Global Community (global + community)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Selected Abstracts

"American Museums in Global Communities": A Report From AAM/ICOM

Douglas Evelyn
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Globalization and African Ethnoscapes: contrasting Nigerien Hausa and Nigerian Igbo migratory orders in the U.S.

CITY & SOCIETY, Issue 1 2004
This short essay, which is a preface to two full length articles by Reynolds and by Youngstedt, also in this volume, highlights important contrasts between two African migratory orders in cities in the United States, especially by examining economic conditions under which the two communities use global information technologies as tools of community cohesion and formation in diaspora. The central contrast is that Nigerien Hausa experiences rest at the margins of the formal economy or at their engagement within informal economies, while Nigerian Igbo peoples' experiences as brain drain professionals means that they are by nature of their migratory order integrated into the hegemonic core of global capital. Ultimately, our ethnographically-based evidence poses two queries: how does space-time compression operate differentially in the creation of new "global" communities, and secondly, how are significant groups of global actors emerging as the various strands of globalizing economies take new root within and across old ethnic and national and religious imaginaries of community? [source]

The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology A global community of conservation professionals

Article first published online: 27 MAR 200
Cover: Old-growth forest of the Hoh River Valley, Olympic National Park, Washington (U.S.A.). For decades the U.S. Pacific Norwest has been a center of controversy over logging and endangered species. This special section explores progress made by the Northwest Forest Plan,a global example of land-use planning,a decade after it was established to end the stalemate over logging and endangered species. Authors include some of the key architects involved in its creation and implementation. Photo by Kevin Schafer. See pages 274,374. [source]

Enduring Freedom: Globalizing Children's Rights

HYPATIA, Issue 1 2003
Events surrounding the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States raise compelling moral questions about the effects of war and globalization on children in many parts of the world. This paper adopts Sartre's notion of freedom, particularly its connection with materiality and intersubjectivity, to assess the moral responsibility that we have as a global community toward our most vulnerable members. We conclude by examining important first steps that should be taken to address the plight of children. [source]

George W. Bush, Idealist

Michael J. Mazarr
There is much anger and confused grumbling these days outside the United States,and in Europe in particular,about the character of the Bush administration's foreign policy. Perceived American unilateralism is raising hackles and questions. This article contends that current trends in US foreign policy can be better understood by realizing that many senior Bush administration officials are not ,realists', at least as that philosophy of world politics is classically understood. Many of the resulting views,that, for example, threats to security often originate in ideology rather than material strength,are demonstrably correct and even hopeful in their faith in long-term historical trends. But there may be no getting around the essential contradictions required of US foreign policy in an age when America is the leading power, when a new global community of trading democracies is emerging, and yet when a number of distinctly old-style threats to the peace remain very much in evidence. Washington could do more to smooth the edges of those contradictions in order to point up the idealism and hopefulness of US policy. [source]

The shrinking world: skin considerations in a global community

Zoe Diana Draelos

Usage impact factor: The effects of sample characteristics on usage-based impact metrics

Johan Bollen
There exist ample demonstrations that indicators of scholarly impact analogous to the citation-based ISI Impact Factor can be derived from usage data; however, so far, usage can practically be recorded only at the level of distinct information services. This leads to community-specific assessments of scholarly impact that are difficult to generalize to the global scholarly community. In contrast, the ISI Impact Factor is based on citation data and thereby represents the global community of scholarly authors. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of community characteristics on assessments of scholarly impact from usage. We define a journal Usage Impact Factor that mimics the definition of the Thomson Scientific ISI Impact Factor. Usage Impact Factor rankings are calculated on the basis of a large-scale usage dataset recorded by the linking servers of the California State University system from 2003 to 2005. The resulting journal rankings are then compared to the Thomson Scientific ISI Impact Factor that is used as a reference indicator of general impact. Our results indicate that the particular scientific and demographic characteristics of a discipline have a strong effect on resulting usage-based assessments of scholarly impact. In particular, we observed that as the number of graduate students and faculty increases in a particular discipline, Usage Impact Factor rankings will converge more strongly with the ISI Impact Factor. [source]

John Wiley & Sons: 200th anniversary!

Andreas Thoß Dr.
This year, the publisher John Wiley & Sons celebrates its 200th anniversary. When Charles Wiley first opened his print shop in lower Manhattan in 1807, America was a young nation, full of potential and seeking its cultural identity on the global stage. Wiley was there, contributing to the emerging American literary tradition by publishing such great 19th century American writers as James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, and Edgar Allan Poe. Later on, Wiley published the works of outstanding European writers such as Hans Christian Andersen, Charles Dickens, John Ruskin, and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Yet, during the second industrial revolution , and its resulting knowledge revolution , Wiley abandoned its literary programme to pursue knowledge publishing for a global community. Today Wiley publishes a broad variety of journals, encyclopedias, books, and online products. The spectrum reaches from medicine to astronomy, from trade journals to consumer books and it includes educational materials for students as well as for lifelong learners. Since 1807, the world has seen 41 U.S. Presidents, but there have only been ten Wiley Presidents. Today, Wiley is a publicly held, independently managed family business. That is the formula of success that has sustained the company for two centuries. In 2007 Wiley is one of the major global publishers with more than one billion dollar revenue and about 3.900 employees. This will increase even more, when the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing will be completed in 2007. Aged only three years, the Laser Technik Journal is one of the youngest among the Wiley Journals. But it fits well in the history of Wiley. Thomas Alva Edison, the "Wizard of Menlo Park", held William H. Wiley in high regard, and so there is a long tradition of close contacts between the publishing house and the engineering community. The purpose of the journals has changed little: Our mission is to provide the community with up to date information on the latest in technology, reports and discussions on trends and markets, and finally the journal serves as a forum for key people from science and business to share their visions and experiences. 2007 will be a great year not only for Wiley, but for the laser community as well. Company reports from Coherent, Trumpf or Rofin Sinar show two-digit growths and excellent earnings. Record numbers are expected also at conferences and trade shows. At Photonics West in San Jose, CA, 1.000 exhibitors and more than 15.000 visitors are expected. The Laser. World of Photonics 2007 in Munich (June) will be even bigger. It is a "can't miss" event particularly for those visitors interested in Laser material processing. The Laser Technik Journal will be on both shows. Please stop by at the Wiley booth, for a chat or to see the latest from the Wiley book program! [source]

Integrated deep drilling, coring, downhole logging, and data management in the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), Mexico

Lothar Wohlgemuth
To date, a continuous scientific sampling of large impact craters from cover rocks to target material has only seldom been performed. The first project to deep-drill and core into one of the largest and well-preserved terrestrial impact structures was executed in the winter of 2001/2002 in the 65 Myr-old Chicxulub crater in Mexico using integrated coring sampling and in situ measurements. The combined use of different techniques allows a three-dimensional insight and a better understanding of impact processes. Here, we report the integration of conventional rotary drilling techniques with wireline mining coring technology that was applied to drill the 1510 m-deep Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) well about 40 km southwest of Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. During the course of the project, we recovered approximately 900 m of intact core samples including the transitions of reworked ejecta to post-impact sediments, and that one from large blocks of tilted target material to impact-generated rocks, i.e., impact melt breccias and suevites. Coring was complemented by wireline geophysical measurements to obtain a continuous set of in situ petrophysical data of the borehole walls. The data acquired is comprised of contents of a natural radioactive element, velocities of compressional sonic waves, and electrical resistivity values. All the digital data sets, including technical drilling parameters, initial scientific sample descriptions, and 360° core pictures, were distributed during the course of the operations via Internet and were stored in the ICDP Drilling Information System (, serving the global community of cooperating scientists as a basic information service. [source]

City Museums: do we have a role in shaping the global community?

Jack Lohman

The memorialization of September 11: Dominant and local discourses on the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site

Setha M. Low
ABSTRACT An inherent tension exists between the meanings of the World Trade Center site created by dominant political and economic players and the significance of the space for those who actually live near it. Most of the writing on and analysis of the site have focused on the construction of a memorial space for an imagined national and global community of visitors who identify with its broader, state-produced meanings. But New Yorkers, in general, and downtown residents, in particular, bring to meaning making their own personal involvement in and knowledge of a located history that has social, political, and economic significance for their everyday lives. These meanings are as much a part of memorialization as the dominant players' political machinations and economic competition for space and status. Uncovering and eliciting these local memorial discourses is part of an ethnographic project that focuses on how personalized narratives of loss emerge and are manipulated within mass-mediated representations of the World Trade Center space. My contribution to understanding how the memorial process works has been to analyze what downtown residents say about their experience of September 11 and its aftermath, to record their feelings about a memorial, and, in so doing, to contest, expand, and modify the dominant media and governmental representations of September 11 and its memorialization. [source]

Constructing a ,plausible narrative of progress' for nursing: a neopragmatist suggestion

Abstract Identity, difference, and the associated subject of cultural diversity pose challenges for nursing. As the demographics of the world change, demands are rising for nurses to provide sensitive, individualized care to people living in our ever-changing global community. Issues concerning gender, sexuality, disability, age, language, economic and occupational status, multiculturalism, and ethnicity are made more complex because many of these topics strike a personal chord for individual nurses. In order for nursing to provide appropriate care to the world's people and to meet future challenges, nursing must define itself in new ways. Kikuchi and Simmons have stated that the best way for nursing to approach this task is through the development of a ,sound' philosophy of nursing that will ,accommodate diversity in nursing thought'. They contend that before we can establish a philosophy of nursing, nurses will have to agree upon the nature of reality, human beings, truth, and knowledge. This paper will suggest that neopragmatism, as described by Richard Rorty, is a way to assure diversity of thought in nursing. However, I will argue against the requirement for this philosophy to be ,sound' in the sense that Kikuchi and Simmons use this term. In place of their call for ,truth and unity in nursing thought'. I will attempt to demonstrate how neopragmatic ideas relate to the construction of what Rorty called a unifying ,plausible narrative of progress'. This change will allow nursing to abandon the dead end debate over epistemologies and instead focus on more important issues related to improving nursing practice. [source]

The second modern condition?

Compressed modernity as internalized reflexive cosmopolitization
Abstract Compressed modernity is a civilizational condition in which economic, political, social and/or cultural changes occur in an extremely condensed manner in respect to both time and space, and in which the dynamic coexistence of mutually disparate historical and social elements leads to the construction and reconstruction of a highly complex and fluid social system. During what Beck considers the second modern stage of humanity, every society reflexively internalizes cosmopolitanized risks. Societies (or their civilizational conditions) are thereby being internalized into each other, making compressed modernity a universal feature of contemporary societies. This paper theoretically discusses compressed modernity as nationally ramified from reflexive cosmopolitization, and, then, comparatively illustrates varying instances of compressed modernity in advanced capitalist societies, un(der)developed capitalist societies, and system transition societies. In lieu of a conclusion, I point out the declining status of national societies as the dominant unit of (compressed) modernity and the interactive acceleration of compressed modernity among different levels of human life ranging from individuals to the global community. [source]

Front and Back Covers, Volume 21, Number 3.

June 200
Front and back cover caption, volume 21 issue 3 ENERGY AND VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE The photo on the front and back cover illustrates the article by Annette Henning in this issue. A solar collector is hoisted onto the roof of a Swedish house. In Sweden, the most common solar heating systems are those that supply hot water for both heating and general domestic hot water purposes. Contrary to popular belief, solar collectors are not dependent on a high air temperature, but produce heat throughout the year, whenever there is a clear sky. In her article, Annette Henning examines the actual and potential role of anthropology in energy studies. She reflects on her own experience of the trials of working as an anthropologist in the energy sector, where economists and technical expertise reign, and where production- and distribution-oriented approaches prevail. There is a great deal of resistance to anthropological contributions, in part because anthropologists have made so little effort to be heard in the public domain on this issue. In his editorial, Hal Wilhite makes the case for "energy anthropology". He argues that anthropologists have paid insufficient attention to one of the most urgent problems facing the world, namely our patterns of energy consumption and their economic and environmental consequences. Increasing consumerism in developing countries makes anthropological approaches indispensable, particularly in finding ways to moderate energy consumption and to help implement small-scale renewable energy initiatives. In his review of three of the latest books on vernacular architecture, Marcel Vellinga identifies architecture as a prominent cultural category and a major consumer of energy and resources, and thus a significant contributor to current environmental problems. Vellinga argues that anthropology should pay more attention to vernacular architecture as a locus of indigenous knowledge, to help the global community address the challenges of creating a sustainable built environment for all. ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY brings these contributions to your attention in the hope of stimulating discussion and promoting wider ethnographic research in areas of public concern. [source]


BIOETHICS, Issue 5 2010
ABSTRACT Fast forward 50 years into the future. A look back at what occurred in the field of bioethics since 2010 reveals that a conference in 2050 commemorated the death of bioethics. In a steady progression over the years, the field became increasingly fragmented and bureaucratized. Disagreement and dissension were rife, and this once flourishing, multidisciplinary field began to splinter in multiple ways. Prominent journals folded, one by one, and were replaced with specialized publications dealing with genethics, reproethics, nanoethics, and necroethics. Mainstream bioethics organizations also collapsed, giving way to new associations along disciplinary and sub-disciplinary lines. Physicians established their own journals, and specialty groups broke away from more general associations of medical ethics. Lawyers also split into three separate factions, and philosophers rejected all but the most rigorous, analytic articles into their newly established journal. Matters finally came to a head with global warming, the world-wide spread of malaria and dengue, and the cost of medical treatments out of reach for almost everyone. The result was the need to develop plans for strict rationing of medical care. At the same time, recognition emerged of the importance of the right to health and the need for global justice in health. By 2060, a spark of hope was ignited, opening the door to the resuscitation of bioethics and involvement of the global community. [source]

The Concept of Solidarity: Emerging from the Theoretical Shadows?

Lawrence Wilde
The concept of solidarity has been relatively neglected by social scientists since Durkheim's pioneering work in the late 19th century. The discipline of politics has been guilty of overlooking this ,subjective' element of community life, but recent works by Stjernř and Brunkhorst reflect a growing awareness of the theoretical significance of the concept. Whereas early liberal attempts to theorise solidarity took the nation state to be the appropriate community for its realisation, the emergence of globalisation raises the possibility of human solidarity developing in the global community. Traditional forms of solidarity have been dissipated by the social changes accompanying globalisation, but they were often locked into the defence of particular interests. New forms may be emerging to rekindle the broader vision of human solidarity. Recent work by writers such as Habermas, Honneth, Rorty and Touraine focuses on widening and deepening democratic participation and/or the articulation of our ethical obligations in various ways. It is argued here that these perspectives need to be supplemented by a radical humanist approach grounded in a normative theory of human self-realisation. [source]