain accomplishments of immunization programmes. For parental decisions related to childhood vaccinations, it seems reasonable to assume that the cultural context of the immunization programme is of importance. This article is a short review of some recent studies of parental decision-making on vaccination in developed countries Kazaktstan, Uzbekistan and Northern Nigeria. Furthermore, an attempt is made to relate the findings in these studies to theoretical models of parental decision-making. Conclusion:, For the implementation of immunization programmes, it is important to develop an in-depth understanding of mechanisms underlying decisions to accept or reject the vaccination of a child. Theoretical models may aid in the understanding of these mechanisms. [source]

Case-based pedagogy as a context for collaborative inquiry in the Philippines

Elvira L. Arellano
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for using case-based pedagogy as a context for collaborative inquiry into the teaching and learning of elementary science. The context for this study was the elementary science teacher preparation program at West Visayas State University on the the island of Panay in Iloilo City, the Philippines. In this context, triple linguistic conventions involving the interactions of the local Ilonggo dialect, the national language of Philipino (predominantly Tagalog) and English create unique challenges for science teachers. Participants in the study included six elementary student teachers, their respective critic teachers and a research team composed of four Filipino and two U.S. science teacher educators. Two teacher-generated case narratives serve as the centerpiece for deliberation, around which we highlight key tensions that reflect both the struggles and positive aspects of teacher learning that took place. Theoretical perspectives drawn from assumptions underlying the use of case-based pedagogy and scholarship surrounding the community metaphor as a referent for science education curriculum inquiry influenced our understanding of tensions at the intersection of re-presentation of science, authority of knowledge, and professional practice, at the intersection of not shared language, explicit moral codes, and indigenization, and at the intersection of identity and dilemmas in science teaching. Implications of this study are discussed with respect to the building of science teacher learning communities in both local and global contexts of reform. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 38: 502,528, 2001 [source]

From the particularistic to the universalistic: national narratives in Israel's mainstream press, 1967,97

Yaacov Yadgar
The aim of this article is to study the development of the Jewish-Zionist national idea as expressed in the national narrative as it appeared in Israel's mainstream press during the years 1967,97, against the background of five critical events in the Israeli collective experience as well as in the wake of the Holocaust Memorial Days. This development is studied as a case of the immanent tension between nationalism's universalistic message and its particularistic application. The Jewish-Zionist narrative in Israel is found to be ,shifting' from its particularistic towards its more universalistic pole. This development is discussed as a transition from a ,purely national' to a ,post-national' narrative, and is positioned in its local and global contexts. [source]

Global Connections and Practicing Anthropology in the 21st Century

Carole E. Hill
This chapt er examines the major themes in the chapters that compromise this volume by discussing how the practice of anthropology across nations and regions of the world is changing as a result of globalization. Several themes are delineated that reflect a unity of purpose and concern about the development and structure of practicing and policy anthropology in the 21st century. Divergent viewpoints among the chapters are also examined. Through comparing and contrasting the major points of the chapters, four major interconnected themes are discussed. They are: 1) local/global transformations: challenge to the traditional; 2) the power of practicing anthropology in local/global contexts; 3) academic and practicing transformations, and 4) the closing gap between colonized and colonizer nations. These themes have important implications for the future of global practice and present challenges to the organization and uses of the products of anthropological inquiry. [source]