Genotype II (genotype + ii)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Occurrence and molecular genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in surface waters in Northern Ireland

C.J. Lowery
Aims: To investigate the incidence and genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in drinking water sources in Northern Ireland for the period 1996,1999, and to compare conventional and molecular methods of detection. Methods and Results: Four hundred and seventy-four waters were investigated by conventional methods, namely immuno-fluorescent antibody detection (IFA; 380) and immuno-magnetic separation-IFA (IMS-IFA; 94), of which 14/474 (3%) were positive. Two hundred and fourteen samples (214/474) were also investigated by PCR techniques, targeting both the 18S rRNA and TRAP-C2 genes, of which 11/214 (51%) were positive. These 11 samples were classified as genotype II following sequence analysis of the TRAP-C2 amplicon. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the low incidence of oocysts of C. parvum in water sources in Northern Ireland. Significance and Impact of the Study: Such molecular-based techniques offer a number of advantages over conventional detection methodologies, namely greater sensitivity and specificity as well as the ability to provide accurate genotyping data rapidly, which may be valuable in directing operational management in potential outbreak situations. [source]

Adhesion and invasion to epithelial cells by fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis

J. E. Umeda
Adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells by the periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is promoted by the major fimbriae, encoded by fimA. The microorganism can be classified in six genotypes, based on fimA sequence, and genotype II strains are more prevalent than others in periodontitis patients. This study aimed to determine the adhesive and invasive abilities on KB cells of different fimA allelic variants of P. gingivalis isolates. Twenty-two isolates and six reference strains representing the six fimA genotypes and non-typeable strains were screened for their adhesion and invasion abilities on KB cells, using standard methods. All strains were able to adhere and, except for one, to invade KB cells. However, these properties were not homogeneous among strains belonging to the same genotype. There was no correlation between adhesion and invasion efficiencies. Isolate KdII 865 (fimA genotype II) was the most invasive and the second most adhesive strain, whereas reference strain ATCC 33277 (fimA I) showed a low adhesion ability but was highly invasive. These data indicated that fimA genotypes of P. gingivalis are not related to the adhesion and invasion abilities on KB cells, suggesting that the increased prevalence and proportion of certain genotypes may be attributed to other characteristics besides FimA variation. [source]

Molecular epidemiology of rubella virus in Asia: Utility for reduction in the burden of diseases due to congenital rubella syndrome

Shigetaka Katow
AbstractBackground:,Rubella is a mild disease mainly of infants, involving a rash and a fever. However, when women who have no immunity to rubella are infected during the early stage of pregnancy, their babies are often born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which is characterized by a few disorders including deafness, cataracts and heart malformations. To prevent CRS, several strains of live attenuated rubella vaccine have been developed and introduced into immunization programs in many countries. In most Asian countries except Japan, Singapore and Taiwan, rubella remains uncontrolled, and the burden of diseases from CRS is high. In order to develop a control program to reduce the number of CRS cases in Asian countries, it is necessary to conduct a survey of rubella and CRS cases, and to then determine the genotype of the circulating rubella virus in each country. Methods:,Cases of rubella and CRS, based on national reporting systems or active surveillance in the Asian countries, are summarized. Sequences of the E1 gene of the virus isolates from the Asian countries were compared by phylogenic analysis. Results:,Recent studies of the molecular epidemiology of rubella virus worldwide revealed that there are two genotypes, and that genotype I is circulating almost worldwide, while genotype II is an Asian prototype restricted to the Asian continent. Genotype I viruses fall into a number of groups, some of which are geographically localized. Antigenically these two genotypes are cross-reactive and immunization with either virus results in immunity to all rubella viruses. Discussion:,The hypotheses that rubella virus has evolved on the Asian continent is proposed. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized that a rubella immunization program can be combined with the measles immuization program. Inclusion of rubella in the expanded program of immunization (EPI) of measles would be ideal in Asian countries, as it would be efficient and cost effective to administer one injection containing a three-combined vaccine (MMR). It would also be desirable given that WHO require laboratory tests to confirm the presence of measles or rubella as part of it's measles control project, because rubella is often misdiagnosed as measles. [source]

Serological testing for Bartonella henselae infections in The Netherlands: clinical evaluation of immunofluorescence assay and ELISA

M. J. Vermeulen
Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae infection, can mimic malignancy and can manifest atypically. Reliable serological testing is therefore of great clinical importance. The diagnostic performance of immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and ELISA was evaluated in a group of Dutch patients with proven CSD (clinical diagnosis confirmed by PCR). Sera of 51 CSD patients and 56 controls (patients with similar symptoms, but who were B. henselae PCR-negative and had an alternative confirmed diagnosis) were tested for anti- B. henselae IgM and IgG by IFA and ELISA. A commercially available IFA test for IgM had a sensitivity of 6%. In-house assays for IgM showed specificities of 93% (IFA) and 91% (ELISA), but with low sensitivities (53% and 65%, respectively). With a specificity of 82% (IFA) and 91% (ELISA), in-house IgG testing showed a significantly higher sensitivity in IFA (67%) than in ELISA (28%, p <0.01). Sensitivity was higher for genotype I (38,75%) than for genotype II (7,67%) infections, but this was only statistically significant for IgG ELISA (p <0.05). In conclusion, detection of IgM against B. henselae by in-house ELISA and IFA was highly specific for the diagnosis of CSD. The high seroprevalence in healthy individuals limits the clinical value of IgG detection for diagnosing CSD. Given the low sensitivity of the serological assays, negative serology does not rule out CSD and warrants further investigation, including PCR. Adding locally isolated (e.g., genotype II) B. henselae strains to future tests might improve the sensitivity. [source]