Genotoxic Stress (genotoxic + stress)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Aberrant p53 alters DNA damage checkpoints in response to cisplatin: Downregulation of CDK expression and activity

Katharine H. Wrighton
Abstract The p53 tumor suppressor protein is a critical mediator of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. Abrogation of p53 function is a major feature of tumor development and may result in a compromised DNA-damage response. In our study, we examined the effect of expressing a human p53 cDNA, encoding a histidine to leucine amino acid substitution at codon 179 (H179L), on the ability of wild-type p53-containing NIH3T3 cells to respond to treatment with the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. After 72 hr of cisplatin treatment control cells underwent apoptosis preceded by a combination of S- and G2 arrest, as judged by flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained cells, and TUNEL and caspase-3 assays. This correlated with increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. In contrast, cells stably expressing H179L-p53 arrested in S-phase following cisplatin treatment, which correlated with a marked decrease in the expression of cdc2, cyclin B1 and cyclin A, and a decrease in CDK2 and cyclin A-associated kinase activity. Interestingly, H179L p53 expressing cells underwent apoptosis earlier than control cells, indicating that this aberrant p53 may enhance cisplatin chemosensitivity. These data suggest that dominant-negative p53 can influence the expression and activity of CDK complexes, thereby modifying cell behavior following cisplatin-induced genotoxicity. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

FoxO1 is involved in the antineoplastic effect of calorie restriction

AGING CELL, Issue 3 2010
Haruyoshi Yamaza
Summary The FoxO transcription factors may be involved in the antiaging effect of calorie restriction (CR) in mammals. To test the hypothesis, we used FoxO1 knockout heterozygotic (HT) mice, in which the FoxO1 mRNA level was reduced by 50%, or less, of that in wild-type (WT) mouse tissues. The WT and HT mice were fed ad libitum (AL) or 30% CR diets from 12 weeks of age. Aging- and CR-related changes in body weight, food intake, blood glucose, and insulin concentrations were similar between the WT and HT mice in the lifespan study. The response to oxidative stress, induced by intraperitoneal injection of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), was evaluated in the liver and hippocampus at 6 months of age. Several of the selected FoxO1-target genes for cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress resistance were up-regulated in the WT-CR tissues after 3-NPA injection, while the effect was mostly diminished in the HT-CR tissues. Of these gene products, we focused on the nuclear p21 protein level in the liver and confirmed its up-regulation only in the WT-CR mice in response to oxidative stress. The lifespan did not differ significantly between the WT and HT mice in AL or CR conditions. However, the antineoplastic effect of CR, as indicated by reduced incidence of tumors at death in the WT-CR mice, was mostly abrogated in the HT-CR mice. The present results suggest a role for FoxO1 in the antineoplastic effect of CR through the induction of genes responsible for protection against oxidative and genotoxic stress. [source]

Differential effects of genotoxic stress on both concurrent body growth and gradual senescence in the adult zebrafish

AGING CELL, Issue 2 2007
Stephanie B. Tsai
Summary Among vertebrates, fish and mammals show intriguing differences in their growth control properties with age. The potential for unlimited or indeterminate growth in a variety of fish species has prompted many questions regarding the senescent phenomena that appear during the aging process in these animals. Using zebrafish as our model system, we have attempted in our current study to examine the growth phenomena in fish in relation to the onset of senescence-associated symptoms, and to evaluate the effects of genotoxic stress on these processes. We observed in the course of these analyses that the zebrafish undergoes continuous growth, irrespective of age, past the point of sexual maturation with gradually decreasing growth rates at later stages. Animal population density, current body size and chronological age also play predominant roles in regulating zebrafish growth and all inversely influence the growth rate. Interestingly, the induction of genotoxic stress by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) did not adversely affect this body growth ability in zebrafish. However, IR was found to chronically debilitate the regeneration of amputated caudal fins and thereby induce high levels of abnormal fin regeneration in the adult zebrafish. In addition, by resembling and mimicking the natural course of aging, IR treatments likewise enhanced several other symptoms of senescence, such as a decline in reproductive abilities, increased senescence-associated ,-galactosidase activity and a reduction in melatonin secretion. Our current data thus suggest that during the lifespan of zebrafish, the onset of senescence-associated symptoms occurs in parallel with continuous growth throughout mid-adulthood. Moreover, our present findings indicate that genotoxic DNA damage may play a role as a rate-limiting factor during the induction of senescence, but not in the inhibition of continuous, density-dependent growth in adult zebrafish. [source]

The nuclear localization of SET mediated by imp,3/imp, attenuates its cytosolic toxicity in neurons

Dianbo Qu
Abstract SET is a multi-functional protein in proliferating cells. Some of the proposed functions of SET suggest an important nuclear role. However, the nuclear import pathway of SET is also unknown and the function of SET in neurons is unclear. Presently, using cortical neurons, we report that the nuclear import of SET is mediated by an imp,/imp,-dependent pathway. Nuclear localization signal, 168KRSSQTQNKASRKR181, in SET interacts with imp,3, which recruits imp, to form a ternary complex, resulting in efficient transportation of SET into nucleus. By in vitro nuclear import assay based on digitonin-permeabilized neurons, we further demonstrated that the nuclear import of SET relies on Ran GTPase. We provide evidence that this nuclear localization of SET is important in neuronal survival. Under basal conditions, SET is predominately nuclear. However, upon death induced by genotoxic stress, endogenous SET decreases in the nucleus and increases in the cytoplasm. Consistent with a toxic role of SET in the cytoplasm, targeted expression of SET to the cytoplasm exacerbates death compared to wild type SET expression which is protective following DNA damage. Taken together, our results indicate that SET is imported into the nucleus through its association with imp,3/imp,, and that localization of SET is important in regulation of neuronal death. [source]

ADAM15 exerts an antiapoptotic effect on osteoarthritic chondrocytes via up-regulation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis

Beate Böhm
Objective To investigate the capacity of ADAM15, a disintegrin metalloproteinase that is up-regulated in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, to protect chondrocytes against apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation and genotoxic stress. Methods Caspase 3/7 activity was determined in primary OA and ADAM15-transfected T/C28a4 chondrocytes upon exposure to the DNA-damaging agent camptothecin or serum withdrawal. Camptothecin-induced cytotoxicity was determined by measuring cellular ATP content. (Anti-)apoptotic proteins were analyzed by immunoblotting, and levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RNA interference was applied for down-regulation of ADAM15 and XIAP expression. Immunohistochemistry analysis of normal and OA cartilage samples was performed using XIAP- and ADAM15-specific antibodies. Results ADAM15-transfected chondrocytes cultured on a collagen matrix displayed significantly reduced caspase 3/7 activity upon serum or intermittent matrix withdrawal, compared with vector-transfected control cells. Apoptosis induction by camptothecin exposure also led to significantly elevated caspase 3/7 activity and reduced cell viability of the vector-transfected compared with ADAM15-transfected chondrocytes. Increased levels of activated caspase 3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase were detected in the vector controls. XIAP, an inhibitor of activated caspase 3, was significantly up-regulated (,3-fold) at the protein and mRNA levels in ADAM15-transfected chondrocytes upon camptothecin treatment. Specific down-regulation of either ADAM15 or XIAP in OA chondrocytes led to significant sensitization to camptothecin-induced caspase 3/7 activity. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed low to moderate XIAP expression in normal specimens and markedly increased XIAP staining, colocalizing with ADAM15, in OA cartilage. Conclusion ADAM15 conveys antiapoptotic properties to OA chondrocytes that might sustain their potential to better resist the influence of death-inducing stimuli under pathophysiologic conditions. [source]

The cell death machinery governed by the p53 tumor suppressor in response to DNA damage

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2010
Kiyotsugu Yoshida
The cellular response to genotoxic stress that damages DNA includes cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair, and in the event of irreparable damage, induction of apoptosis. However, the signals that determine cell fate, that is, survival or apoptosis, are largely unclear. The tumor suppressor p53 has been implicated in many important cellular processes, including regulation of apoptotic cell death. When cells encounter genotoxic stress, certain sensors for DNA lesions eventually stabilize and activate p53. Subsequently, p53 exerts its tumor suppressor function by transactivating numerous target genes. Active p53 is subjected to a complex and diverse array of covalent post-translational modifications, which selectively influence the expression of p53 target genes. In this regard, the molecular basis for how p53 induces apoptosis has been extensively studied; however, the relative contribution of each downstream effecter is still to be explored. Moreover, little is known about precise mechanisms by which modified p53 is capable of apoptosis induction. A thorough understanding for the whole picture of p53 modification in apoptosis will be extremely valuable in the development of highly effective and specific therapies for caner patients. This review is focused on the current views regarding the regulation of cell fate by p53 in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. (Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 831,835) [source]

Regulation of mitotic function of Chk1 through phosphorylation at novel sites by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 5 2006
Takashi Shiromizu
Chk1 is phosphorylated at Ser317 and Ser345 by ATR in response to stalled replication and genotoxic stresses. This Chk1 activation is thought to play critical roles in the prevention of premature mitosis. However, the behavior of Chk1 in mitosis remains largely unknown. Here we reported that Chk1 was phosphorylated in mitosis. The reduction of this phosphorylation was observed at the metaphase-anaphase transition. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping revealed that Chk1 phosphorylation sites in vivo were completely overlapped with the in vitro sites by cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) 1 or by p38 MAP kinase. Ser286 and Ser301 were identified as novel phosphorylation sites on Chk1. Treatment with Cdk inhibitor butyrolactone I induced the reduction of Chk1-S301 phosphorylation, although treatment with p38-specific inhibitor SB203580 or siRNA did not. In addition, ionizing radiation (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) light did not induce Chk1 phosphorylation at Ser317 and Ser345 in nocodazole-arrested mitotic cells. These observations imply the regulation of mitotic Chk1 function through Chk1 phosphorylation at novel sites by Cdk1. [source]