Glial Cells. (glial + cells)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Interactions between TLR7 and TLR9 agonists and receptors regulate innate immune responses by astrocytes and microglia,

GLIA, Issue 6 2010
Niranjan B. Butchi
Abstract Toll-like receptors 7 (TLR7) and 9 (TLR9) are important mediators of innate immune responses. Both receptors are located in endosomal compartments, recognize nucleic acids, and signal via Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). In the current study, we analyzed TLR7 and TLR9 induced activation of astrocytes and microglia, two cell types that contribute to innate immune responses in the CNS. TLR7 and TLR9 agonists induced similar cytokine profiles within each cell type. However, there were notable differences in the cytokine profile between astrocytes and microglia, including the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and antiapoptotic cytokines G-CSF and IL-9 by microglia but not astrocytes. Costimulation studies demonstrated that the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod, could inhibit TLR9 agonist-induced innate immune responses, in both cell types, in a concentration-dependent manner. Surprisingly, this inhibition was not mediated by TLR7, as deficiency in TLR7 did not alter suppression of the TLR9 agonist-induced responses. The suppression of innate immune responses was also not due to an inhibition of TLR9 agonist uptake. This suggested that imiquimod suppression may be a direct effect, possibly by blocking CpG-ODN binding and/or signaling with TLR9, thus limiting cell activation. An antagonistic relationship was also observed between the two receptors in microglia, with TLR7 deficiency resulting in enhanced cytokine responses to CpG-ODN stimulation. Thus, both TLR7 and its agonist can have inhibitory effects on TLR9-induced cytokine responses in glial cells. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Kir4.1 and AQP4 associate with Dp71- and utrophin-DAPs complexes in specific and defined microdomains of Müller retinal glial cell membrane

GLIA, Issue 6 2008
Patrice E. Fort
Abstract The dystrophin-associated proteins (DAPs) complex consisting of dystroglycan, syntrophin, dystrobrevin, and sarcoglycans in muscle cells is associated either with dystrophin or its homolog utrophin. In rat retina, a similar complex was found associated with dystrophin-Dp71 that serves as an anchor for the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 and the aqueous pore, aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Here, using immunofluorescence imaging of isolated retinal Müller glial cells and co-immunoprecipitation experiments performed on an enriched Müller glial cells end-feet fraction, we investigated the effect of Dp71 deletion on the composition, anchoring, and membrane localization of the DAPs,Kir4.1 and/or ,AQP4 complex. Two distinct complexes were identified in the end-feet fraction associated either with Dp71 or with utrophin. Upon Dp71 deletion, the corresponding DAPs complex was disrupted and a compensating utrophin upregulation was observed, accompanied by diffuse overall staining of Kir4.1 along the Müller glial cells and redistribution of the K+ conductance. Dp71 deficiency was also associated with a marked reduction of AQP4 and ,-dystroglycan expression. Furthermore, it was observed that the Dp71,DAPs dependent complex could be, at least partially, associated with a specific membrane fraction. These results demonstrate that Dp71 has a central role in the molecular scaffold responsible for anchoring AQP4 and Kir4.1 in Müller cell end-feet membranes. They also show that despite its close relationship to the dystrophin proteins and its correlated upregulation, utrophin is only partially compensating for the absence of Dp71 in Müller glial cells. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Differential long-term neurotoxicity of HIV-1 proteins in the rat hippocampal formation: A design-based stereological study

HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 2 2008
Sylvia Fitting
Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins, gp120 and Tat, are believed to play a role in mediating central nervous system (CNS) pathology in HIV-1 infected patients. Using design-based stereology, we examined the role of neonatal intrahippocampal injections of gp120 and Tat on the adult hippocampus (,7½ month). Postnatal day (P)1-treated Sprague-Dawley rats were bilaterally injected with vehicle (VEH, 0.5 ,l sterile buffer), gp120 (100 ng), Tat (25 ,g) or combined gp120 + Tat (100 ng + 25 ,g). Using Nissl-stained tissue sections, we quantified total neurons in five subregions of the rat hippocampus [granual layer (GL), hilus of the dentate gyrus (DGH), cornu ammonis fields (CA)2/3, CA1, and subiculum (SUB)], and total glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) in two subregions (DGH and SUB). Estimates of cell area and cell volume were taken in the DGH. There was a significant reduction of neuron number in the CA2/3 subfield by Tat and gp120, and a significant reduction in the DGH by Tat only. For glial cells, numbers of astrocytes in the DGH and SUB were increased by the Tat protein, whereas no effects were noted for gp120. Finally, for oligodendrocytes Tat increased cell number in the DGH but not in any other region; gp120 had no detectable effect in any brain region. Estimates of cell area and cell volume of the three different cell types revealed no significant differences between treatments. Collectively, these results suggest differential effects of gp120 and Tat on the estimated total number of neurons, as well as on the number of glial cells. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Glutamate receptors modulate sodium-dependent and calcium-independent vitamin C bidirectional transport in cultured avian retinal cells

Camila Cabral Portugal
Abstract Vitamin C is transported in the brain by sodium vitamin C co-transporter 2 (SVCT-2) for ascorbate and glucose transporters for dehydroascorbate. Here we have studied the expression of SVCT-2 and the uptake and release of [14C] ascorbate in chick retinal cells. SVCT-2 immunoreactivity was detected in rat and chick retina, specially in amacrine cells and in cells in the ganglion cell layer. Accordingly, SVCT-2 was expressed in cultured retinal neurons, but not in glial cells. [14C] ascorbate uptake was saturable and inhibited by sulfinpyrazone or sodium-free medium, but not by treatments that inhibit dehydroascorbate transport. Glutamate-stimulated vitamin C release was not inhibited by the glutamate transport inhibitor l -,-threo-benzylaspartate, indicating that vitamin C release was not mediated by glutamate uptake. Also, ascorbate had no effect on [3H] d -aspartate release, ruling out a glutamate/ascorbate exchange mechanism. 2-Carboxy-3-carboxymethyl-4-isopropenylpyrrolidine (Kainate) or NMDA stimulated the release, effects blocked by their respective antagonists 6,7-initroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) or (5R,2S)-(1)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H -dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK-801). However, DNQX, but not MK-801 or 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), blocked the stimulation by glutamate. Interestingly, DNQX prevented the stimulation by NMDA, suggesting that the effect of NMDA was mediated by glutamate release and stimulation of non-NMDA receptors. The effect of glutamate was neither dependent on external calcium nor inhibited by 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,,N,,N,,N,,-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxy-methyl ester) (BAPTA-AM), an internal calcium chelator, but was inhibited by sulfinpyrazone or by the absence of sodium. In conclusion, retinal cells take up and release vitamin C, probably through SVCT-2, and the release can be stimulated by NMDA or non-NMDA glutamate receptors. [source]

Effect of the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves and its components on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of glioblastoma cells: Combinational approach for enhanced differentiation

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 9 2009
Navjot Shah
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is widely used in the Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda. Although it is claimed to have a large variety of health-promoting effects, including therapeutic effects on stress and disease, the mechanisms of action have not yet been determined. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the growth inhibition and differentiation potential of the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract), its different constituents (Withaferin A, Withanone, Withanolide A) and their combinations on glioma (C6 and YKG1) cell lines. Withaferin A, Withanone, Withanolide A and i-Extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner and changed their morphology toward the astrocytic type. Molecular analysis revealed that the i-Extract and some of its components caused enhanced expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, change in the immunostaining pattern of mortalin from perinuclear to pancytoplasmic, delay in cell migration, and increased expression of neuronal cell adhesion molecules. The data suggest that the i-Extract and its components have the potential to induce senescence-like growth arrest and differentiation in glioma cells. These assays led us to formulate a unique combination formula of i-Extract components that caused enhanced differentiation of glial cells. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 1740,1747) [source]