General Guidelines (general + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Clustering: An Essential Step from Diverging to Converging

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2007
Marc Tassoul
Within the context of new product development processes and the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) process, the authors have come to the view that clustering is to be seen as a separate step in the process of diverging and converging. Clustering is generally presented as part of the converging stages, and as such categorized as a selection technique, which in the authors' view does not do justice to this activity. It is about expanding knowledge, about connecting ideas, and connecting ideas to problem statements, functionalities, and values and consequences. It is about building a shared understanding, in other words about ,making sense', an essential creative activity in the development of concepts and, although different from a more freewheeling divergent phase, can be as creative and maybe even more so. Four kinds of clusterings are distinguished: object clustering, morphological clustering, functional clustering and gestalt clustering. Object clustering is mainly aimed at categorizing ideas into an overviewable set of groups of ideas. No special connections are being made, other then looking for similarities. Morphological clustering is used to split up a problem into subproblems after which the ideas generated are considered as subsolutions which can then be combined into concepts. Functional clustering is interesting when different approaches can be chosen to answer some question. It permits a more strategic choice to be made. Gestalt clustering is a more synthesis like approach, often with a more metaphoric and artistic stance. Collage is a good example of such clustering. General guidelines for clustering are: use a bottom-up process of emergence; postpone early rationalisations and verbalisations; start grouping ideas on the basis of feeling and intuition; and use metaphoric names to identify clusters. [source]


General guidelines for invasive plant management based on comparative demography of invasive and native plant populations

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
Satu Ramula
Summary 1General guidelines for invasive plant management are currently lacking. Population declines may be achieved by focusing control on demographic processes (survival, growth, fecundity) with the greatest impact on population growth rate. However, we often have little demographic information on populations in the early stages of an invasion when control can be most effective. Here we determine whether synthesis of existing demographic data on invasive and native plant populations can address this knowledge problem. 2We compared population dynamics between invasive and native species using published matrix population models for 21 invasive and 179 native plant species. We examined whether the population growth rate responsiveness to survival, growth and fecundity perturbations varied between invasive and native species, and determined which demographic processes of invaders to target for reductions in population growth rate. 3Invaders had higher population growth rates (,) than natives, resulting in differences in demographic processes. Perturbations of growth and fecundity transitions (elasticities) were more important for population growth of invaders, whereas perturbations of survival had greater importance for population growth of natives. 4For both invasive and native species, elasticities of , to survival increased with life span and decreased with ,; while elasticities to growth and fecundity decreased with life span and increased with ,. 5For long-lived invaders, simulated reductions in either survival, growth or fecundity transitions were generally insufficient to produce population declines, whereas multiple reductions in either survival + growth or survival + fecundity were more effective. For short-lived invaders, simulated reductions in growth or fecundity and all pairwise multiple reductions produced population declines. 6Synthesis and applications. Life history and population growth rate of invasive species are important in the selection of control targets. For rapidly growing populations of short-lived invaders, growth and fecundity transitions should be prioritized as control targets over survival transitions. For long-lived invaders, simultaneous reductions in more than one demographic process, preferably survival and growth, are usually required to ensure population decline. These general guidelines can be applied to rapidly growing new plant invasions and at the invasion front where detailed demographic data on invasive species are lacking. [source]


Pain management in horses and farm animals

JOURNAL OF VETERINARY EMERGENCY AND CRITICAL CARE, Issue 4 2005
Alexander Valverde DVM, DACVA
Abstract Objective: This review discusses the different analgesic drugs and routes of administration used in large animals for acute pain management. General guidelines and doses are given to assist in choosing techniques that provide effective analgesia. Etiology: Noxious stimuli are perceived, recognized, and localized by specialized sensory systems located at spinal and supraspinal levels. Diagnosis: Localizing the source of the noxious stimulus as well as understanding the behavioral aspects and physiological changes that result from such insult is important to adequately diagnose and treat pain. Pain assessment is far from being definite and objective; not only are there species differences, but also individual variation. In addition, the behavioral and physiological manifestations vary with the acute or chronic nature of pain. Therapy: Pain management should include (1) selecting drugs that better control the type of pain elicited by the insult; (2) selecting techniques of analgesic drug administration that act on pathways or anatomical locations where the nociceptive information is being processed or originating from; (3) combining analgesic drugs that act on different pain pathways; and (4) provide the best possible comfort for the animal. Prognosis: Providing pain relief improves the animal's well being and outcome; however, interpreting and diagnosing pain remains difficult. Continuing research in pain management will contribute to the evaluation of the pathophysiology of pain, pain assessment, and newer analgesic drugs and techniques. [source]


The Influence of Solvent Properties and Functionality on the Electrospinnability of Polystyrene Nanofibers

MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 7 2006
Cattaleeya Pattamaprom
Abstract Summary: In order to produce nanometer-sized fibers at an industrial scale, not only the morphology but also the production rate of fibers is important. The effect of solvent properties and functionality on the production rate of electrospun PS nanofibers was investigated using eighteen different solvents. The solution concentration was varied between 10 and 30% w/v. Electrospinning of PS solutions was carried out at various applied voltages and tip-to-collector distances The production rate of the obtained PS nanofibers was quantified in terms of electrospinnability. We found that the chance for the resulting PS solution to be spinnable is greater for solvents with high dipole moment and low viscosity. The solvent that provided the highest electrospinnability for polystyrene was DMF and the functionalities that promoted high dipole moment and thus high spinnability were the carbonyl group and the nitrogen group with free electrons. General guidelines for choosing suitable solvents for successful production of electrospun nanofibers have also been proposed. SEM image of PS 685D at 200× magnification and the %-coverage of the fibers obtained by using DMF, chloroform, and 1,4-dioxane. [source]


Ethical and economic evaluations of consumption in contemporary China

BUSINESS ETHICS: A EUROPEAN REVIEW, Issue 2 2001
Zhou Zhongzhi
Consumption is one of the important components in the social reproduction circle, which also includes production, distribution, and exchange. Consumer activities should be examined in the social context as well as in the context of the production process. Especially important are impacts of social ethics and individual morality on consumer activities. This paper describes a dialectical relation between ethical and economic evaluations of consumption, presents evidence on Chinese attitudes to borrowing, and proposes a reasonable proportionality between consumption and frugality as a general guideline for consumer activities in contemporary China. [source]


The promise and the potential consequences of the global transport of mycorrhizal fungal inoculum

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 5 2006
Mark W. Schwartz
Abstract Advances in ecology during the past decade have led to a much more detailed understanding of the potential negative consequences of species' introductions. Moreover, recent studies of mycorrhizal symbionts have led to an increased knowledge of the potential utility of fungal inoculations in agricultural, horticultural and ecological management. The intentional movement of mycorrhizal fungal species is growing, but the concomitant potential for negative ecological consequences of invasions by mycorrhizal fungi is poorly understood. We assess the degree to which introductions of mycorrhizal fungi may lead to unintended negative, and potentially costly, consequences. Our purpose is to make recommendations regarding appropriate management guidelines and highlight top priority research needs. Given the difficulty in discerning invasive species problems associated with mycorrhizal inoculations, we recommend the following. First, careful assessment documenting the need for inoculation, and the likelihood of success, should be conducted prior to inoculation because inoculations are not universally beneficial. Second, invasive species problems are costly and often impossible to control by the time they are recognized. We recommend using local inoculum sources whenever possible. Third, non-sterile cultures of inoculum can result in the movement of saprobes and pathogens as well as mutualists. We recommend using material that has been produced through sterile culture when local inoculum is not available. Finally, life-history characteristics of inoculated fungi may provide general guidelines relative to the likelihood of establishment and spread. We recommend that, when using non-local fungi, managers choose fungal taxa that carry life-history traits that may minimize the likelihood of deleterious invasive species problems. Additional research is needed on the potential of mycorrhizal fungi to spread to non-target areas and cause ecological damage. [source]


AAN-EFNS guidelines on trigeminal neuralgia management

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 10 2008
G. Cruccu
Several issues regarding diagnosis, pharmacological treatment, and surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) are still unsettled. The American Academy of Neurology and the European Federation of Neurological Societies launched a joint Task Force to prepare general guidelines for the management of this condition. After systematic review of the literature the Task Force came to a series of evidence-based recommendations. In patients with TN MRI may be considered to identify patients with structural causes. The presence of trigeminal sensory deficits, bilateral involvement, and abnormal trigeminal reflexes should be considered useful to disclose symptomatic TN, whereas younger age of onset, involvement of the first division, unresponsiveness to treatment and abnormal trigeminal evoked potentials are not useful in distinguishing symptomatic from classic TN. Carbamazepine (stronger evidence) or oxcarbazepine (better tolerability) should be offered as first-line treatment for pain control. For patients with TN refractory to medical therapy early surgical therapy may be considered. Gasserian ganglion percutaneous techniques, gamma knife and microvascular decompression may be considered. Microvascular decompression may be considered over other surgical techniques to provide the longest duration of pain freedom. The role of surgery versus pharmacotherapy in the management of TN in patients with multiple sclerosis remains uncertain. [source]


A Radical Version of the Bromo- and the Iodocyclization of Bis(homoallylic) Alcohols , The Synthesis of Halogenated Tetrahydrofurans by Stereoselective Alkoxyl Radical Ring Closures

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 20 2003
Jens Hartung
Abstract A new synthesis of bromo- and iodomethyl-substituted tetrahydrofurans has been devised. The sequence starts with the conversion of aryl-functionalized bis(homoallylic) alcohols 1 into N -alkenoxythiazole-2(3H)-thiones 6 or pyridine-2(1H)-thiones 7. When photolyzed in the presence of appropriate trapping reagents, thiones 6 and 7 efficiently liberated substituted 4-penten-1-oxyl radicals 2, which underwent synthetically useful 5- exo -trig cyclizations. Cyclized radicals 3 were trapped with BrCCl3 or an adequate iodine atom donor (either n -C4F9I or diethyl 2-iodo-2-methyl malonate) to provide halocyclization products 4 or 5. This strategy has been applied for the synthesis of 3-, 4-, or 5-phenyl-substituted 2-(1-bromo-1-methylethyl)tetrahydrofurans 4a,c (75,90%, 36,96% de), which were not attainable as major products from polar, for example NBS-mediated, bromocyclizations. Aryl-substituted 2-iodomethyl tetrahydrofurans 5 (46,80%) were prepared in a similar way starting from N -alkenoxypyridine-2(1H)-thiones 7 and a suitable iodine atom donor. Diastereomerically pure iodides cis - 5 and trans - 5 served as starting materials for a stereochemical analysis of disubstituted tetrahydrofurans by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results of this investigation clarified that all new alkoxyl radical cyclizations followed in terms of regio- and diastereoselectivity the general guidelines which had been established for this type of ring-closure reaction. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]


The 80th anniversary of von Willebrand's disease: history, management and research

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 6 2006
A. B. FEDERICI
Summary., The history of von Willebrand's disease (VWD) is fascinating because it demonstrates how good clinical observations, genetic studies and biochemical skills can improve basic understanding of a disease and its management. The continuous efforts of scientists and clinicians during the last 80 years have significantly improved the knowledge of von Willebrand factor (VWF) structure and function and the management of VWD. Diagnosis of phenotype and genotype is now available in many countries and treatment is becoming more specific according to the VWD type. Any therapeutic agents must correct the dual defect of haemostasis, i.e. the abnormal platelet adhesion due to reduced and/or dysfunctional and low levels of factor VIII (FVIII) associated with VWF defects. Desmopressin (DDAVP) is the treatment of choice for type 1 VWD because it induces release of VWF from cellular compartments. Plasma virally inactivated VWF concentrates containing FVIII are effective and safe in patients unresponsive to DDAVP. There are advanced plans to develop a recombinant VWF but this product will require the concomitant administration of FVIII for the control of acute bleeds. Basic research studies on cellular biology, biochemistry and immunology have confirmed the role of VWF as a crucial participant in both haemostasis and thrombosis as its main biological activity is to support platelet adhesion,aggregation in the circulation. Retrospective and prospective clinical research studies, including bleeding history and laboratory markers for diagnosis as well as the use of DDAVP and VWF concentrates to manage or prevent bleeds in patients with VWD have been essential to provide general guidelines for VWD management. The large number of publications quoting VWD and VWF emphasizes the important role of VWF in medicine. [source]


General guidelines for invasive plant management based on comparative demography of invasive and native plant populations

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
Satu Ramula
Summary 1General guidelines for invasive plant management are currently lacking. Population declines may be achieved by focusing control on demographic processes (survival, growth, fecundity) with the greatest impact on population growth rate. However, we often have little demographic information on populations in the early stages of an invasion when control can be most effective. Here we determine whether synthesis of existing demographic data on invasive and native plant populations can address this knowledge problem. 2We compared population dynamics between invasive and native species using published matrix population models for 21 invasive and 179 native plant species. We examined whether the population growth rate responsiveness to survival, growth and fecundity perturbations varied between invasive and native species, and determined which demographic processes of invaders to target for reductions in population growth rate. 3Invaders had higher population growth rates (,) than natives, resulting in differences in demographic processes. Perturbations of growth and fecundity transitions (elasticities) were more important for population growth of invaders, whereas perturbations of survival had greater importance for population growth of natives. 4For both invasive and native species, elasticities of , to survival increased with life span and decreased with ,; while elasticities to growth and fecundity decreased with life span and increased with ,. 5For long-lived invaders, simulated reductions in either survival, growth or fecundity transitions were generally insufficient to produce population declines, whereas multiple reductions in either survival + growth or survival + fecundity were more effective. For short-lived invaders, simulated reductions in growth or fecundity and all pairwise multiple reductions produced population declines. 6Synthesis and applications. Life history and population growth rate of invasive species are important in the selection of control targets. For rapidly growing populations of short-lived invaders, growth and fecundity transitions should be prioritized as control targets over survival transitions. For long-lived invaders, simultaneous reductions in more than one demographic process, preferably survival and growth, are usually required to ensure population decline. These general guidelines can be applied to rapidly growing new plant invasions and at the invasion front where detailed demographic data on invasive species are lacking. [source]


Cognitive,behavioral therapy with gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
Steven A. Safren
Cognitive,behavioral therapy (CBT) can be adapted to a wide range of clinical difficulties and presenting problems that face lesbians, gay men, and bisexual persons. The following article presents general guidelines for and two case examples of the use of CBT. The first case is a gay male struggling with social phobia. This case is an example of how to adapt a structured, empirically supported cognitive,behavioral treatment focusing on social phobia to situations that are associated with his sexual orientation. The second is a woman struggling with multiple issues including coming out. This case provides an example of how to add specific cognitive,behavioral techniques to coming-out issues within the context of a more eclectic, longer-term therapy. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session 57: 629,643, 2001. [source]


The effects of animations on verbal interaction in computer supported collaborative learning

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING, Issue 5 2008
M. Sangin
Abstract This paper focuses on the interaction patterns of learners studying in pairs who were provided with multimedia learning material. In a previous article, we reported that learning scores were higher for dyads of an ,animations' condition than for dyads of a ,static pictures' condition. Results also showed that offering a persistent display of one snapshot of each animated sequence hindered collaborative learning. In the present paper, further analyses of verbal interactions within learning dyads were performed in order to have a better understanding of both the beneficial effect of animations and the detrimental effect of the presence of persistent snapshots of critical steps on collaborative learning. Results did not show any differences in terms of verbal categories between the two versions of the instructional material, that is, static versus animated pictures. Pairs who were provided with persistent snapshots of the multimedia sequences produced fewer utterances compared to participants without the snapshots. In addition, the persistent snapshots were detrimental both in terms of providing information about the learning content and in terms of producing utterances solely for the purpose of managing the interaction. In this study, evidence also showed that these two verbal categories were positively related to learning performances. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the negative effect of persistent snapshots was mediated by the fact that peers of the snapshots condition produced less information providing and interaction management utterances. Results are interpreted using a psycholinguistic framework applied to computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) literature and general guidelines are derived for the use of dynamic material and persistency tools in the design of CSCL environments. [source]


Choosing between alternative classification criteria to measure the labour force state

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES A (STATISTICS IN SOCIETY), Issue 1 2007
Erich Battistin
Summary., Labour force counting relies on general guidelines that are set by the International Labour Office to classify individuals into three labour force states: employment, unemployment and inactivity. However, the resulting statistics are known to be sensitive to slight variations in operational definitions which are prima facie consistent with the general guidelines. We consider two interpretations of the general guidelines, operationalized by the criterion that is currently followed by Eurostat and a criterion that was followed by the Italian Statistical Office up to 1992. After showing that the labour force statistics resulting from the two criteria differ considerably, we compare individuals whose classification depends on the criterion that is adopted with individuals whose classification is common between criteria to study the boundary between unemployment and inactivity. An application of our strategy is presented using data from the Italian Labour Force Survey, painting a picture neatly against the criterion that is currently followed by Eurostat. [source]


Reliable assessment of high temperature oxidation resistance by the development of a comprehensive code of practice for thermocycling oxidation testing , European COTEST project ,

MATERIALS AND CORROSION/WERKSTOFFE UND KORROSION, Issue 1 2006
M. Schütze
Abstract The cyclic oxidation test is the most often used tool in industry to characterise the high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance of technical materials in the laboratory. In the past, however, there has been the problem of a lack of intercomparability of data from different laboratories and sometimes even from different test runs in the same lab since no general guidelines or standards were existing for this type of test. Being aware of this situation the European COTEST research project was started with 23 participants from 11 countries including representatives from industry, universities, private institutes and national research labs. The present paper reports about the outcome of this project after three years. The project consisted of 8 work packages including literature search on the state-of-the-art at the beginning of the work, experimental investigations supported by a statistics approach in order to quantify the impact of the different test parameters on the test results, a validation testing phase and the development of a comprehensive set of guidelines. The latter is available on the internet and serves as a basis for a future ISO standard for this type of test. [source]


Diagnosis of nonimmediate reactions to ,-lactam antibiotics

ALLERGY, Issue 11 2004
A. Romano
Nonimmediate manifestations (i.e. occurring more than 1 h after drug administration), particularly maculopapular and urticarial eruptions, are common during , -lactam treatment. The mechanisms involved in most nonimmediate reactions seem to be heterogeneous and are not yet completely understood. However, clinical and immunohistological studies, as well as analysis of drug-specific T-cell clones obtained from the circulating blood and the skin, suggest that a type-IV (cell-mediated) pathogenic mechanism may be involved in some nonimmediate reactions such as maculopapular or bullous rashes and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. In the diagnostic work-up, the patient's history is fundamental; patch testing is useful, together with delayed-reading intradermal testing. The latter appears to be somewhat more sensitive than patch testing, but also less specific. In case of negative allergologic tests, consideration should be given to provocation tests, and the careful administration of the suspect agents. With regard to in vitro tests, the lymphocyte transformation test may contribute to the identification of the responsible drug. Under the aegis of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) interest group on drug hypersensitivity and the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA), in this review we describe the general guidelines for evaluating subjects with nonimmediate reactions to , -lactams. [source]


Beneficial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Rana catesbeiana hatchery

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 14 2009
Sergio E Pasteris
Abstract This work addresses the selection of potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to be used in raniculture. Thus, strains belonging to the genera Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from a Rana catesbeiana hatchery were evaluated for their inhibitory properties against RLS-associated pathogens (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and food-borne bacteria. Cell-free supernatants of LAB strains inhibited the growth of at least one of the pathogens by organic acids, but L. lactis CRL 1584 also produced a bacteriocin-like metabolite. The ability of LAB strains to produce H2O2 in MRS+TMB medium was also studied. Seventy-eight to ninety six per cent of the strains showed some level of H2O2 production. Moreover, different organic solvents were used to determine the hydrophobicity and Lewis acid/base characteristic of LAB strain surfaces. Most of the strains presented hydrophilic properties, but no acidic or basic surface characters. However, some strains isolated from the skin showed a high degree of hydrophobicity and basic components in the cell surface due to their adhesion to chloroform. These properties were not observed in LAB from balanced feed and freshwater. Taking into account general guidelines and the beneficial properties studied, five strains were selected as potential candidates to be included in a probiotic for raniculture. [source]


The Ethics of Genetic Research of Intelligence

BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2000
Michael J. Reiss
Should research on the possible genetic components of human intelligence be carried out? I first try to provide some general guidelines as to whether any particular piece of research should be undertaken and then consider the specific example of the ethics of genetic research on intelligence. The history of the debate on intelligence does not make one very optimistic that the fruits of such research would be used wisely. However, there are indications that people's understanding of the nature of inheritance may be improving and it could be that such research might have significant benefits. It is worth remembering than the condition phenylketonuria, a genetic disease in any useful sense of the term, and one that leads to mental retardation (i.e. very low intelligence), is now wholly preventable, and indeed very largely prevented, through environmental intervention. [source]


Occupational stress, negative affectivity and physical health in special and general education teachers in Greece

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2006
Lambros Lazuras
Teacher stress has attracted considerable attention, yet few studies have focused on special education teachers. This article, by Lambros Lazuras of the South-East European Research Centre (SEERC) in Thessaloniki, reports research designed to explore differences in the stress levels of general and special educators in Greece and provides preliminary evidence for a framework to understand the process of special education teacher stress. A total of 70 teachers from general and special education schools from a large Greek city participated in the study by completing questionnaires. Measures included occupational stress deriving from interpersonal conflict, organisational constraints, workload, work-related negative affectivity and health outcomes. Data analyses allowed for inferences regarding the dynamic interaction among the study variables. Findings appear interesting in terms of advancing current understanding of the relationships between different sources of job stress within the special education teaching context and provide general guidelines for future policies aiming to counter special education teacher stress. [source]


Guidelines for the use of EEG methodology in the diagnosis of epilepsy

ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2002
International League Against Epilepsy: Commission Report Commission on European Affairs: Subcommission on European Guidelines
The Commission of European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy published `Appropriate Standards for Epilepsy Care Across Europe' which contained recommendations for the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in the diagnosis of epilepsy (Brodie et al. Epilepsia 1997; 38:1245). The need for a more specific basic document of EEG methodology was recognized and the Subcommission on European Affairs was asked to produce more detailed guidelines to be used across Europe recognizing the range of practices in EEG laboratories. There are many general guidelines published on EEG methodology but this document focuses on the diagnosis of epilepsy. Details from previously published guidelines are included in references and in an appendix. These guidelines are not meant to be used as minimal standards but recommendations that can be applied to all EEG laboratories despite variations in equipment. [source]


Antiepileptic drug utilization: a Danish prescription database analysis

ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2001
P. Rochat
Objectives, The purpose of the study was to use prescription data from a Danish database to analyse and evaluate antiepileptic drug (AED) utilization, and compare with other prevalence studies. Methods, A Danish research database covering outpatient prescription data from a population of 471,873 persons was used. Prescription records on all patients prescribed AEDs during 1998 were retrieved. A cohort was extracted from the group of AED users. Results, We identified 5426 AED users. A total of 3756 of the 5426 AED users were included in our cohort. Of the subjects in the cohort 74% were on monotherapy, 19% used two AEDs and only 7% used three or more AEDs. The eight most frequent regimens were all monotherapy: carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, valproic acid, lamotrigine, clonazepam, phenytoin and primidon in that order. The estimated crude 1-year prevalence of AED use was 0.77% for women and 0.83% for men (P<0.001), and it increased with age for both genders. Conclusions, The prescription pattern reported here is in accordance with the general guidelines for the treatment of epilepsy in Denmark, except for a surprisingly extensive use of phenobarbital. With specific reservations the figures appear to be reasonable estimates of the prevalence of epilepsy. [source]


Molecular ConceptorTM for Training in Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design, and Cheminformatics

CHEMICAL BIOLOGY & DRUG DESIGN, Issue 1 2007
Claude Cohen
Current emphasis on structure-based design and other computational methods have encouraged medicinal chemists to learn traditionally ,expert' techniques of molecular modeling, computer-aided drug design, and cheminformatics. Molecular ConceptorTM (Synergix Ltd) is a multimedia software for teaching three-dimensional drug design principles. It present techniques and strategies used in drug design and cheminformatics with general guidelines for their successful application. Discovery of lead compounds and concepts are illustrated with manipulatable views of molecules, pharmacophores, and protein,ligand complexes. It is a unique teaching and learning aid for medicinal chemists, instructors, students, and others who need in-depth knowledge of these important techniques, as well as a valuable refresher course for professional modelers. [source]


Towards integrated paediatric services in the Netherlands: a survey of views and policies on collaboration in the care for children with cerebral palsy

CHILD: CARE, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2007
B. J. G. Nijhuis
Abstract Aim, Worldwide, family-centred and co-ordinated care are seen as the two most desirable and effective methods of paediatric care delivery. This study outlines current views on how team collaboration comprising professionals in paediatric rehabilitation and special education and the parents of children with disabilities should be organized, and analyses the policies of five paediatric rehabilitation settings associated with the care of 44 children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the Netherlands. Methods, For an overview of current ideas on collaboration, written statements of professional associations in Dutch paediatric rehabilitation were examined. The policy statements of the five participating settings were derived from their institutional files. Documents detailing the collaborative arrangements involving the various professionals and parents were evaluated at the institutional level and at the child level. Involvement of the stakeholders was analysed based on team conferences. Results, Also in the Netherlands collaboration between rehabilitation and education professionals and parents is endorsed as the key principle in paediatric rehabilitation, with at its core the team conference in which the various priorities and goals are formulated and integrated into a personalized treatment plan. As to their collaborative approaches between rehabilitation centre and school, the five paediatric settings rarely differed, but at the child level approaches varied. Teams were large (averaging 10.5 members), and all three stakeholder groups were represented, but involvement differed per setting, as did the roles and contributions of the individual team members. Conclusion, Collaboration between rehabilitation and education professionals and parents is supported and encouraged nationwide. Views on collaboration have been formulated, and general guidelines on family-centred and co-ordinated care are available. Yet, collaborative practices in Dutch paediatric care are still developing. Protocols that carefully delineate the commitments to collaborate and that translate the policies into practical, detailed guidelines are needed, as they are a prerequisite for successful teamwork. [source]


Policy interpretation network on children's health and environment

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2006
PETER VAN DEN HAZEL
Abstract Aim: The main objective of PINCHE is to provide policy recommendations aiming at protecting children's health and environment based on completed scientific research. The project focused on four themes: indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carcinogens, neurotoxicants, and noise. The data were evaluated in workpackages on exposure assessment, epidemiology, toxicology, and risk and health impact assessment. The data were analysed according to a framework of questions. The workpackage on socioeconomic factors studied the influence of socioeconomic status on exposures and on health effects. In the workpackage on science-policy interface, recommendations on how to improve children's environmental health were formulated. Results: The policy recommendations resulting from the analysis were grouped according to relevant policy levels: European Commission or the European Parliament, member states and other stakeholders at regional or local level. These recommendations are general guidelines for taking action. Regional differences and variation must be reflected when policy is actually implemented. In addition, recommendations related to education and personal behaviour are presented in the reports. Conclusions: The policy recommendations are important input for policy advisers, policy makers and public health authorities at all policy levels. The recommendations are also of direct relevance to interest groups, such as environmental NGOs including child health and advocacy groups. The policy recommendations for each policy level were prioritized. High priorities were given to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, transport related air pollution, indoor air and mercury. [source]


Multicultural education and genetic counseling

CLINICAL GENETICS, Issue 3 2001
J Weil
The responsibility to provide accessible, useful genetic counseling to individuals from many cultures and ethnicities arises from the increasing ethnocultural diversity of the populations served, coupled with the ethical goal of providing equal access and quality of services for all individuals. The multicultural education, training, and practice of genetic counseling involves three major components: knowledge of relevant ethnocultural groups, ethnocultural self-awareness, and an understanding of institutional and social barriers to services. Despite the diversity of ethnocultural groups served and the critical role of direct experience and training for the genetic counselor, some general guidelines for multicultural genetic counseling can be identified. These include the importance of establishing and maintaining trust, the essential need to respect the counselee's healthcare beliefs and practices, and the necessity of understanding the impact of culture on the process of decision making and on counselee responses to nondirective counseling. [source]