Global Conservation (global + conservation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Conservation Refugees: The Hundred-Year Conflict between Global Conservation and Native Peoples by Mark Dowie

Ashish Kothari
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Mapping the Conservation Landscape

Kent H. Redford
To begin this process and to help build understanding and collaboration, we provide a conceptual map of 21 approaches currently being implemented by 13 conservation organizations. We examined each of these approaches according to (1) the nature of the conservation target,the object(s) of the conservation action; ( 2 ) whether the question addressed is where conservation should be done or how conservation should be done; ( 3 ) the scale ( both grain and extent ) of the approach; and (4 ) the principles that underlie the approach. These questions provide a good way of distinguishing between most of the approaches and reveal that there is less competition between them than is assumed. We conclude that only with explicit understanding can the conservation community and its supporters critically compare approaches and come to a consensus about a set of metrics for measuring and achieving global conservation. Resumen: Para que una colaboración bien fundamentada pueda llevarse a cabo, debe haber un proceso de entendimiento de los distintos enfoques utilizadas por diferentes organizaciones de conservación para preservar la biodiversidad. Para iniciar este proceso y ayudar a fomentar el conocimiento y la colaboración, proveemos un mapa conceptual de 21 enfoques utilizados actualmente por 13 organizaciones conservacionistas. Examinamos cada uno de estos enfoques según (1) la naturaleza del objetivo de conservación,el ( los ) objetos( s ) de las actividades de conservación; ( 2 ) la naturaleza de la pregunta a contestar, ya sea "dónde se debe llevar a cabo la conservación" o "cómo se debe llevar a cabo la conservación"; ( 3 ) la escala ( tanto a nivel de detalle como extensión ) del enfoque; (4 ) los principios que constituyen el fundamento del enfoque. Estas preguntas proveen una buena manera de diferenciar la mayoría de las metodologías y muestran que hay menos competencia entre los enfoques de lo que se cree. Concluimos que la comunidad conservacionista y sus seguidores solo podrán comparar los diversos enfoques de manera criteriosa si tienen un entendimiento explícito de los mismos, y de esa manera, podrá desarrollar, por consenso, una serie de variables para medir y lograr la conservación a nivel global. [source]

Does conservation planning matter in a dynamic and uncertain world?

Eli Meir
Abstract Loss of biodiversity is one of the world's overriding environmental challenges. Reducing those losses by creating reserve networks is a cornerstone of global conservation and resource management. Historically, assembly of reserve networks has been ad hoc, but recently the focus has shifted to identifying optimal reserve networks. We show that while comprehensive reserve network design is best when the entire network can be implemented immediately, when conservation investments must be staged over years, such solutions actually may be sub-optimal in the context of biodiversity loss and uncertainty. Simple decision rules, such as protecting the available site with the highest irreplaceability or with the highest species richness, may be more effective when implementation occurs over many years. [source]

Conservation Geographies in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Politics of National Parks, Community Conservation and Peace Parks

Brian King
Sub-Saharan Africa has been the location of intense conservation planning since the colonial era. Under the auspices of wilderness protection, colonial authorities established national parks largely for the purpose of hunting and tourism while forcibly evicting indigenous populations. Concerns about the ethical and economic impacts of protected areas have generated interest in community conservation initiatives that attempt to include local participation in natural resource management. In recent years, the anticipated loss of biodiversity, coupled with the integration of ecological concepts into planning processes, has generated interest in larger-scale initiatives that maximize protected habitat. Central to this shift are transboundary conservation areas, or Peace Parks, that involve protected territory that supersedes national political borders. This study provides a review of national parks, community conservation, and Peace Parks, in order to understand the development politics and governance challenges of global conservation. Although these approaches are not mutually exclusive, the study asserts that they represent major trajectories to conservation planning in Sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. In considering the histories of these models in Sub-Saharan Africa, I argue that conservation planners often prioritize economic and ecological factors over the political circumstances that influence the effectiveness of these approaches. The study concludes by suggesting that an analysis of these three models provides a lens to examine ongoing debates regarding the employ of conservation as an economic development strategy and the challenges to environmental governance in the 21st century. [source]

A conservative 2D model of inundation flow with solute transport over dry bed

J. Murillo
Abstract In this paper, a transient 2D coupled vertically averaged flow/transport model is presented. The model deals with all kind of bed geometries and guarantees global conservation and positive values of both water level and solute concentration in the transient solution. The model is based on an upwind finite volume method, using Roe's approximate Riemann solver. A specific modification of the Riemann solver is proposed to overcome the generation of negative values of depth and concentration, that can appear as a consequence of existing wetting/drying and solute advance fronts over variable bed levels, or by the generation of new ones when dry areas appear. The numerical stability constraints of the explicit model are stated incorporating the influence of the flow velocity, the bed variations and the possible appearance of dry cells. Faced to the important restriction that this new stability condition can impose on the time step size, a different strategy to allow stability using a maximum time step, and in consequence a minimum computational cost is presented. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Evaluating the role of the dingo as a trophic regulator in Australian ecosystems

Abstract The importance of strongly interactive predators has been demonstrated in many ecosystems, and the maintenance or restoration of species interactions is a major priority in the global conservation of biodiversity. By limiting populations of prey and/or competitors, apex predators can increase the diversity of systems, often exerting influences that cascade through several trophic levels. In Australia, emerging evidence points increasingly towards the dingo (Canis lupus dingo) as a strongly interactive species that has profound effects on ecosystem function. Through predatory and competitive effects, dingoes can alter the abundance and function of mesopredators including the introduced red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cat (Felis catus), and herbivores including the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These effects often benefit populations of native prey, and diversity and biomass of vegetation, but may not occur under all circumstances. For example, the social structure of dingoes is of great importance; a pack subject to minimal human interference regulates its own numbers, and such packs appear to have fewer undesirable impacts such as predation on livestock. Despite abundant observational evidence that the dingo is a strong interactor, there have been few attempts to test its ecological role experimentally. Given the well-recognized importance of species interactions to ecosystem function, it is imperative that such experiments be carried out. To do this, we propose three broad questions: (i) do dingoes limit the abundance of other predators or prey? (ii) do dingoes affect the ecological relationships of other predators or prey (e.g. by altering their spatial or temporal activity patterns)? and (iii) does the removal or reintroduction of dingoes entrain ecological cascades? Finally, we discuss the design of appropriate experiments, using principles that may also be applied to investigate species interactions on other continents. Research might seek to clarify not only the impacts of dingoes at all trophic levels, but also the mechanisms by which these impacts occur. [source]