Global Conditions (global + condition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Politics of Violent Opposition in Collapsing States

William Reno
In violent conflicts in places like Congo, Liberia and Sierra Leone, economic interests have crowded out ideologically articulate mass-based social movements for reform or revolutionary change to a degree that was not apparent during earlier anti-colonial struggles. Some scholars offer a ,looting model' of rebellion that explains the predations of politicians and warlords but it is not clear why people who receive few benefits from this , or even suffer great harm from them , fail to support ideologues instead, or why self-interested violent entrepreneurs do not offer political programmes to attract more followers. Yet some groups defy this ,looting model'. Explaining why armed groups vary so greatly in their behaviour provides a means to address important questions: is it possible to construct public authorities out of collapsed states in the twenty-first century, or do local predations and global conditions preclude indigenous state-building in these places? Why do social movements for reform there seem so ineffective? What conditions have to be present for them to succeed? This article considers the nature of rebellion in failing states, focusing on Nigeria to find clues to explain variations in the organization of armed groups. [source]

Globalisation A Threat to Equitable Social Provision?1

IDS BULLETIN, Issue 4 2000
Bob Decon
Summaries This article argues that the current phase of neoliberal globalisation presents a challenge to the prospects for equitable social development in developing and transition economies. This challenge flows partly from the unregulated nature of the emerging global economy and partly from the intellectual currents dominant in the global discourse concerning social policy and social development. In particular the article argues that a combination of the World Bank' s preference for a safety net and privatising strategy for welfare, the self interest of International NGOs in being providers of associated basic education, health and livelihood services, and the World Trade Organisation's push for a global market in health, education and insurance services, is generating a set of global conditions which undermine the prospects for any alternative scenario of equitable public social provision. This disturbing trend is taking place within the context of an apparent shift in the politics of globalisation from fundamentalist economic liberalism to global social concern. [source]

Shape functions for polygonal domains with interior nodes

Elisabeth Anna Malsch
Abstract The presented formulation follows in a series of publications which outline a method for constructing test functions which satisfy essential edge conditions exactly. The method promises a complete solution, satisfying all of the requirements of a Ritz coordinate function. The influence of interior points on the domain solution is included in this construction. Similar to conformal bubble functions, the test functions are zero along the boundary and single valued only at the points they describe. Unlike the bubble function construction, the interior points can be located at any desired point in the domain. The resulting set of trial functions can satisfy the required global conditions including the exact reproduction of constant and linear fields. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

New Patterns in Urban Design

Brian McGrath
Abstract Brian McGrath and VictoriaMarshall discern the newly resilient urban patterns that are emerging in the meta-city, shifting and adjusting to changing local and global conditions. Based on smart infrastructure, self-sufficiency and hybrid local models, highly adaptive design patterns take the form of responsive micropatches rather than overarching masterplans. As demonstrated by the featured projects, ,pattern recognition', sensory mapping techniques and sensitivity to a city's ecosystem are becoming essential tools to the urban designer. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]