Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Terms modified by Global

  • global actor
  • global age
  • global agenda
  • global allergy
  • global amnesia
  • global analysis
  • global approach
  • global arena
  • global assessment
  • global assessment question
  • global assessment scale
  • global assessment score
  • global asymptotic stability
  • global atmosphere
  • global average
  • global behaviour
  • global biodiversity
  • global biogeochemical cycle
  • global burden
  • global business
  • global c cycle
  • global campaign
  • global capital
  • global capital market
  • global capitalism
  • global carbon cycle
  • global cerebral ischemia
  • global challenge
  • global change
  • global change effects
  • global change factor
  • global change scenario
  • global circulation
  • global circulation models
  • global citizenship
  • global city
  • global civil society
  • global classification
  • global climate
  • global climate change
  • global climate model
  • global climate models
  • global cognitive function
  • global commodity chain
  • global communication
  • global community
  • global compact
  • global company
  • global comparison
  • global competition
  • global competitiveness
  • global concern
  • global condition
  • global connection
  • global conservation
  • global context
  • global convergence
  • global cooling
  • global corporation
  • global crisis
  • global data
  • global data set
  • global database
  • global dataset
  • global decline
  • global demand
  • global deterioration scale
  • global development
  • global developmental delay
  • global diffusion
  • global dimension
  • global discourse
  • global distribution
  • global diversity
  • global dna methylation
  • global dynamics
  • global economic
  • global economic crisis
  • global economic system
  • global economy
  • global effect
  • global efficiency
  • global environment
  • global environmental change
  • global environmental governance
  • global environmental issues
  • global epidemic
  • global era
  • global estimate
  • global ethics
  • global evaluation
  • global event
  • global existence
  • global expansion
  • global exponential convergence
  • global extinction
  • global finance
  • global financial crisis
  • global financial market
  • global firm
  • global flow
  • global fold
  • global food security
  • global force
  • global function
  • global gene expression
  • global gene expression analysis
  • global gene expression pattern
  • global gene expression profile
  • global gene expression profiling
  • global governance
  • global grid
  • global growth
  • global health
  • global health problem
  • global health status
  • global history
  • global hypomethylation
  • global identity
  • global imbalance
  • global impact
  • global importance
  • global impression
  • global impression scale
  • global improvement
  • global incidence
  • global increase
  • global index
  • global industry
  • global inequality
  • global influence
  • global information
  • global initiative
  • global integration
  • global investor
  • global ischaemia
  • global ischemia
  • global issues
  • global justice
  • global knowledge
  • global last glacial maximum
  • global leader
  • global leadership
  • global level
  • global link
  • global loss
  • global manufacturing
  • global map
  • global mapping
  • global market
  • global marketplace
  • global mass conservation
  • global measure
  • global mechanism
  • global migration
  • global minimum
  • global mobility
  • global model
  • global models
  • global nature
  • global network
  • global north
  • global npd program performance
  • global ocean
  • global optimization
  • global optimization methods
  • global optimization problem
  • global optimization technique
  • global optimum
  • global order
  • global organization
  • global outcome
  • global parameter
  • global pattern
  • global perspective
  • global phenomenon
  • global picture
  • global policy
  • global political economy
  • global politics
  • global population
  • global positioning system
  • global poverty
  • global power
  • global practice
  • global presence
  • global prevalence
  • global problem
  • global process
  • global production
  • global production network
  • global property
  • global proteomic
  • global public health problem
  • global qol
  • global quality
  • global radiation
  • global rating
  • global rating scale
  • global reach
  • global regularity
  • global regulation
  • global regulator
  • global reporting initiative
  • global response
  • global restructuring
  • global rise
  • global risk
  • global role
  • global satisfaction
  • global scale
  • global scope
  • global score
  • global self-esteem
  • global sensitivity analysis
  • global setting
  • global severity
  • global significance
  • global society
  • global solar radiation
  • global solution
  • global south
  • global space
  • global species richness
  • global spread
  • global stability
  • global stage
  • global standard
  • global standards
  • global state
  • global status
  • global strategy
  • global stratotype section
  • global structure
  • global study
  • global supply chain
  • global survey
  • global system
  • global systolic function
  • global temperature
  • global test
  • global theory
  • global threat
  • global trade
  • global transformation
  • global trend
  • global understanding
  • global use
  • global value chain
  • global variation
  • global view
  • global village
  • global virtual team
  • global vision
  • global war
  • global warming
  • global warming potential

  • Selected Abstracts


    Rebecca K. Zarger
    The particularities of how residents in Southern Belize encounter the vagaries of what is commonly referred to as a "global food crisis" (between 2006 and 2008) are explored in this paper. Belize, like many other nation states around the globe, has been structurally (and sequentially) "readjusted" by transnational lending institutions over the last several decades. Cyclical shifts in agricultural practices have taken place in many Maya communities in Southern Belize in the last decade, partly in response to migration, a severe hurricane, land tenure conflicts, and within the last year, skyrocketing staple prices and food scarcity. The costs of basic staples such as corn, wheat, and rice have nearly doubled, in parallel with much of the rest of the globe during the same time frame. Shifts in subsistence strategies have significant implications for the power and politics of land use, access, and mobility. Furthermore, they reflect centuries-old ways of adjusting to changing circumstances in global markets and colonial and postcolonial realities. I conclude by emphasizing the importance of incorporating political and historical ecologies of land use and food production when considering the local impacts of global food crises. [source]

    Delivering a Global, Terrestrial, Biodiversity Observation System through Remote Sensing

    First page of article [source]

    Development and validation of a smoothing-splines-based correction method for improving the analysis of CEST-MR images

    J. Stancanello
    Abstract Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging is an emerging MRI technique relying on the use of endogenous or exogenous molecules containing exchangeable proton pools. The heterogeneity of the water resonance frequency offset plays a key role in the occurrence of artifacts in CEST-MR images. To limit this drawback, a new smoothing-splines-based method for fitting and correcting Z -spectra in order to compensate for low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) without any a priori model was developed. Global and local voxel-by-voxel Z -spectra were interpolated by smoothing splines with smoothing terms aimed at suppressing noise. Thus, a map of the water frequency offset (,zero' map) was used to correctly calculate the saturation transfer (ST) for each voxel. Simulations were performed to compare the method to polynomials and zero-only-corrected splines on the basis of SNR improvement. In vitro acquisitions of capillaries containing solutions of LIPOCEST agents at different concentrations were performed to experimentally validate the results from simulations. Additionally, ex vivo investigations of bovine muscle mass injected with LIPOCEST agents were performed as a function of increasing pulse power. The results from simulations and experiments highlighted the importance of a proper ,zero' correction (15% decrease of fictitious CEST signal in phantoms and ex vivo preparations) and proved the method to be more accurate compared with the previously published ones, often providing a SNR higher than 5 in different simulated and experimentally noisy conditions. In conclusion, the proposed method offers an accurate tool in CEST investigation. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The integration of corporate governance in corporate social responsibility disclosures

    Ans Kolk
    Abstract In recent years, not only has attention to corporate governance increased but also the notion has broadened considerably, and started to cover some aspects traditionally seen as being part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR, corporate governance and their interlink seem particularly relevant for multinational enterprises (MNEs), which, due to their activities in multiple contexts around the world and concomitant visibility, generally face higher demands to be transparent and disclose information about such issues. Insights into whether and in which cases disclosures on the two topics actually merge has been very limited, however. This paper analyses to what extent corporate governance has become integrated in MNEs' disclosure practices on CSR. Based on an analysis of CSR reporting of Fortune Global 250 companies, findings show that more than half of them have a separate corporate governance section in their CSR report and/or explicitly link corporate governance and CSR issues. We also found that MNEs that disclose information on a wider variety of social and environmental issues and frame CSR with a focus on internal issues are more inclined to integrate corporate governance into their CSR reporting. This integration seems to be a global phenomenon that cuts across countries and sectors. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    "Very Bombay": Contending with the Global in an Indian Advertising Agency

    William Mazzarella
    First page of article [source]

    Considering Curriculum Questions and the Public Good in the Postcolonial, Global, 21st-Century Context

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 1 2009
    First page of article [source]

    Reducing redundancy in invasion ecology by integrating hypotheses into a single theoretical framework

    Jane A. Catford
    ABSTRACT Aim, Invasion ecology includes many hypotheses. Empirical evidence suggests that most of these can explain the success of some invaders to some degree in some circumstances. If they all are correct, what does this tell us about invasion? We illustrate the major themes in invasion ecology, and provide an overarching framework that helps organize research and foster links among subfields of invasion ecology and ecology more generally. Location, Global. Methods, We review and synthesize 29 leading hypotheses in plant invasion ecology. Structured around propagule pressure (P), abiotic characteristics (A) and biotic characteristics (B), with the additional influence of humans (H) on P, A and B (hereon PAB), we show how these hypotheses fit into one paradigm. P is based on the size and frequency of introductions, A incorporates ecosystem invasibility based on physical conditions, and B includes the characteristics of invading species (invasiveness), the recipient community and their interactions. Having justified the PAB framework, we propose a way in which invasion research could progress. Results, By highlighting the common ground among hypotheses, we show that invasion ecology is encumbered by theoretical redundancy that can be removed through integration. Using both holistic and incremental approaches, we show how the PAB framework can guide research and quantify the relative importance of different invasion mechanisms. Main conclusions, If the prime aim is to identify the main cause of invasion success, we contend that a top-down approach that focuses on PAB maximizes research efficiency. This approach identifies the most influential factors first, and subsequently narrows the number of potential causal mechanisms. By viewing invasion as a multifaceted process that can be partitioned into major drivers and broken down into a series of sequential steps, invasion theory can be rigorously tested, understanding improved and effective weed management techniques identified. [source]

    Editorial: joint meeting of the 5th International Conference on Aeolian Research and the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems,Soil Erosion Network,

    Ted M. Zobeck
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Estimation of Global Left Ventricular Function from the Velocity of Longitudinal Shortening

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2002
    Dragos Vinereanu M.D., E.C., Ph.D.
    Aims: To determine if global ventricular function can be assessed from the long-axis contraction of the left ventricle, we compared pulsed-wave Doppler myocardial imaging of mitral annular motion to radionuclide ventriculography. Methods and Results: We studied 51 patients (56 ± 10 years, 11 women) with a radionuclide ejection fraction of 52 ± 13% (15%,70%). Peak systolic velocities of medial and lateral mitral annular motion correlated with ejection fraction (0.55 and 0.54, respectively; P < 0.001), as did the time-velocity integrals (0.57 and 0.58, respectively; P < 0.001). Correlations were higher in normal ventricles (0.62,0.69) than in patients with previous myocardial infarction (0.39,0.64). Patients with anterior myocardial infarction had the lowest correlations (0.39,0.46). The best differentiation of normal (, 50%) from abnormal (< 50%) ejection fraction was provided by peak systolic velocity , 8 cm/sec for the medial (sensitivity 80%, specificity 89%) or lateral (sensitivity 80%, specificity 92%) mitral annulus. Conclusion: Global left ventricular function can be estimated by recording mitral annular velocity. The implementation of a cutoff limit of 8 cm/sec gave a simple guide for differentiating between normal and abnormal left ventricular systolic function that might be useful clinically in patients without regional wall-motion abnormalities. However, in patients with important segmental wall-motion abnormalities during systole, left ventricular longitudinal shortening is an imperfect surrogate for ejection fraction. [source]

    Sustainable development and the ,governance challenge': the French experience with Natura 2000

    Darren McCauley
    Abstract Sustainable development is conceptualized in this paper as a serious challenge for governance structures and processes in nation states. Global and European agreements have placed the inclusion of civil society actors in policy-making at the heart of the sustainability agenda. This commitment is particularly evident in the Commission's White Paper on Governance and the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. From this perspective, the European Commission has consistently underlined the integral role of dialogue with social partners in any sustainability agenda. In contrast, there is a clear mismatch between these principles of civil society inclusion and policy-making in France. Long-standing traditions of meso-corporatism have struggled to adapt to extending participation to civil society actors. This paper assesses the implementation of sustainable development as civil society inclusion with reference to the French experience in dealing with EU biodiversity policy. It is argued that this governance challenge has effectively presented nation states with an ,interpretation dilemma' with regards to sustainable development. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Cerebral Damage in Epilepsy: A Population-based Longitudinal Quantitative MRI Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2005
    Rebecca S. N. Liu
    Summary:,Purpose: Whether cerebral damage results from epileptic seizures remains a contentious issue. We report on the first longitudinal community-based quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study to investigate the effect of seizures on the hippocampus, cerebellum, and neocortex. Methods: One hundred seventy-nine patients with epilepsy (66 temporal lobe epilepsy, 51 extratemporal partial epilepsy, and 62 generalized epilepsy) and 90 control subjects underwent two MRI brain scans 3.5 years apart. Automated and manual measurement techniques identified changes in global and regional brain volumes and hippocampal T2 relaxation times. Results: Baseline hippocampal volumes were significantly reduced in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and could be attributed to an antecedent neurologic insult. Rates of hippocampal, cerebral, and cerebellar atrophy were not syndrome specific and were similar in control and patient groups. Global and regional brain atrophy was determined primarily by age. A prior neurologic insult was associated with reduced hippocampal and cerebellar volumes and an increased rate of cerebellar atrophy. Significant atrophy of the hippocampus, neocortex, or cerebellum occurred in 17% of patients compared with 6.7% of control subjects. Patients with and without significant volume reduction were comparable in terms of seizure frequency, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and epilepsy duration, with no identifiable risk factors for the development of atrophy. Conclusions: Overt structural cerebral damage is not an inevitable consequence of epileptic seizures. In general, brain volume reduction in epilepsy is the cumulative effect of an initial precipitating injury and age-related cerebral atrophy. Significant atrophy developed in individual patients, particularly those with temporal lobe and generalized epilepsy. Longer periods of observation may detect more subtle effects of seizures. [source]

    Global and Domestic Governance: Modes of Interdependence in Regulatory Policymaking

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 4 2006
    David Lazer
    In particular, it identifies three modes of interdependence: competitive, coordinative, and informational. In the competitive mode the essential structure of interdependence is for countries to attempt to have distinctive policies that provide some advantage over other countries, but where the equilibrium set of policies is suboptimal for all. In the coordinative mode, there is an advantage for all countries to adopt the same policy, but exactly which policy is adopted may have significant distributional consequences. Lastly, in the informational mode, the choices and experiences of countries produce informational externalities, pointing the way for other countries to policy decisions. This article examines the logic underpinning each of these modes of interdependence, and draws out the governance implications of each mode. [source]

    Investigating Global and Local Categorical Map Configuration Comparisons Based on Coincidence Matrices

    T. K. Remmel
    The simple and intuitive nature of the coincidence matrix has not only made it the current "gold standard" for accuracy assessment (based on a sample of map pixels), but also a common tool for describing difference between two categorical maps (when all pixels are enumerated). It is this latter case of map comparison that this article explores. Coincidence matrices, although providing significant information regarding thematic agreement between two categorical maps (composition), can lack significantly in terms of conveying information about differences or similarities in the spatial arrangement (configuration) of those map categories in geographic space. This article introduces means for distilling the available configuration information from a coincidence matrix while demonstrating some simple categorical map comparisons. Specifically, while the coincidence matrix summarizes per-pixel compositional persistence or change, the introduced technique further quantifies the global and local configurational uncertainty between compared maps. I demonstrate how this quantification of configurational uncertainty can be used to gauge which thematic mismatch types are most significant and how to measure/present local configurational uncertainty in a spatial context. Implementation is through a straightforward mathematical algorithm in R that is illustrated by several examples. La sencillez y características las matrices de confusión (tablas de contingencia o de error) no sólo la ha convertido en (1) el estándar por excelencia para la evaluación de confiabilidad (veracidad o validez) de mapas temáticos en escala nominal (en base de una muestra de pixeles en un mapa), sino también en (2) una herramienta común para describir la diferencia entre dichos mapas (cuando todos los pixeles son tomados en cuenta). Este segundo uso de las matrices de confusión es el tema explorado por el presente artículo. A pesar de proporcionar información importante acerca de la confiabilidad temática entre dos mapas de categorías nominales (composición), las matrices de confusión sufren de limitaciones importantes cuando el objetivo es extraer información acerca del patrón o arreglo espacial (configuración) de las categorías del mapa. El presente artículo presenta herramientas para destilar la información de configuración espacial disponible a partir de una matriz de confusión, y al mismo tiempo, ilustra algunas comparaciones entre mapas de categorías nominales. En términos más concretos, la matriz de confusión resume la persistencia o cambio en la composición a nivel de cada pixel. La nueva técnica presentada en este estudio incluye además la cuantificación de la incertidumbre en la configuración de los mapas comparados. El autor demuestra cómo esta cuantificación puede ser utilizada para darse una idea de cuáles tipos de errores temáticos son más importantes, y cómo se puede medir e ilustrar la incertidumbre de la configuración local en el contexto espacial. La implementación del método se realiza a través de un algoritmo matemático sencillo en lenguaje R, el mismo que es ilustrado con varios ejemplos. [source]

    From Local to Global to Transnational Civil Society: Re-Framing Development Perspectives on the Non-State Sector

    Cathy McIlwaine
    This article outlines the meanings of civil society covering theoretical and development policy debates. It traces the evolution of conceptualisations of civil society noting how diversity in type, function and scale are critical in understanding these changes. The role of non-governmental organisations within development policy is explored highlighting how the euphoria over civil society has been tempered over time, reflecting how Gramscian interpretations have begun to replace neo-Tocquevillian viewpoints. The article also examines how civil society operates over different scales from local to global to transnational, assessing and critiquing the rise of global civil society or what is more appropriately called ,transnational civil society'. The article finishes by highlighting the importance of diasporic civil society in relation to migrant groups especially from a development viewpoint as well as the need for more research on this issue. Conceptually, the article argues for a more sophisticated Gramscian interpretation of civil society that also recognises the importance of spatiality in the complex interpenetration between an increasingly extra-territorialised state and an increasingly transnational civil society. Thus, it presents a re-framing of development perspectives on the non-state sector from local to global to transnational scales. [source]

    Crop planting dates: an analysis of global patterns

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    William J. Sacks
    ABSTRACT Aim, To assemble a data set of global crop planting and harvesting dates for 19 major crops, explore spatial relationships between planting date and climate for two of them, and compare our analysis with a review of the literature on factors that drive decisions on planting dates. Location, Global. Methods, We digitized and georeferenced existing data on crop planting and harvesting dates from six sources. We then examined relationships between planting dates and temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration using 30-year average climatologies from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia (CRU CL 2.0). Results, We present global planting date patterns for maize, spring wheat and winter wheat (our full, publicly available data set contains planting and harvesting dates for 19 major crops). Maize planting in the northern mid-latitudes generally occurs in April and May. Daily average air temperatures are usually c. 12,17 °C at the time of maize planting in these regions, although soil moisture often determines planting date more directly than does temperature. Maize planting dates vary more widely in tropical regions. Spring wheat is usually planted at cooler temperatures than maize, between c. 8 and 14 °C in temperate regions. Winter wheat is generally planted in September and October in the northern mid-latitudes. Main conclusions, In temperate regions, spatial patterns of maize and spring wheat planting dates can be predicted reasonably well by assuming a fixed temperature at planting. However, planting dates in lower latitudes and planting dates of winter wheat are more difficult to predict from climate alone. In part this is because planting dates may be chosen to ensure a favourable climate during a critical growth stage, such as flowering, rather than to ensure an optimal climate early in the crop's growth. The lack of predictability is also due to the pervasive influence of technological and socio-economic factors on planting dates. [source]

    New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Elizabeth R. Selig
    ABSTRACT Aim, Coral reefs are widely considered to be particularly vulnerable to changes in ocean temperatures, yet we understand little about the broad-scale spatio-temporal patterns that may cause coral mortality from bleaching and disease. Our study aimed to characterize these ocean temperature patterns at biologically relevant scales. Location, Global, with a focus on coral reefs. Methods, We created a 4-km resolution, 21-year global ocean temperature anomaly (deviations from long-term means) database to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of temperature anomalies related to both coral bleaching and disease. Then we tested how patterns varied in several key metrics of disturbance severity, including anomaly frequency, magnitude, duration and size. Results, Our analyses found both global variation in temperature anomalies and fine-grained spatial variability in the frequency, duration and magnitude of temperature anomalies. However, we discovered that even during major climatic events with strong spatial signatures, like the El Niño,Southern Oscillation, areas that had high numbers of anomalies varied between years. In addition, we found that 48% of bleaching-related anomalies and 44% of disease-related anomalies were less than 50 km2, much smaller than the resolution of most models used to forecast climate changes. Main conclusions, The fine-scale variability in temperature anomalies has several key implications for understanding spatial patterns in coral bleaching- and disease-related anomalies as well as for designing protected areas to conserve coral reefs in a changing climate. Spatial heterogeneity in temperature anomalies suggests that certain reefs could be targeted for protection because they exhibit differences in thermal stress. However, temporal variability in anomalies could complicate efforts to protect reefs, because high anomalies in one year are not necessarily predictive of future patterns of stress. Together, our results suggest that temperature anomalies related to coral bleaching and disease are likely to be highly heterogeneous and could produce more localized impacts of climate change. [source]

    Global trends in senesced-leaf nitrogen and phosphorus

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Zhiyou Yuan
    ABSTRACT Aim, Senesced-leaf litter plays an important role in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. While green-leaf nutrients have been reported to be affected by climatic factors at the global scale, the global patterns of senesced-leaf nutrients are not well understood. Location, Global. Methods, Here, bringing together a global dataset of senesced-leaf N and P spanning 1253 observations and 638 plant species at 365 sites and of associated mean climatic indices, we describe the world-wide trends in senesced-leaf N and P and their stoichiometric ratios. Results, Concentration of senesced-leaf N was highest in tropical forests, intermediate in boreal, temperate, and mediterranean forests and grasslands, and lowest in tundra, whereas P concentration was highest in grasslands, lowest in tropical forests and intermediate in other ecosystems. Tropical forests had the highest N : P and C : P ratios in senesced leaves. When all data were pooled, N concentration significantly increased, but senesced-leaf P concentration decreased with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The N : P and C : P ratios also increased with MAT and MAP, but C : N ratios decreased. Plant functional type (PFT), i.e. life-form (grass, herb, shrub or tree), phylogeny (angiosperm versus gymnosperm) and leaf habit (deciduous versus evergreen), affected senesced-leaf N, P, N : P, C : N and C : P with a ranking of senesced-leaf N from high to low: forbs , shrubs , trees > grasses, while the ranking of P was forbs , shrubs , trees < grasses. The climatic trends of senesced-leaf N and P and their stoichiometric ratios were similar between PFTs. Main conclusions, Globally, senesced-leaf N and P concentrations differed among ecosystem types, from tropical forest to tundra. Differences were significantly related to global climate variables such as MAT and MAP and also related to plant functional types. These results at the global scale suggest that nutrient feedback to soil through leaf senescence depends on both the climatic conditions and the plant composition of an ecosystem. [source]

    Richness patterns, species distributions and the principle of extreme deconstruction

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Levi Carina Terribile
    ABSTRACT Aim, To analyse the global patterns in species richness of Viperidae snakes through the deconstruction of richness into sets of species according to their distribution models, range size, body size and phylogenetic structure, and to test if environmental drivers explaining the geographical ranges of species are similar to those explaining richness patterns, something we called the extreme deconstruction principle. Location, Global. Methods, We generated a global dataset of 228 terrestrial viperid snakes, which included geographical ranges (mapped at 1° resolution, for a grid with 7331 cells world-wide), body sizes and phylogenetic relationships among species. We used logistic regression (generalized linear model; GLM) to model species geographical ranges with five environmental predictors. Sets of species richness were also generated for large and small-bodied species, for basal and derived species and for four classes of geographical range sizes. Richness patterns were also modelled against the five environmental variables through standard ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regressions. These subsets are replications to test if environmental factors driving species geographical ranges can be directly associated with those explaining richness patterns. Results, Around 48% of the total variance in viperid richness was explained by the environmental model, but richness sets revealed different patterns across the world. The similarity between OLS coefficients and the primacy of variables across species geographical range GLMs was equal to 0.645 when analysing all viperid snakes. Thus, in general, when an environmental predictor it is important to model species geographical ranges, this predictor is also important when modelling richness, so that the extreme deconstruction principle holds. However, replicating this correlation using subsets of species within different categories in body size, range size and phylogenetic structure gave more variable results, with correlations between GLM and OLS coefficients varying from ,0.46 up to 0.83. Despite this, there is a relatively high correspondence (r = 0.73) between the similarity of GLM-OLS coefficients and R2 values of richness models, indicating that when richness is well explained by the environment, the relative importance of environmental drivers is similar in the richness OLS and its corresponding set of GLMs. Main conclusions, The deconstruction of species richness based on macroecological traits revealed that, at least for range size and phylogenetic level, the causes underlying patterns in viperid richness differ for the various sets of species. On the other hand, our analyses of extreme deconstruction using GLM for species geographical range support the idea that, if environmental drivers determine the geographical distribution of species by establishing niche boundaries, it is expected, at least in theory, that the overlap among ranges (i.e. richness) will reveal similar effects of these environmental drivers. Richness patterns may be indeed viewed as macroecological consequences of population-level processes acting on species geographical ranges. [source]

    Global change and carnivore body size: data are stasis

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Shai Meiri
    ABSTRACT Aim, Global warming and other anthropogenic changes to the environment affect many aspects of biology and have often been invoked as causing body size changes in vertebrates. Here we examine a diverse set of carnivore populations in search of patterns in body size change that could reflect global warming (in accord with Bergmann's rule). Location, Global. Methods, We used > 4400 specimens representing 22 carnivore species in 52 populations collected over the last few decades to examine whether size changed with collection date when geography and sex are accounted for. We then examined several factors related to global warming, body mass, diet, and the attributes of the different datasets, to see whether they affect the standardized slope (,) of the size versus time regression. Results, Six of 52 populations we examined show a significant effect of year of collection on body size at the 0.05 probability level. The response of size to global warming does not reflect spatial patterns of size variation, nor do diet or body mass affect tendency of populations to change in body size. Size changes are no more pronounced in populations that have been sampled more recently. However, change, where it occurs, is rapid. Main conclusions, There may be a tendency in the literature to report only cases where recent changes are prevalent. Although in our data only a minority of populations show body size changes, we may see changes accelerating in the future in response to more drastic climatic changes and other anthropogenic changes. [source]

    Global-scale patterns of nutrient resorption associated with latitude, temperature and precipitation

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Z. Y. Yuan
    ABSTRACT Aim Nutrient resorption from senescing leaves is an important mechanism of nutrient conservation in plants, but the patterns of nutrient resorption at the global scale are unknown. Because soil nutrients vary along climatic gradients, we hypothesize that nutrient resorption changes with latitude, temperature and precipitation. Location Global. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis on a global data set collected from published literature on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption of woody plants. Results For all data pooled, both N resorption efficiency (NRE) and P resorption efficiency (PRE) were significantly related to latitude, mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP): NRE increased with latitude but decreased with MAT and MAP. In contrast, PRE decreased with latitude but increased with MAT and MAP. When functional groups (shrub versus tree, coniferous versus broadleaf and evergreen versus deciduous) were examined individually, the patterns of NRE and PRE in relation to latitude, MAT and MAP were generally similar. Main conclusions The relationships between N and P resorption and latitude, MAT and MAP indicate the existence of geographical patterns of plant nutrient conservation strategies in relation to temperature and precipitation at the global scale, particularly for PRE, which can be an indicator for P limitation in the tropics and selective pressure shaping the evolution of plant traits. Our results suggest that, although the magnitude of plant nutrient resorption might be regulated by local factors such as substrate, spatial patterns are also controlled by temperature or precipitation. [source]

    Why does the unimodal species richness,productivity relationship not apply to woody species: a lack of clonality or a legacy of tropical evolutionary history?

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Lauri Laanisto
    ABSTRACT Aim, To study how differences in species richness patterns of woody and herbaceous plants may be influenced by ecological and evolutionary factors. Unimodal species richness,productivity relationships (SRPRs) have been of interest to ecologists since they were first described three decades ago for British herbaceous vegetation by J. P. Grime. The decrease in richness at high productivity may be due to competitive exclusion of subordinate species, or diverse factors related to evolution and dispersal. Unimodal SRPRs are most often reported for plants, but there are exceptions. For example, unimodal SRPRs are common in the temperate zone but not in the tropics. Similarly, woody species and forest communities in the Northern Hemisphere do not tend to show unimodal SRPRs. Location, Global. Methods, We used data from the literature to test whether a unimodal SRPR applies to woody species and forest communities on a global scale. We explored whether the shape of SRPRs may be related to the lack of clonality in woody species (which may prevent their being competitively superior), or the legacy of evolutionary history (most temperate woody species originate from tropical lineages, and due to niche conservatism they may still demonstrate ,tropical patterns'). We used case studies that reported the names of the dominant or most abundant species for productive sites. Results, Woody species were indeed less clonal than herbaceous species. Both clonality and the temperate evolutionary background of dominating species were associated with unimodality in SRPRs, with woodiness modifying the clonality effect. Main conclusions, The unimodal SRPR has been common in the ecological literature because most such studies originate from temperate herbaceous communities with many clonal species. Consequently, both evolutionary and ecological factors may influence species richness patterns. [source]

    A new global biome reconstruction and data-model comparison for the Middle Pliocene

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    U. Salzmann
    ABSTRACT Aim, To produce a robust, comprehensive global biome reconstruction for the Middle Pliocene (c. 3.6,2.6 Ma), which is based on an internally consistent palaeobotanical data set and a state-of-the-art coupled climate,vegetation model. The reconstruction gives a more rigorous picture of climate and environmental change during the Middle Pliocene and provides a new boundary condition for future general circulation model (GCM) studies. Location, Global. Methods, Compilation of Middle Pliocene vegetation data from 202 marine and terrestrial sites into the comprehensive GIS data base TEVIS (Tertiary Environmental Information System). Translation into an internally consistent classification scheme using 28 biomes. Comparison and synthesis of vegetation reconstruction from palaeodata with the outputs of the mechanistically based BIOME4 model forced by climatology derived from the HadAM3 GCM. Results, The model results compare favourably with available palaeodata and highlight the importance of employing vegetation,climate feedbacks and the anomaly method in biome models. Both the vegetation reconstruction from palaeobotanical data and the BIOME4 prediction indicate a general warmer and moister climate for the Middle Pliocene. Evergreen taiga as well as temperate forest and grassland shifted northward, resulting in much reduced tundra vegetation. Warm-temperate forests (with subtropical taxa) spread in mid and eastern Europe and tropical savannas and woodland expanded in Africa and Australia at the expense of deserts. Discrepancies which occurred between data reconstruction and model simulation can be related to: (1) poor spatial model resolution and data coverage; (2) uncertainties in delimiting biomes using climate parameters; or (3) uncertainties in model physics and/or geological boundary conditions. Main conclusions, The new global biome reconstruction combines vegetation reconstruction from palaeobotanical proxies with model simulations. It is an important contribution to the further understanding of climate and vegetation changes during the Middle Pliocene warm interval and will enhance our knowledge about how vegetation may change in the future. [source]

    Global patterns of genetic variation in plant species along vertical and horizontal gradients on mountains

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Takafumi Ohsawa
    ABSTRACT Aim To understand global patterns of genetic variation in plant species on mountains and to consider the significance of mountains for the genetic structure and evolution of plant species. Location Global. Methods We review published studies. Results Genetic diversity within populations can vary along altitudinal gradients in one of four patterns. Eleven of 42 cited studies (26% of the total) found that populations at intermediate altitudes have greater diversity than populations at lower and higher altitudes. This is because the geographically central populations are under optimal environmental conditions, whereas the peripheral populations are in suboptimal situations. The second pattern, indicating that higher populations have less diversity than lower populations, was found in eight studies (19%). The third pattern, indicating that lower populations have lower diversity than higher populations, was found in 10 studies (24%). In 12 studies (29%), the intrapopulation genetic variation was found to be unaffected by altitude. Evidence of altitudinal differentiation was found in more than half of these studies, based on measurements of a range of variables including genome size, number of chromosomes or a range of loci using molecular markers. Furthermore, great variation has been found in phenotypes among populations at different altitudes in situ and in common garden experiments, even in cases where there was no associated variation in molecular composition. Mountains can be genetic barriers for species that are distributed at low elevations, but they can also provide pathways for species that occupy high-elevation habitats. [Correction added after publication 9 October 2007: ,less diversity' changed to ,greater diversity' in the second sentence of the Results section of the Abstract] Main conclusions Genetic diversity within populations can vary along altitudinal gradients as a result of several factors. The results highlight the importance of phenotypic examinations in detecting altitudinal differences. The influence of mountain ridges on genetic differentiation varies depending, inter alia, on the elevation at which the species occurs. Based on these findings, zoning by altitudes or ridges would be helpful for the conservation of tree populations with the onset of global warming. [source]

    Small fish, big fish, red fish, blue fish: size-biased extinction risk of the world's freshwater and marine fishes

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Julian D. Olden
    ABSTRACT Aim, In light of the current biodiversity crisis, there is a need to identify and protect species at greatest risk of extinction. Ecological theory and global-scale analyses of bird and mammal faunas suggest that small-bodied species are less vulnerable to extinction, yet this hypothesis remains untested for the largest group of vertebrates, fish. Here, we compare body-size distributions of freshwater and marine fishes under different levels of global extinction risk (i.e. listed as vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) from different major sources of threat (habitat loss/degradation, human harvesting, invasive species and pollution). Location, Global, freshwater and marine. Methods, We collated maximum body length data for 22,800 freshwater and marine fishes and compared body-size frequency distributions after controlling for phylogeny. Results, We found that large-bodied marine fishes are under greater threat of global extinction, whereas both small- and large-bodied freshwater species are more likely to be at risk. Our results support the notion that commercial fishing activities disproportionately threaten large-bodied marine and freshwater species, whereas habitat degradation and loss threaten smaller-bodied marine fishes. Main conclusions, Our study provides compelling evidence that global fish extinction risk does not universally scale with body size. Given the central role of body size for trophic position and the functioning of food webs, human activities may have strikingly different effects on community organization and food web structure in freshwater and marine systems. [source]

    Does versatility as measured by geographic range, bathymetric range and morphological variability contribute to taxon longevity?

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Lee Hsiang Liow
    ABSTRACT Aim, This paper aims to examine the relationship between versatility as measured by geographic range, bathymetric range and morphological variability (species and subspecies richness and the occurrence of morphologically highly variable populations), and the geologic longevities of trachyleberidid ostracode species and genera, while accounting for sampling biases and other confounding factors. Location, Global. Methods, A large database of occurrence records of species of the family Trachyleberididae s.l. was analysed. The relationships between genus and species longevity and the above mentioned variables were examined singly and in concert. Re-analyses of subsets of data and rarefaction techniques were employed to account for sampling biases, while randomization was used to account for autocorrelation of variables. Results, The mean number of occurrence records, and latitudinal and longitudinal ranges, were strongly and positively correlated with genus and species longevities. The number of bathymetric zones occupied by genera had no consistent bearing on their longevities, but species data subsets tended to indicate significant positive relationships between bathymetric range and longevities. Species richness was significantly and positively correlated with genus longevities. Species and genera with subspecies and species with high morphological variability all had significantly greater longevities. Genus-level characteristics can be explained largely by species-level characteristics, including longevity, latitudinal ranges and bathymetric ranges to a lesser degree. However, genus longevity was best explained by species richness and genus age, even for extinct genera, while species longevity was best explained by species latitudinal range. Main conclusions, In spite of the incompleteness of the fossil record, we can control for biasing factors and still confidently draw the conclusion that both ecological and evolutionary versatility contribute to lineage longevity, beyond the shorter temporal observation windows available to most ecological studies. [source]

    Don't Leave Me Hanging on the Anglophone: The Potential for Online Distance Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Simon MarginsonArticle first published online: 9 DEC 200
    Abstract In the last decade there have been many attempts to mount online distance higher education programs on a global scale, led by the e-learning industry and university companies and consortia, some with government support: e.g. Universitas21 Global, Cardean University, Fathom, NYUOnline and the UKe-University. A primary commercial objective has been student markets in the Asia-Pacific nations, especially China, given unmet domestic demand and the growth of cross-border education. However while for-profit providers such as the University of Phoenix Online have shown mass online programs are viable in targeted markets, albeit more expensive than face-to-face programs, would-be global ventures have faltered or collapsed. The paper reviews the failure of English language global e-learning in the light of industry marketing strategies, the economics of online education, and the specifics of Asia-Pacific nations including unmet demand for education. It argues that for exporter universities, the potential of cross-border online education can only be realised if communications capacity in the Asia-Pacific nations is enhanced; and online programs are teaching-intensive, and customised for cultural and linguistic variations. Long-term equal partnerships with local and system providers are essential. For policy makers, the implosion of global e-learning points to the need to use expert judgment in relation to the different options for enhancing the capacity of higher education at home and abroad. It also suggests the need for greater scepticism about commercially driven scenarios and claims of company prospectuses, and about the viability of market-controlled paths of development. [source]

    Solar radiation climate change over southern Africa and an assessment of the radiative impact of volcanic eruptions

    H. C. Power
    Abstract Spatial and temporal variability in global, diffuse, and horizontal direct irradiance and sunshine duration has been evaluated at eight stations in South Africa and two stations in Namibia where the time series range between 21 and 41 years. Global and direct irradiance and sunshine duration decrease from northwest to southeast; diffuse irradiance increases toward the east. Annually averaged global irradiance Ga decreased between 1.3% (2.8 W m,2) and 1.7% (4.4 W m,2) per decade at Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Pretoria, and Upington. Annually averaged diffuse irradiance Da decreased 5.2% (3.0 W m,2) per decade at Grootfontein and 4.2% (3.1 W m,2) per decade at Port Elizabeth. Annual direct irradiance Ba decreased 2.1% (3.5 W m,2) per decade at Cape Town and 2.8% (5.7 W m,2) per decade at Alexander Bay. A simultaneous decrease in annually averaged daily sunshine duration Sa may have contributed to the decrease in Ba at Alexander Bay and the decrease in Ga at Pretoria. Increases in aerosols may have contributed to the observed decrease in Ga at Cape Town and Durban, and the decrease in Da at Grootfontein may be due to a decrease in aerosols. On average, variability in Sa explains 89.0%, 50.4%, and 89.5% of the variance in Ga, Da, and Ba respectively. The radiative response to changes in sunshine duration is greater for direct irradiance than for global and diffuse. In the 2 years following the 1963 Mount Agung eruption in Indonesia, changes in global irradiance over southern Africa were small and inconsistent. At eight stations, diffuse irradiance increased 21.9% (13.3 W m,2) on average and direct irradiance decreased 8.7% (15.5 W m,2). After the 1982 El Chichón eruption in Mexico, global irradiance increased at two stations and decreased at seven stations. Eight stations witnessed an increase in diffuse irradiance averaging 7.2% (4.0 W m,2) and a decrease in direct irradiance of 5.0% (9.0 W m,2). The contribution of changes in cloud cover to the observed changes in irradiances appears to be small. Following the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines, diffuse irradiance increased an average of 18.8% (10.0 W m,2) at three stations and direct irradiance decreased by 7.2% (13.0 W m,2). Copyright © 2005 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Linking global circulation model synoptics and precipitation for western North America

    Suzan Lapp
    Abstract Synoptic downscaling from global circulation models (GCMs) has been widely used to develop local and regional-scale future precipitation scenarios under global warming. This paper presents an analysis of the linkages between the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis first version of the Canadian Global Coupled Model (CCCma CGCM1) 2000 model output and local/regional precipitation time series. The GCM 500 hPa geopotential heights were visually classified for synoptic patterns using a geographical information system. The pattern frequencies were statistically compared with historical data from Changnon et al. (1993. Monthly Weather Review121: 633,647) for the winter period 1961,85. The CGCM1 synoptic frequencies compare favourably with the historical data, and they represent a substantial improvement over the 1992 Canadian Climate Centre Global Circulation Model synoptic climatology output. The CGCM1 output was used to forecast future winter precipitation scenarios for five geographically diverse climate stations in western North America. Copyright © 2002 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    Global and systematic demonstration for the practical usage of a direct in vivo measurement system to evaluate wrinkles

    T. Fujimura
    Synopsis The global and systematic demonstration for the practical usage of a direct three-dimensional in vivo measurement system (PRIMOS) to evaluate wrinkles was investigated. Ten repetitive measurements of the corner of the eye of a subject showed that the coefficient of variation (CV)% value was 7.0% in a typical line-length roughness parameter Ra (the arithmetic mean of roughness), and that the CV% value in a typical surface area roughness parameter Sa was 2.4%. The relationships between the roughness values obtained from the corners of the eye and the age or wrinkle scores of Japanese women aged 10,70 years was examined. The values of several roughness parameters within the evaluation line length or surface area increased with age and showed a good correlation coefficient (r > 0.743). Similar relationships between the wrinkle scores and the values of roughness parameters were observed (r > 0.699). The roughness values were widely distributed even in the same wrinkle score because the measurement areas were limited and the values of skin roughness, including the microreliefs and/or small warts, were included in the calculation. However, changes in roughness values are considerable following treatment with potent active ingredients such as retinoic acid, so that this in vivo evaluation method is sufficient to objectively evaluate wrinkles. We conclude that the direct three-dimensional analysis of wrinkles in vivo should become a popular method to objectively evaluate wrinkles in clinical tests of wrinkle-smoothing ingredients or following cosmetic surgery to provide evidence of quantitative results. Résumé Une démonstration globale et systématique pour l'utilisation pratique d'un système de mesurage in vivo tridimensionnel direct (PRIMOS) pour évaluer les rides àétéétudiée. Dix mesurages répétitifs de la cornée de l',il d'un sujet ont montrées que la valeur du % du coefficient de variation était de 7,0% pour un paramètre de rugosité de mesure typique Ra (moyen arithmétique de rugosité), et que la valeur du % du coefficient de dérivation pour un paramètre de rugosité d'une surface typique Saétait de 2,4%. Les relations entre les valeurs de rugosité obtenues des cornées de l',il et l'âge ou les indices de rides de femmes japonaises âgées de 10 à 70 ans furent examinées. Les valeurs de plusieurs paramètres de rugosité en-deçà de la mesure d'évaluation ou de la surface ont augmenté avec l'âge et ont présenté un bon coefficient de corrélation (r > 0,743). Des relations similaires entre des indices de rides et les valeurs de paramètres de rugosité furent observées (r > 0,699). Les valeurs de rugosité furent largement réparties même avec un indice de rugosité semblable, du fait que les zones de mesurages furent limitées et que les valeurs de rugosité de la peau, comprenant des microreliefs et/ou de petites verrues, furent inclues dans les calculs. Cependant, des changements dans les valeurs de rugosité ont été considérables selon le traitement avec des ingrédients actifs potentiels, tel que l'acide rétinoïque, de telle sorte que cette méthode d'évaluation in vivo est suffisante pour une évaluation objective des rides. Nous en concluons qu'une analyse tridimensionnelle directe des rides in vivo est une méthode pratique pour évaluer objectivement des rides dans des essais cliniques d'ingrédients d'adoucissage des rides ou en suivant une chirurgie esthétique pour mettre en évidence des résultats quantitatifs. [source]

    Global and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes correlate better with preload after correction for ejection fraction

    M. L. N. G. MALBRAIN
    Background: Volumetric monitoring with right ventricular end-diastolic volume indexed (RVEDVi) and global end-diastolic volume indexed (GEDVi) is increasingly being suggested as a superior preload indicator compared with the filling pressures central venous pressure (CVP) or the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). However, static monitoring of these volumetric parameters has not consistently been shown to be able to predict changes in cardiac index (CI). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a correction of RVEDVi and GEDVi with a measure of the individual contractile reserve, assessed by right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and global ejection fraction, improves the ability of RVEDVi and GEDVi to monitor changes in preload over time in critically ill patients. Methods: Hemodynamic measurements, both by pulmonary artery and by transcardiopulmonary thermodilution, were performed in 11 mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients. Correction of volumes was achieved by normalization to EF deviation from normal EF values in an exponential fashion. Data before and after fluid administration were obtained in eight patients, while data before and after diuretics were obtained in seven patients. Results: No correlation was found between the change in cardiac filling pressures (,CVP, ,PCWP) and ,CI (R2 0.01 and 0.00, respectively). Further, no correlation was found between ,RVEDVi or ,GEDVi and ,CI (R2 0.10 and 0.13, respectively). In contrast, a significant correlation was found between ,RVEDVi corrected to RVEF (,cRVEDVi) and ,CI (R2 0.64), as well as between ,cGEDVi and ,CI (R2 0.59). An increase in the net fluid balance with +844 ± 495 ml/m2 resulted in a significant increase in CI of 0.5 ± 0.3 l/min/m2; however, only ,cRVEDVi (R2 0.58) and ,cGEDVi (R2 0.36) correlated significantly with ,CI. Administration of diuretics resulting in a net fluid balance of ,942 ± 658 ml/m2 caused a significant decrease in CI with 0.7 ± 0.5 l/min/m2; however, only ,cRVEDVi (R2 0.80) and ,cGEDVi (R2 0.61) correlated significantly with ,CI. Conclusion: Correction of volumetric preload parameters by measures of ejection fraction improved the ability of these parameters to assess changes in preload over time in this heterogeneous group of critically ill patients. [source]