Genotype Information (genotype + information)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Haplotype association analysis for late onset diseases using nuclear family data

Chun Li
Abstract In haplotype-based association studies for late onset diseases, one attractive design is to use available unaffected spouses as controls (Valle et al. [1998] Diab. Care 21:949,958). Given cases and spouses only, the standard expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm (Dempster et al. [1977] J. R. Stat. Soc. B 39:1,38) for case-control data can be used to estimate haplotype frequencies. But often we will have offspring for at least some of the spouse pairs, and offspring genotypes provide additional information about the haplotypes of the parents. Existing methods may either ignore the offspring information, or reconstruct haplotypes for the subjects using offspring information and discard data from those whose haplotypes cannot be reconstructed with high confidence. Neither of these approaches is efficient, and the latter approach may also be biased. For case-control data with some subjects forming spouse pairs and offspring genotypes available for some spouse pairs or individuals, we propose a unified, likelihood-based method of haplotype inference. The method makes use of available offspring genotype information to apportion ambiguous haplotypes for the subjects. For subjects without offspring genotype information, haplotypes are apportioned as in the standard EM algorithm for case-control data. Our method enables efficient haplotype frequency estimation using an EM algorithm and supports probabilistic haplotype reconstruction with the probability calculated based on the whole sample. We describe likelihood ratio and permutation tests to test for disease-haplotype association, and describe three test statistics that are potentially useful for detecting such an association. Genet. Epidemiol. 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Maximum-likelihood estimation of haplotype frequencies in nuclear families

Tim Becker
Abstract The importance of haplotype analysis in the context of association fine mapping of disease genes has grown steadily over the last years. Since experimental methods to determine haplotypes on a large scale are not available, phase has to be inferred statistically. For individual genotype data, several reconstruction techniques and many implementations of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for haplotype frequency estimation exist. Recent research work has shown that incorporating available genotype information of related individuals largely increases the precision of haplotype frequency estimates. We, therefore, implemented a highly flexible program written in C, called FAMHAP, which calculates maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of haplotype frequencies from general nuclear families with an arbitrary number of children via the EM-algorithm for up to 20 SNPs. For more loci, we have implemented a locus-iterative mode of the EM-algorithm, which gives reliable approximations of the MLEs for up to 63 SNP loci, or less when multi-allelic markers are incorporated into the analysis. Missing genotypes can be handled as well. The program is able to distinguish cases (haplotypes transmitted to the first affected child of a family) from pseudo-controls (non-transmitted haplotypes with respect to the child). We tested the performance of FAMHAP and the accuracy of the obtained haplotype frequencies on a variety of simulated data sets. The implementation proved to work well when many markers were considered and no significant differences between the estimates obtained with the usual EM-algorithm and those obtained in its locus-iterative mode were observed. We conclude from the simulations that the accuracy of haplotype frequency estimation and reconstruction in nuclear families is very reliable in general and robust against missing genotypes. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Proteomic identification of biomarkers related to Helicobacter pylori -associated gastroduodenal disease: Challenges and opportunities

Ming-Shiang Wu
Abstract Helicobacter pylori colonize the stomach of over half the world's population. While 80,90% H. pylori -infected individuals have clinically asymptomatic gastritis, 10,15% develop peptic ulcer, and 1,2% gastric malignancies. These variable clinical outcomes have led to an interest in prognostic indicators. The current disease paradigm suggests that host genetics and bacterial virulence both play important roles in modulating the final outcome of H. pylori infection. Elucidation of the interaction between host and bacterium is essential to clarify pathogenesis and to develop new strategies for prevention and treatment. Proteomic technology is a powerful tool for simultaneously monitoring proteins and protein variation on a large scale in biological samples. It has provided an unprecedented opportunity to survey a cell's translational landscape comprehensively, and the results may allow in-depth analyses of host and pathogen interactions. Using this high-throughput platform and taking advantage of complete sequences for both the H. pylori and the human genome in available databases, we have identified several crucial proteins that have pathogenic and prognostic potential. Among them, antibodies to AhpC and GroEs of H. pylori could be utilized for identification of patients who are at high risk of disease complications after H. pylori infection. Evolving proteomic technologies, together with appropriate clinical phenotyping and genotype information should enhance understanding of disease pathogenesis and lead to more precise prediction of variable disease outcomes. It will also facilitate development of biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of H. pylori infection. [source]

TECHNICAL ADVANCES: A maximum-likelihood relatedness estimator allowing for negative relatedness values

Abstract Previously reported maximum-likelihood pairwise relatedness (r) estimator of Thompson and Milligan (M) was extended to allow for negative r estimates under the regression interpretation of r. This was achieved by establishing the equivalency of the likelihoods used in the kinship program and the likelihoods of Thompson. The new maximum-likelihood (ML) estimator was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the new ML estimator became unbiased significantly faster compared to the original M estimator when the amount of genotype information was increased. The effects of allele frequency estimation errors on the new and existing relatedness estimators were also considered. [source]

Determination of the genetic status of cleavage-stage human embryos by microsatellite marker analysis following multiple displacement amplification

Pamela J. Renwick
Abstract Objectives To analyse genotype information from cleavage-stage human embryos and assess the chromosomal status and feasibility of performing aneuploidy screening by microsatellite analysis. Methods DNA from 49 blastomeres from eight cleavage-stage human embryos was amplified using multiple displacement amplification, then tested for panels of 64 polymorphic microsatellite markers on seven different chromosomes, and for two non-polymorphic sequences on the X and Y chromosomes. Results There was an overall allele drop out (ADO) rate of 28%. Novel alleles in single cells were seen in 0.3% of amplifications, interpreted as either somatic microsatellite mutation events or ,slippage' of the MDA , 29 polymerase. Three-allele results for a single marker in a single cell were found in 0.07% of amplifications, interpreted as ,slippage' of the MDA , 29 polymerase. One apparent segmental duplication was found. Only one embryo with no normal cells was found, probably arising from the chaotic cleavage division following a triploid conception. Six embryos were mosaic, of which four had only one abnormal cell. Conclusions Abnormalities in human embryos may be present in only a single cell, leading to potentially false abnormal results at pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. ADO associated with MDA reduces the efficacy of this approach for detection of aneuploidy. Statistical analysis showed that, for ADO of 28%, seven informative markers would be required to give 95% confidence of detecting trisomic embryos. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Development of novel SNP system for individual and pedigree control in a Japanese Black cattle population using whole-genome genotyping assay

Kazuhiro HARA
ABSTRACT Individual identification and parentage analysis using DNA markers are essential for assuring food identity and managing livestock population. The objective of this study was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel system for individual effective identification and parentage testing in a Japanese Black cattle population using BovineSNP50 BeadChip. On the basis of SNP frequencies, 60 unlinked informative SNPs were finally selected as candidate markers. The allelic frequencies for each SNP were estimated using additional individuals by PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). A total of 87 SNP markers added in conjunction with previously developed 27 SNPs were evaluated to assess the utility of the test. The estimated identity power was 2.01 10,34. Parentage exclusion probabilities, when both suspected parents' genotypes were known and when only one suspected parent was genotyped, were estimated as 0.99999997 and 0.99998010, respectively. This developed SNP panel was quite powerful and could successfully exclude false sires with a probability of >0.9999 even if the dam's genotype information was not obtained. The SNP system would contribute to management of the beef industry in Japan. [source]

The impact of a TSH receptor gene polymorphism on thyroid-related phenotypes in a healthy Danish twin population

Pia Skov Hansen
Summary Objectives, The Asp727Glu polymorphism in the TSH receptor (TSHR) gene is associated with serum TSH levels. However, the proportion of genetic variation accounted for by this polymorphism is unknown. In this study, we (1) examined the association of the Asp727Glu polymorphism with thyroid size, serum levels of TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid antibodies in 1241 healthy Danish twin individuals and (2) assessed the contribution of the polymorphism to the trait variation and the genetic variance. Measurements, The effect of the genotype on the traits (mean SD) was established; associations between the TSHR-Asp727Glu polymorphism and measures of thyroid homeostasis were assessed and the effect of the polymorphism on the trait's phenotypic variability was quantified by incorporating the genotype information in structural equation modelling. Results, The genotype distribution was Asp/Asp 849%; Asp/Glu 145% and Glu/Glu 06%. Carriers of the TSHR-Glu727 allele had lower TSH levels (noncarriers vs. carriers: 178 093 vs. 160 084 mU/l, P = 004). Regression analysis showed an association between the TSHR-Asp727Glu polymorphism and serum TSH (P = 0007). The polymorphism accounted for 091% of the total phenotypic variance in serum TSH levels. Including the genotype in quantitative genetic modelling improved the model fit (P = 0001); however, the genetic influence on serum TSH not attributable to this specific genetic variant was only reduced from 682% to 678%. The polymorphism was not significantly associated with thyroid size, thyroid hormones or thyroid antibody levels. Conclusions, The TSHR-727Glu allele was associated with decreasing TSH levels; however, the contribution to the genetic variance was very small. No association was found with other thyroid-related measures. [source]