Genotoxic Effects (genotoxic + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Genotoxic effects of anaesthetic agents

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2006
T. Venkatesan
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


In vitro evaluation of the clastogenicity of fumagillin

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 8 2008
Jevrosima Stevanovic
Abstract Fumagillin, an antibiotic compound produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, is effective against microsporidia and various Amoeba species, but is also toxic when administered systemically to mammals. Furthermore, a recent in vivo study by Stanimirovic Z et al. 2007: (Mutat Res 628:1,10) indicated genotoxic effects of fumagillin. The aim of the present study was to investigate and explain the clastogenic effects of fumagillin (in the form of fumagillin dicyclohexylamine salt) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro by sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), chromosome aberrations (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests. The mitotic index (MI), proliferation index (PI), and nuclear division index (NDI) were calculated to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of fumagillin. Five concentrations of fumagillin (0.34, 0.68, 1.02, 3.07, and 9.20 ,g/ml) were applied to lymphocyte cultures. All the tested concentrations of fumagillin increased the frequency of SCE per cell significantly (P < 0.001 or P < 0.01) compared with the negative control. A significant (P < 0.001) increase in frequency of structural CA was observed at the three highest concentrations in comparison with the negative control. In addition, the three highest test concentrations increased MN formation and decreased MI, PI, and NDI significantly compared with the negative control. The present results indicate that fumagillin is clastogenic and cytotoxic to cultured human lymphocytes. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Genotoxicity testing of the herbicide trifluralin and its commercial formulation Treflan using the piscine micronucleus test

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 6 2008
Serpil Könen
Abstract In this study, the genotoxic effects of a widely used herbicide, trifluralin, and its commercial formulation, Treflan, were evaluated using the micronucleus test in a commercially important fish species, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia). Fish were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ,g/L doses of trifluralin and Treflan for 3, 6, and 9 days under laboratory conditions. Ethylmethanesulfonate, at a single dose of 10 mg/L, was used as positive control. Micronuclei were evaluated on the peripheral erythrocytes. Both Treflan and trifluralin treatments significantly increased the micronucleus frequencies in peripheral erythrocytes of O. niloticus. Furthermore, the genotoxicity of the active ingredient, trifluralin, was observed to be higher than that of the commercial formulation Treflan. Our results indicate that herbicide trifluralin has genotoxic potential in fish. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Cytogenetic effects of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and/or isoproturon on human peripheral lymphocytes and mouse bone marrow cells

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 8 2007
Lalit K.S. Chauhan
Abstract The cytogenetic effects of deltamethrin (DEL) and/or isoproturon (ISO) were examined in human lymphocytes and mouse bone marrow cells. Peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to DEL (2.5, 5, 10, or 20 ,M), ISO (25, 50, 100, or 200,M), or DEL + ISO (2.5 + 25, 5 + 50, 10 + 100, or 20 + 200 ,M) and cytogenic effects were evaluated via chromosomal aberrations (CA) and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). Mice were orally gavaged to single dose of DEL (6.6 mg/kg), ISO (670 mg/kg), or DEL+ISO (6.6 + 670 mg/kg) for 24 hr or to DEL (3.3 mg/kg/day), ISO (330 mg/kg/day), or DEL + ISO (3.3 + 330 mg/kg/day) for 30 days and analyzed for CA. DEL induced a significant frequency of CA at 10 ,M whereas ISO (25,100,M) alone, or in combination with DEL, did not show any significant effect. Micronucleus (MN) induction was observed to be concentration-dependent though significant frequencies were observed at 5 ,M DEL, 100 ,M ISO, or 5 + 50 ,M DEL + ISO. In mice, DEL inhibited the mitotic index (MI) significantly (P < 0.001) at 24 hr while ISO alone, or in combination with DEL, did not cause any statistically significant effect. Following a 24 hr exposure, DEL and ISO alone induced significant (P < 0.01) frequencies of CA, whereas DEL + ISO in combination did not. Furthermore, 30 days exposure of ISO significantly inhibited the MI (P < 0.02 or < 0.01) and induced CA while DEL alone, or in combination with ISO, resulted in no significant effect on CA or the MI. The present findings indicate that the in vitro and in vivo exposure of a commercial formulation of DEL can cause genotoxic effects in mammals. However, the coexposure of DEL and ISO did not show additive effects, but instead demonstrated somewhat reduced genotoxicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


In vivo genotoxic effects of industrial waste leachates in mice following oral exposure

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 5 2006
Saurabh Chandra
Abstract Contamination of ground water by industrial waste poses potential health hazards for man and his environment. The improper disposal of toxic wastes could allow genotoxic chemicals to percolate into ground waters, and these contaminated ground waters may produce toxicity, including mutation and eventually cancer, in exposed individuals. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo genotoxic potential of leachates made from three different kinds of industrial waste (tannery waste, metal-based waste, and waste containing dyes and pigments) that are disposed of in areas adjoining human habitation. Three different doses of test leachates were administered by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days to Swiss albino mice; their bone marrow cells were examined for chromosome aberrations (CAs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), and DNA damage using the alkaline Comet assay. Exposure to the leachates resulted in significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.001) dose-dependent increases in chromosome and DNA damage. Fragmented chromosomes and chromatid breaks were the major CAs observed. Chemical analysis of the leachates indicated that chromium and nickel were elevated above the limits established by health organizations. The highest levels of genotoxicity were produced by the metal-based leachate and the tannery-waste leachate, while the dye-waste leachate produced weaker genotoxic responses. The cytogenetic abnormalities and DNA damage produced by the leachates indicate that humans consuming water contaminated with these materials are at increased risk of developing adverse health consequences. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Sister chromatid exchange analysis in smelting plant workers exposed to arsenic

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 4 2006
Leiliane Paiva
Abstract There are many studies documenting the genotoxic effects of environmental exposure to arsenic. Nevertheless, few data are available on the genotoxic risks of occupational arsenic exposure. In the present study, we have evaluated whether or not occupational exposure to arsenic in a copper smelting plant results in a significant increase in the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE). SCE frequencies, proliferation rate index (PRI), and high frequency cells (HFCs) were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocytes from a group of 105 arsenic-exposed workers from a Chilean smelting plant (exposed group). Similar assays were conducted on a group of 55 workers employed at the same mine but involved in administrative jobs (internal control), and on 48 workers of another mine, with no significant levels of arsenic (external control). Small but significant increases in SCE frequency were observed in the arsenic-exposed workers compared with the external control group (6.28 ± 0.09 vs. 5.84 ± 0.14 SCE/cell; P < 0.01). Also, significantly higher frequencies of HFCs were observed in the exposed group (2.21% ± 0.20%) than in either the external control group (1.20 ± 0.23; P = 0.002) or the internal control group (1.30 ± 0.24; P = 0.008). However, there was no relationship between arsenic levels in the urine of the subjects and SCE or HFC frequency. The results of the study indicate that copper smelting results in slightly increased levels of DNA damage. However, our data were not consistent with arsenic exposure being the cause of the increase. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Genotoxicity of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide administered in drinking water to male and female Big Blue mice,

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 1 2006
Mugimane G. Manjanatha
Abstract The recent discovery of acrylamide (AA), a probable human carcinogen, in a variety of fried and baked starchy foods has drawn attention to its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Evidence suggests that glycidamide (GA), the epoxide metabolite of AA, is responsible for the genotoxic effects of AA. To investigate the in vivo genotoxicity of AA, groups of male and female Big Blue (BB) mice were administered 0, 100, or 500 mg/l of AA or equimolar doses of GA, in drinking water, for 3,4 weeks. Micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) were assessed in peripheral blood within 24 hr of the last treatment, and lymphocyte Hprt and liver cII mutagenesis assays were conducted 21 days following the last treatment. Further, the types of cII mutations induced by AA and GA in the liver were determined by sequence analysis. The frequency of MN-RETs was increased 1.7,3.3-fold in males treated with the high doses of AA and GA (P , 0.05; control frequency = 0.28%). Both doses of AA and GA produced increased lymphocyte Hprt mutant frequencies (MFs), with the high doses producing responses 16,25-fold higher than that of the respective control (P , 0.01; control MFs = 1.5 ± 0.3 × 10,6 and 2.2 ± 0.5 × 10,6 in females and males, respectively). Also, the high doses of AA and GA produced significant 2,2.5-fold increases in liver cII MFs (P , 0.05; control MFs = 26.5 ± 3.1 × 10,6 and 28.4 ± 4.5 × 10,6). Molecular analysis of the mutants indicated that AA and GA produced similar mutation spectra and that these spectra were significantly different from that of control mutants (P , 0.001). The predominant types of mutations in the liver cII gene from AA- and GA-treated mice were G:C,T:A transversions and ,1/+1 frameshifts in a homopolymeric run of Gs. The results indicate that both AA and GA are genotoxic in mice. The MFs and types of mutations induced by AA and GA in the liver are consistent with AA exerting its genotoxicity in BB mice via metabolism to GA. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. Published 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Gender differences in genetic damage induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK and the influence of the Thr241Met polymorphism in the XRCC3 gene

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 1 2005
Courtney E. Hill
Abstract The rapid increase in adenocarcinoma of the lung and mortality amongst women strongly suggests that gender differences exist in sensitivity to certain tobacco carcinogens. In the current study, we performed the mutagen-sensitivity assay, with the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), to test the hypothesis that women are more sensitive to the genotoxic effects of NNK than men. Chromosome aberration (CA) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 99 patients were evaluated before and after in vitro exposure to NNK. Because the Thr241Met polymorphism in the DNA-repair gene XRCC3 is associated with increased risk of tobacco-related cancers, especially among women, we also tested the hypothesis that individuals who inherit the homozygous variant 241Met allele are more sensitive to the genotoxic effects of NNK. CA frequency was significantly higher 1 hr after NNK treatment in women, compared with men (P = 0.02). When smoking and gender were considered together, a significant interaction was observed. PBLs from female smokers had significantly higher frequencies of NNK-induced CA, compared with female nonsmokers 1 hr after treatment (P = 0.02). We observed no overall effect of the Thr241Met polymorphism on NNK-induced CA in men, women, smokers, or nonsmokers. Overall, our data indicate that women are more sensitive to the genotoxic effects of NNK than men. Because in past years smoking among women has increased, and in view of the close correlation between NNK exposure and adenocarcinoma of the lung, our data provide a plausible explanation for the recent increase in the incidence of this cancer among women. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Somatic mutant frequency at the HPRT locus in children associated with a pediatric cancer cluster linked to exposure to two superfund sites

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 4 2005
Pamela M. Vacek
Abstract The somatic mutant frequency (Mf) of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene has been widely used as a biomarker for the genotoxic effects of exposure but few studies have found an association with environmental exposures. We measured background Mfs in 49 current and former residents of Dover Township, New Jersey, who were exposed during childhood to industrially contaminated drinking water. The exposed subjects were the siblings of children who developed cancer after residing in Dover Township, where the incidence of childhood cancer has been elevated since 1979. Mfs from this exposed group were compared to Mfs in 43 age-matched, presumably unexposed residents of neighboring communities with no known water contamination and no increased cancer incidence. Statistical comparisons were based on the natural logarithm of Mf (lnMF). The mean Mf for the exposed group did not differ significantly from the unexposed group (3.90 × 10,6 vs. 5.06 × 10,6; P = 0.135), but unselected cloning efficiencies were higher in the exposed group (0.55 vs. 0.45; P = 0.005). After adjustment for cloning efficiency, lnMf values were very similar in both groups and age-related increases were comparable to those previously observed in healthy children. The results suggest that HPRT Mf may not be a sensitive biomarker for the genotoxic effects of environmental exposures in children, particularly when substantial time has elapsed since exposure. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Bacterial and mammalian-cell genotoxicity of mixtures of chlorohydroxyfuranones, by-products of water chlorination

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 4 2004
Jorma Mäki-Paakkanen
Abstract The genotoxic responses of mixtures of four chlorohydroxyfuranones (CHFs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), 3,4-dichloro-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MCA), 3-chloro- 4-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (CMCF) and 3-chloro-4-methyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MCF), were compared with the genotoxicity of the individual compounds. Genotoxicity was evaluated in the Salmonella reversion assay (Ames test), the in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell Hprt mutation assay, and in the CHO chromosome aberration test. When tested individually, the concentrations of the chemicals that were chosen for the mixtures induced no or only a modest increase in the genotoxic effects, and caused little or no cytotoxicity. In the Ames test, the genotoxic responses caused by the mixtures of CHFs did not follow simple additivity. Synergism was observed with strains TA97 and TA98, and antagonism with strain TA100. In the CHO/Hprt mutation assay, the mutagenic response of the mixtures was inconsistent, with near additivity seen with a mixture of CHFs that resulted in 12% cell survival. In contrast, the four CHFs together consistently caused more structural chromosome damage (mainly chromatid-type breaks and exchanges) compared to the sum of net effects of the four CHFs tested alone. Also, a potentiating effect was consistently seen for the cytotoxicity of the CHF mixtures both in the CHO/Hprt mutation assay and the chromosome aberration test. The present results indicate that the genotoxic effects of CHF mixtures can be greater than additive. Such effects may be worth considering in the cancer risk assessment of chlorinated drinking water. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 43:217,225, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Genetic toxicity of methamphetamine in vitro and in human abusers

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 4 2003
Jih-Heng Li
Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychomotor stimulant. Although numerous studies have examined METH-induced neurotoxicity, its ability to produce genotoxic effects has not been evaluated. In this article, we report on the genotoxicity of METH in vitro and in human METH abusers. METH induced his+ revertants in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, and increased the frequency of hprt mutants, micronuclei, and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in cultured Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells. These METH-induced genotoxic effects were eliminated if METH exposure was conducted in the presence of rat liver S9, indicating that the genotoxicity was caused by METH, and not by metabolites of METH. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers inhibited the METH-induced micronuclei in CHO-K1 cells. Further investigation with 76 human long-term METH abusers and 98 unexposed controls demonstrated that total METH exposure correlated with micronucleus and SCE frequencies in cultured lymphocytes. The results of this study indicate that METH is a genotoxic agent and that ROS may play a role in METH-induced genotoxicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 42:233,242, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Activation of JNK and PAK2 is essential for citrinin-induced apoptosis in a human osteoblast cell line

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Yu-Ting Huang
Abstract The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. CTN causes cell injury, including apoptosis. Previous studies by our group showed that CTN triggers apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells, as well as embryonic developmental injury. Here, we investigated the precise mechanisms governing this apoptotic effect in osteoblasts. CTN induced apoptotic biochemical changes in a human osteoblast cell line, including activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-3 and p21-activated protein kinase 2 (PAK2) activation. Experiments using a JNK-specific inhibitor, SP600125, and antisense oligonucleotides against JNK reduced CTN-induced activation of both JNK and caspase-3 in osteoblasts, indicating that JNK is required for caspase activation in this apoptotic pathway. Experiments using caspase-3 inhibitors and antisense oligonucleotides against PAK2 revealed that active caspase-3 is essential for PAK2 activation. Moreover, both caspase-3 and PAK2 require activation for CTN-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts. Interestingly, CTN stimulates two-stage activation of JNK in human osteoblasts. Early-stage JNK activation is solely ROS-dependent, whereas late-stage activation is dependent on ROS-mediated caspase activity, and regulated by caspase-induced activation of PAK2. On the basis of these results, we propose a signaling cascade model for CTN-induced apoptosis in human osteoblasts involving ROS, JNK, caspases, and PAK2. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2009. [source]


Evaluating wastewater-induced plant genotoxicity using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
K. M. Swaileh
Abstract Wastewater often contains genotoxic substances that can resist different stages of the treatment process. In the present study, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA technology was applied to evaluate the genotoxic effects of wastewater (treated and raw) irrigation on oat plants (Avena sativa). RAPD profiles obtained showed that both treated and raw wastewater (RWW) were having genotoxic effects on oat plants. This was apparent by the appearance/disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with the control plants. From the 15 primers used, 186 bands were obtained with an average of 12.4 bands per primer. Irrigating plants with RWW caused 51 new bands to appear and 19 to disappear. Treated wastewater (TWW) caused only 16 new bands and the loss of 17 bands. This makes TWW less genotoxic than RWW. The Euclidean distances shown on the dendrogram, revealed the presence of two clusters according to dissimilarity values. One cluster contained the control plants and those irrigated with TWW, whereas the second contained the plants irrigated with RWW. Similarity indices calculated between the treatments and the control plants showed that the control and the plants irrigated with TWW had a similarity index of 0.87, the control and plants irrigated with RWW 0.73 and between the treatments 0.75. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2008. [source]


Analysis of micronuclei in blue mussels and fish from the Baltic and North Seas

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
Janina Bar
Abstract Micronuclei (MN) were analyzed in erythrocytes of flounder (Platichthys flesus) and wrasse (Symphodus melops) and in gill cells of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The organisms were collected from three study stations in the Baltic Sea and from seven stations in the North Sea (Karmsund area, Norway) 4 times. The statistically significant differences obtained were related to the season, sex of the fish, and sampling locality. Higher MN frequencies were found in fish and mussels collected from the most polluted study stations in the North Sea. The same tendency could be described in the Baltic Sea; however, it was masked by the recent oil spill from the Butinge oil terminal. Our results showing higher MN frequencies in presumably what were the most polluted study locations suggest that MN tests in fish and mussels may be used for the detection of genotoxic effects in a marine environment. The endpoint is well characterized and can be easily recognized, and the technique is convenient to use in field samplings following standard procedures and protocols. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 365,371, 2004. [source]


Genotoxicity related to transfer of oil spill pollutants from mussels to mammals via food

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
Sébastien Lemiere
Abstract Heavy fuel oils containing high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were released into the marine environment after the Erika oil spill on the Atlantic coast. As highly condensed PAH pollutants can bioaccumulate in invertebrates, their transfer to vertebrates through the food chain was of concern. This study aimed to estimate potential genotoxic effects in rats fed for 2 or 4 weeks with the marine mussel Mytilus edulis contaminated by oil pollutants. Two levels of PAH contamination were studied, around 100 and 500 ,g of total PAHs/kg dry weight (d.w.) in mussels. Genotoxic damage in rats was investigated by single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and micronucleus assays in liver, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. DNA damage was observed in the liver of rats fed with the most contaminated mussels (500 ,g PAHs/kg d.w.).DNA damage also was observed in the bone marrow but less than that in the liver. A small increase in micronuclei frequency was registered as well. This work underlines the bioavailability of pollutants in fuel-oil-contaminated mussels to consumers and the usefulness of the Comet assay as a sensitive tool in biomonitoring to analyze responses to PAH transfer in food. The occurrence of substituted PAHs and related compounds such as benzothiophenes in addition to nonsubstituted PAHs in fuel oils and mussels raised the question of whether they were implicated in the genotoxic effects registered in rats. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 387,395, 2004. [source]


Integration of genotoxicity and population genetic analyses in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) exposed to radionuclide contamination at the Nevada Test Site, USA

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2001
Christopher W. Theodorakis
Abstract We examined effects of radionuclide exposure at two atomic blast sites on kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, USA, using genotoxicity and population genetic analyses. We assessed chromosome damage by micronucleus and flow cytometric assays and genetic variation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses. The RAPD analysis showed no population structure, but mtDNA exhibited differentiation among and within populations. Genotoxicity effects were not observed when all individuals were analyzed. However, individuals with mtDNA haplotypes unique to the contaminated sites had greater chromosomal damage than contaminated-site individuals with haplotypes shared with reference sites. When interpopulation comparisons used individuals with unique haplotypes, one contaminated site had greater levels of chromosome damage than one or both of the reference sites. We hypothesize that shared-haplotype individuals are potential migrants and that unique-haplotype individuals are potential long-term residents. A parsimony approach was used to estimate the minimum number of migration events necessary to explain the haplotype distributions on a phylogenetic tree. The observed predominance of migration events into the contaminated sites supported our migration hypothesis. We conclude the atomic blast sites are ecological sinks and that immigration masks the genotoxic effects of radiation on the resident populations. [source]


Field assessments in conjunction with whole effluent toxicity testing

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2000
Thomas W. La Point
Abstract Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are widely used to assess potential effects of wastewater discharges on aquatic life. This paper represents a summary of chapters in a 1996 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry,sponsored workshop and a literature review concerning linkages between WET testing and associated field biomonitoring. Most published studies thus far focus primarily on benthic macroinvertebrates and on effluent-dominated stream systems in which effluents demonstrate little or no significant acute toxicity. Fewer studies examine WET test predictability in other aquatic ecosystems (e.g., wetlands, estuaries, large rivers) or deal with instream biota such as fish and primary producers. Published results indicate that standards for the usual WET freshwater test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, may not always protect most of the species inhabiting a receiving stream. Although WET tests are useful in predicting aquatic individual responses, they are not meant to directly measure natural population or community responses. Further, they do not address bioconcentration or bioaccumulation of hydrophobic compounds; do not assess eutrophication effects in receiving systems; and lastly, do not reflect genotoxic effects or function to test for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Consequently, a more direct evaluation of ecosystem health, using bioassessment techniques, may be needed to properly evaluate aquatic systems affected by wastewater discharges. [source]


Naringin, a grapefruit flavanone, protects V79 cells against the bleomycin-induced genotoxicity and decline in survival

JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
Abhinav Jagetia
Abstract The effect of naringin, a grapefruit flavonone was studied on bleomycin-induced genomic damage and alteration in the survival of cultured V79 cells. Exposure of V79 cells to bleomycin induced a concentration dependent elevation in the frequency of binucleate cells bearing micronuclei (MNBNC) and a maximum number of MNBNCs were observed in the cells treated with 50 ,g ml,1 bleomycin, the highest concentration evaluated. This genotoxic effect of bleomycin was reflected in the cell survival, where a concentration dependent decline was observed in the cells treated with different concentrations of bleomycin. Treatment of cells with 1 mm naringin before exposure to different concentrations of bleomycin arrested the bleomycin-induced decline in the cell survival accompanied by a significant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei when compared with bleomycin treatment alone. The cell survival and micronuclei induction were found to be inversely correlated. The repair kinetics of DNA damage induced by bleomycin was evaluated by exposing the cells to 10 ,g ml,1 bleomycin using single cell gel electrophoresis. Treatment of V79 cells with bleomycin resulted in a continuous increase in DNA damage up to 6 h post-bleomycin treatment as evident by migration of more DNA into the tails (% tail DNA) of the comets and a subsequent increase in olive tail moment (OTM), an index of DNA damage. Treatment of V79 cells with 1 mm naringin reduced bleomycin-induced DNA damage and accelerated DNA repair as indicated by a reduction in % tail DNA and OTM with increasing assessment time. A maximum reduction in the DNA damage was observed at 6 h post-bleomycin treatment, where it was 5 times lower than bleomycin alone. Our study, which was conducted on the basis of antioxidant, free radical scavenging and metal chelating properties of naringin demonstrates that naringin reduced the genotoxic effects of bleomycin and consequently increased the cell survival and therefore may act as a chemoprotective agent in clinical situations. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Epigenetic reprogramming of liver cells in tamoxifen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

MOLECULAR CARCINOGENESIS, Issue 3 2007
Volodymyr P. Tryndyak
Abstract Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal anti-estrogen, is a potent genotoxic hepatocarcinogen in rats, with both tumor initiating and promoting properties. Recently it has been demonstrated that genotoxic carcinogens, in addition to exerting genotoxic effects, often cause epigenetic alterations and these induced epigenetic changes may play important mechanistic role in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the role of tamoxifen-induced epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenic process. The results of the study showed that exposure of female F344 rats to tamoxifen resulted in progressive loss of CpG methylation in regulatory sequences of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) and prominent increase in expression of LINE-1 elements and c- myc proto-oncogene. The accumulation of tamoxifen-induced DNA lesions was accompanied by the decreased level of Rad51, Ku70, and DNA polymerase , (Pol,) proteins that play a crucial role in maintenance of genomic stability. Furthermore, feeding rats with tamoxifen-containing diet led to increased regenerative cell proliferation, as indicated by the increased level of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins. These data indicate that exposure of animals to genotoxic hepatocarcinogen tamoxifen led to early phenotypical alterations in livers characterized by emergence of epigenetically reprogrammed cells with a specific cancer-related epigenetic phenotype prior to tumor formation. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Absence of mutagenic effects of a particular Symphytum officinale L. liquid extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 3 2010
Birgit Benedek
Abstract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root is traditionally used for the topical treatment of contusions, strains and sprains. Besides allantoin and rosmarinic acid, which are discussed as pharmacologically active principles, the drug contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) known for their hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. The topical herbal medicinal products Kytta-Salbe® f and Kytta-Plasma® f contain a PA-free liquid extract from comfrey root as active substance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of genotoxic effects of this special extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Briefly, comfrey root liquid extract was investigated for its ability to induce gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 102, TA 1535 and TA 1537 with and without metabolic activation using the mammalian microsomal fraction S9 mix. Reference mutagens were used to check the validity of the experiments. Comfrey root fluid extract showed no biologically relevant increases in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains, neither in the presence nor in the absence of metabolic activation. In conclusion, the comfrey root fluid extract contained in Kytta-Salbe® f and Kytta-Plasma® f was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Cigarette smoke condensate induces nuclear factor kappa-b activity and proangiogenic growth factors in aerodigestive cells,

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 8 2010
Joseph Rohrer MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Aerodigestive cancer risk of both lung and head and neck cancers has been linked to the genotoxic effects of tobacco use. These effects include upregulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF,B) and its downstream products associated with both lung and head and neck cancer malignant progression. Study Design: Bench Research. Methods: In the present study we examined the effects of cigarette smoke condensate on functional activation of NF,B in human papillomavirus (HPV)-transformed oral cavity cells (HOK 16B cells) and transformed bronchial epithelium (Beas2B cells) using the head and neck squamous cancer cell line, UMSCC 38, as a comparison. Luciferase reporter gene assays with two types of transiently transfected NF,B reporter genes were employed and downstream NF,B-dependent products, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor, were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: All cell lines were able to dose dependently activate NF,B reporter genes after exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (P < .05). However, the HPV premalignant, transformed cell line had a much more robust NF,B response (3.45-fold) versus the squamous cancer cell line (1.62-fold) and SV40 transformed Beas2B (1.83). Both NF,B reporter genes had similar response curves. Conclusions: This study demonstrates cigarette smoke products might be more potent promoters of an NF,B-dependent progression from HPV+ premalignancy to cancer rather than after tumors are established. Future studies should focus on abrogating NF,B increases during malignant progression and premalignancy. This might be even more relevant in the HPV+ patient with premalignancy. Laryngoscope, 2010 [source]


Investigation of Direct Toxic and Teratogenic Effects of Anticoagulants on Rat Embryonic Development Using In Vitro Culture Method and Genotoxicity Assay

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2 2006
I. I. Uysal
Summary Heparin and low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are used to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Although, these agents have been shown to be safe when used during pregnancy, the studies about direct toxic and teratogenic effects of these drugs on embryonic development are limited. In this study, the effects of heparin and LMWHs on rat embryonic development were investigated by using in vitro embryo culture and micronucleus (MN) assay methods. Rat embryos were cultured in vitro in the presence of different concentrations of heparin (5,40 IU/ml), dalteparin (2.5,20 IU/ml), enoxaparin (25,100 ,g/ml) and nadroparin (1,4 IU/ml). Effects of anticoagulants on embryonic developmental parameters were compared and embryos were evaluated for the presence of any malformations. After culturing the embryos, classic MN assay was performed. Anticoagulants significantly decreased all growth and developmental parameters dose-dependently. Dalteparin and enoxaparin were found to cause more developmental toxicity than heparin and nadroparin. Along with haematoma in general, heparin and nadroparin caused maxillary deformity, situs inversus and oedema most frequently, while neural tube defects were observed with dalteparin and enoxaparin. All agents also significantly induced MN formation in rat embryonic blood cells. These results indicate the possible genotoxic effects of anticoagulant agents on the developing rat embryo when applied directly. [source]


Sleep Loss Induces Differential Response Related To Genotoxicity in Multiple Organs of Three Different Mice Strains

BASIC AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Vanessa Kahan
Swiss, C57BL/6j and hairless (HRS/j) mice were submitted to PSD by the multiple platform technique for 72 hr, and DNA damage was evaluated. Statistically significant differences in DNA damage were found in blood cells of the Swiss mice strain when compared to negative controls. By contrast, no statistically significant differences were found in the C57BL/6j or hairless mice strains. With regard to the liver, extensive genotoxic effects were found in the Swiss strain. The hairless and C57BL/6j mice strains did not show any signs of genotoxocity in this organ. The same lack of effect was noted in kidney and heart cells of all strains evaluated. In conclusion, our results reveal that sleep deprivation exerted genetic damage in the form of DNA breakage in blood and liver cells of the Swiss mice strain only. This type of approach should be considered when studying noxious activities on genetic apparatus induced by sleep deprivation in mice since the Swiss strain is more suitable for this purpose. [source]


Evaluation of genotoxic effects in human leukocytes after in vitro exposure to 1950 MHz UMTS radiofrequency field

BIOELECTROMAGNETICS, Issue 3 2008
O. Zeni
Abstract In the present study the third generation wireless technology of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) signal was investigated for the induction of genotoxic effects in human leukocytes. Peripheral blood from six healthy donors was used and, for each donor, intermittent exposures (6 min RF on, 2 h RF off) at the frequency of 1950 MHz were conducted at a specific absorption rate of 2.2 W/kg. The exposures were performed in a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell hosted in an incubator under strictly controlled conditions of temperature and dosimetry. Following long duration intermittent RF exposures (from 24 to 68 h) in different stages of the cell cycle, micronucleus formation was evaluated by applying the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay, which also provides information on cell division kinetics. Primary DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) was also investigated following 24 h of intermittent RF exposures, by applying the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG)/comet assay. Positive controls were included by treating cell cultures with Mitomycin-C and methylmethanesulfonate for micronucleus and comet assays, respectively. The results obtained indicate that intermittent exposures of human lymphocytes in different stages of cell cycle do not induce either an increase in micronucleated cells, or change in cell cycle kinetics; moreover, 24 h intermittent exposures also fail to affect DNA structure of human leukocytes soon after the exposures, likely indicating that repairable DNA damage was not induced. Bioelectromagnetics 29:177,184, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Evaluation of genotoxic effects in human peripheral blood leukocytes following an acute in vitro exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields

BIOELECTROMAGNETICS, Issue 4 2005
O. Zeni
Abstract Human peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy volunteers have been employed to investigate the induction of genotoxic effects following 2 h exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation. The GSM signal has been studied at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.3 and 1 W/kg. The exposures were carried out in a waveguide system under strictly controlled conditions of both dosimetry and temperature. The same temperature conditions (37.0,±,0.1 °C) were realized in a second waveguide, employed to perform sham exposures. The induction of DNA damage was evaluated in leukocytes by applying the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/comet assay, while structural chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges were evaluated in lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. Alterations in kinetics of cell proliferation were determined by calculating the mitotic index. Positive controls were also provided by using methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) for comet assay and mitomycin-C (MMC), for chromosome aberration, or sister chromatid exchange tests. No statistically significant differences were detected in exposed samples in comparison with sham exposed ones for all the parameters investigated. On the contrary, the positive controls gave a statistically significant increase in DNA damage in all cases, as expected. Thus the results obtained in our experimental conditions do not support the hypothesis that 900 MHz radiofrequency field exposure induces DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes in this range of SAR. Bioelectromagnetics 26:258,265, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes following GMSK phase modulated microwave exposure

BIOELECTROMAGNETICS, Issue 1 2002
Guglielmo d'Ambrosio
Abstract The present study investigated, using in vitro experiments on human lymphocytes, whether exposure to a microwave frequency used for mobile communication, either unmodulated or in presence of phase only modulation, can cause modification of cell proliferation kinetics and/or genotoxic effects, by evaluating the cytokinesis block proliferation index and the micronucleus frequency. In the GSM 1800 mobile communication systems the field is both phase (Gaussian minimum shift keying, GMSK) and amplitude (time domain multiple access, TDMA) modulated. The present study investigated only the effects of phase modulation, and no amplitude modulation was applied. Human peripheral blood cultures were exposed to 1.748 GHz, either continuous wave (CW) or phase only modulated wave (GMSK), for 15 min. The maximum specific absorption rate (,5 W/kg) was higher than that occurring in the head of mobile phone users; however, no changes were found in cell proliferation kinetics after exposure to either CW or GMSK fields. As far as genotoxicity is concerned, the micronucleus frequency result was not affected by CW exposure; however, a statistically significant micronucleus effect was found following exposure to phase modulated field. These results would suggest a genotoxic power of the phase modulation per se. Bioelectromagnetics 23:7,13, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]