Geriatric Depression (geriatric + depression)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Geriatric Depression

  • geriatric depression scale

  • Selected Abstracts


    Anterior cingulate dysfunction in geriatric depression

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 4 2008
    George S. Alexopoulos
    Abstract Background Although several brain abnormalities have been identified in geriatric depression, their relationship to the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the development and perpetuation of this syndrome remain unclear. Methods This paper reviews findings on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function and on the relationship of ACC abnormalities to the clinical presentation and the course of geriatric depression in order to elucidate the pathophysiological role of ACC in this disorder. Results The ACC is responsible for conflict detection and emotional evaluation of error and is connected to brain structures that regulate mood, emotional valence of thought and autonomic and visceral responses, which are functions disturbed in depression. Geriatric depression often is accompanied by abnormalities in some executive functions and has a clinical presentation consistent with ACC abnormalities. Indices of ACC dysfunction are associated with adverse outcomes of geriatric depression. Conclusions Converging findings suggest that at least some ACC functions are abnormal in depression and these abnormalities are pathophysiologically meaningful. Indices of ACC dysfunction may be used to identify subgroups of depressed elderly patients with distinct illness course and treatment needs and serve as the theoretical background for novel treatment development. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    MRI white matter hyperintensities, 1H-MR spectroscopy and cognitive function in geriatric depression: a comparison of early- and late-onset cases

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 12 2001
    Tetsuhito Murata
    Abstract Background and Objectives Geriatric depression is often thought to differ from that at other times of adulthood. Recently, several studies have shown that the incidence of white matter hyperintense lessions identified by brain MRI is higher in patients with geriatric depression than in healthy elderly subjects, but a consensus has not yet been reached on the relationship between the severity of white matter lesions and either cognitive impairment or depressive symptoms. Method Forty-seven patients aged 50 to 75 years with major depression were divided into two groups based on age at onset of depression: early-onset (<,50 years) group (20 patients; mean age, 62.7,,6.7) and late-onset (,50 years) group (27 patients; mean age, 65.6,,5.4). The severity of hyperintense white matter lesions on MRI was classified by region, then a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) focusing on the white matter of the frontal lobes, multidimensional neuropsychological tests and evaluation of depressive symptoms were conducted. Results The severity of the deep white matter lesions, the deterioration of cognitive function related to subcortical/frontal brain system and clinician-rated depressive symptoms were all more pronounced in the late-onset group compared with those in the early-onset group. It was further observed that the more severe the deep white matter lesions, the lower the levels of N-acetylaspartate/creatine. With the age of onset as the covariate, the patients with moderate deep white matter lesions had more pronounced cognitive impairment and clinician-rated depressive symptoms than those with none and/or mild lesions. Conclusion These results suggest that subcortical/frontal type cognitive impairment and the persistence of depressive symptoms in geriatric depression is related to moderate deep white matter lesions more often complicated in the late-onset group. The 1H-MRS findings were suggested to be a useful indicator of neuronal/axonal loss in the white matter of the frontal lobes which precedes cognitive impairment. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Nonresponse to first-line pharmacotherapy may predict relapse and recurrence of remitted geriatric depression

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 3 2001
    Alastair J. Flint MB, FRANZCP, FRCP(C)
    Abstract The authors examined whether nonresponse to first-line pharmacotherapy was associated with an increased probability of relapse or recurrence following remission of an episode of geriatric depression. The study group consisted of 74 elderly patients whose index episode of nonpsychotic unipolar major depression had responded to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. In 6 of these patients, the depressive episode had not responded to first-line pharmacotherapy (8 weeks of nortriptyline, including 2 weeks of adjunctive lithium) but it had responded to second-line treatment (phenelzine with or without adjunctive lithium). The 74 patients were maintained on acute doses of the medications that had led to response and were followed for 2 years or until relapse or recurrence, whichever occurred first. The cumulative probability of relapse or recurrence was 67% for patients who responded to second-line treatment compared with 18% for patients who responded to first-line treatment (P=0.0003). As expected, mean time to response was significantly longer for patients who responded to second-line treatment but this factor did not account for the difference in out-come between the two groups. These findings suggest that pharmacotherapy resistance may constitute a risk factor for relapse or recurrence of remitted geriatric depression, even when patients are maintained on the medication that they eventually respond to. Depression and Anxiety 13:125,131, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of tissue specific changes in high energy phosphates before and after sertraline treatment of geriatric depression

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 8 2009
    Brent P. Forester
    Abstract Introduction We investigated tissue specific differences in markers of energy metabolism, including high energy phosphate compounds (beta and total NTP, PCr) and pH, in older adults with depression compared with healthy controls, before and after a 12-week treatment trial of sertraline. Methods Thirteen older adults, age ,55, with Major Depressive Disorder (HAMD17 score of ,18) were recruited along with ten age-matched controls. The depression subjects had a pre- and post-treatment 4T 31P-MRS scan using a three-dimensional chemical shift imaging sequence. The extracted brain images were segmented into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and CSF. A linear mixed effects model analyzed the effects of pre-treatment and post-treatment depression on phosphorus metabolite concentration estimates (including calculated pH and Mg++). Results Total tissue beta-NTP (,8%, t(18.66),=,3.50; p,=,0.0024) and total tissue total NTP (,6%, t(17.41),=,2.68; p,=,0.0156) were lower in subjects with geriatric depression compared with healthy controls. Total tissue levels of total-NTP changed significantly with treatment (,2%, t(14.84),=,,2.47; p,=,0.0259). Total NTP was reduced in the WM, but not the GM, in the pre-treatment depression group (t(51.65),=,4.02; p,=,0.0002). Intracellular pH was higher in the GM of subjects with pre-treatment depression (t(1133.84),=,,2.10; p,=,0.0353) and decreased to approximate control levels after treatment (t(648.86),=,,2.53; p,=,0.0115). Discussion These findings demonstrate bioenergetic changes including tissue specific differences in 31P-MRS metabolites in geriatric depression. Decreased white matter total NTP may reflect alterations in white matter function. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The functional neuroanatomy of geriatric depression

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 8 2009
    Gwenn S. Smith
    Abstract Objective Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of cerebral glucose metabolism have demonstrated sensitivity in evaluating the functional neuroanatomy of treatment response variability in depression, as well as in the early detection of functional changes associated with incipient cognitive decline. The evaluation of cerebral glucose metabolism in late life depression may have implications for understanding treatment response variability, as well as evaluating the neurobiological basis of depression in late life as a risk factor for dementia. Methods Sixteen patients with geriatric depression and 13 comparison subjects underwent resting PET studies of cerebral glucose metabolism, as well as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scans to evaluate brain structure. Results Cerebral glucose metabolism was elevated in geriatric depressed patients relative to comparison subjects in anterior (right and left superior frontal gyrus) and posterior (precuneus, inferior parietal lobule) cortical regions. Cerebral atrophy (increased cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] and decreased grey and white matter volumes) were observed in some of these regions, as well. Regional cerebral metabolism was positively correlated with severity of depression and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions In contrast to decreased metabolism observed in normal aging and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, cortical glucose metabolism was increased in geriatric depressed patients relative to demographically matched controls, particularly in brain regions in which cerebral atrophy was observed, which may represent a compensatory response. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Is the geriatric depression scale a reliable screening tool for depressive symptoms in elderly patients with cognitive impairment?

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 6 2009
    Hans Debruyne
    Abstract Objective To determine the reliability of the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) for the screening of depressive symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) as the ,gold standard'. Methods Diagnosed according to strictly applied clinical diagnostic criteria, patients with MCI (n,=,156) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n,=,247) were included. GDS-30, CSDD, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Global Deterioration Scale were assessed in all patients at inclusion. The AD group was divided in three subgroups: mild AD (MMSE,18) (n,=,117), moderate AD (MMSE<,18 and ,10) (n,=,89) and severe AD (MMSE<10) (n,=,38). Results In MCI patients, moderate but highly significant correlations were found between GDS-30 and CSDD scores (Pearson: r,=,0.565; p,<,0.001). In mildly (r,=,0.294; p,=,0.001), moderately (r,=,0.273; p,=,0.010) and severely (r,=,0.348; p,=,0.032) affected AD patients, only weak correlations between GDS-30 and CSDD scores were calculated. ROC curve analysis showed that sensitivity and specificity values of respectively 95% and 67% were achieved when a GDS-30 cut-off score of 8 was applied in MCI patients. In AD patients, too low sensitivity and specificity values did not allow selecting an optimal cut-off score by means of ROC curve analysis. Conclusion Using the CSDD as ,gold standard', we demonstrated that the GDS-30 is a reliable screening tool for depressive symptoms in MCI but not in AD patients. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Benzodiazepine use in the elderly: an indicator for inappropriately treated geriatric depression?

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 6 2009
    Eva Assem-Hilger
    Abstract Objective To measure the prevalence of benzodiazepine (BZD) use and to explore associated demographic and clinical variables of BZD use within a cohort of 75-year- old inhabitants of an urban district of Vienna. Methods This is a prospective, interdisciplinary cohort study on aging. Our investigation is based on the first consecutive 500 subjects that completed the study protocol. Demographic and clinical characteristics, benzodiazepine and antidepressant use were documented using a standardized questionnaire. Affective status was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Spielberger State-and Trait Anxiety Inventory subscales (STAI). Results Prevalence of BZD use was 13.8%. Compared to non-users, BZD users had significantly higher mean scores at the HAMD (p,=,0.001), the GDS (p,=,0.026), and the Spielberger State-and Trait Anxiety Inventory subscales (p,=,0.003; p,=,0.001). Depression was found in 12.0% (HAMD) and 17.8% when using a self-rating instrument (GDS). Less than one-third of depressed subjects were receiving antidepressants. Statistically equal numbers were using benzodiazepines. Conclusions Inappropriate prescription of BZD is frequent in old age, probably indicating untreated depression in many cases. The implications of maltreated geriatric depression and the risks associated with benzodiazepine use highlight the medical and socioeconomic consequences of inappropriate BZD prescription. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Anterior cingulate dysfunction in geriatric depression

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 4 2008
    George S. Alexopoulos
    Abstract Background Although several brain abnormalities have been identified in geriatric depression, their relationship to the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the development and perpetuation of this syndrome remain unclear. Methods This paper reviews findings on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function and on the relationship of ACC abnormalities to the clinical presentation and the course of geriatric depression in order to elucidate the pathophysiological role of ACC in this disorder. Results The ACC is responsible for conflict detection and emotional evaluation of error and is connected to brain structures that regulate mood, emotional valence of thought and autonomic and visceral responses, which are functions disturbed in depression. Geriatric depression often is accompanied by abnormalities in some executive functions and has a clinical presentation consistent with ACC abnormalities. Indices of ACC dysfunction are associated with adverse outcomes of geriatric depression. Conclusions Converging findings suggest that at least some ACC functions are abnormal in depression and these abnormalities are pathophysiologically meaningful. Indices of ACC dysfunction may be used to identify subgroups of depressed elderly patients with distinct illness course and treatment needs and serve as the theoretical background for novel treatment development. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Short/long heterozygotes at 5HTTLPR and white matter lesions in geriatric depression

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 3 2008
    David C. Steffens
    Abstract Objective We examined the relationship between 5HTTLPR genotype and volume of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain lesions. Method We studied 217 older depressed patients and 141 individuals in the comparison group using a standard brain MRI protocol to calculate lesion volumes. Genotype at 5HTTLPR was determined for each subject. Results In age-adjusted models, the l/s genotype was associated with increased volume of total and white-matter lesions among depressed patients. This relationship lost significance in models controlling for reported hypertension. Conclusions The finding that 5HTTLPR heterozygotes have higher vascular lesion volumes may be related to development of hypertension. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Hippocampal volume and antidepressant response in geriatric depression

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 6 2002
    Ming-Hong Hsieh
    Abstract Background Biological markers of treatment response may include structural brain changes seen on neuroimaging. While most imaging studies have focused on cerebrovascular disease, evidence is growing that the hippocampus may play a role in depression, particularly geriatric depression. Method We studied 60 depressed elderly patients enrolled in a longitudinal study who were treated with antidepressant medications using a treatment guideline-based approach. Baseline and 12-week Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were obtained via interview with a geriatric psychiatrist. All subjects had a baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. MRI scans were processed using standard protocols to determine total cerebral volume and right and left hippocampal volumes. Hippocampal volumes were standardized for total cerebral volume. MADRS scores less than 10 were used to define remission. Results When the group with the lowest quartile of standardized hippocampal volumes was compared to those above the first quartile, those with small right and total hippocampal volumes were less likely to achieve remission. In a subsequent logistic regression model controlling for age small standardized right hippocampal volumes remained significantly associated with remission. Conclusion Further studies with larger sample are needed to determine if left-right hippocampal volume differences do exist in depression, and basic neuroscience studies will need to elucidate the role of the hippocampus in geriatric depression. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    MRI white matter hyperintensities, 1H-MR spectroscopy and cognitive function in geriatric depression: a comparison of early- and late-onset cases

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 12 2001
    Tetsuhito Murata
    Abstract Background and Objectives Geriatric depression is often thought to differ from that at other times of adulthood. Recently, several studies have shown that the incidence of white matter hyperintense lessions identified by brain MRI is higher in patients with geriatric depression than in healthy elderly subjects, but a consensus has not yet been reached on the relationship between the severity of white matter lesions and either cognitive impairment or depressive symptoms. Method Forty-seven patients aged 50 to 75 years with major depression were divided into two groups based on age at onset of depression: early-onset (<,50 years) group (20 patients; mean age, 62.7,,6.7) and late-onset (,50 years) group (27 patients; mean age, 65.6,,5.4). The severity of hyperintense white matter lesions on MRI was classified by region, then a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) focusing on the white matter of the frontal lobes, multidimensional neuropsychological tests and evaluation of depressive symptoms were conducted. Results The severity of the deep white matter lesions, the deterioration of cognitive function related to subcortical/frontal brain system and clinician-rated depressive symptoms were all more pronounced in the late-onset group compared with those in the early-onset group. It was further observed that the more severe the deep white matter lesions, the lower the levels of N-acetylaspartate/creatine. With the age of onset as the covariate, the patients with moderate deep white matter lesions had more pronounced cognitive impairment and clinician-rated depressive symptoms than those with none and/or mild lesions. Conclusion These results suggest that subcortical/frontal type cognitive impairment and the persistence of depressive symptoms in geriatric depression is related to moderate deep white matter lesions more often complicated in the late-onset group. The 1H-MRS findings were suggested to be a useful indicator of neuronal/axonal loss in the white matter of the frontal lobes which precedes cognitive impairment. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The mind-body connection in elderly

    NURSING & HEALTH SCIENCES, Issue 1 2005
    Oksoo Kim rn
    Depression is an illness affecting mind and body. Depression in people aged 65 years and older is a major public health problem. Because many older people are unaware that they need treatment for depression, as depression in the elderly is insidious. The consequences of undiagnosed depression can be fatal, as depression is a leading cause of suicide among elders. Late-life depression is particularly tricky in that the relationship between depression, disability and illness is very difficult to disentangle. Specific symptoms and signs of depression may impair some functions and not others. Medical disorders accompanying geriatric depression can cause disability, independent of the depressive syndrome or in synergy with it. There is growing evidence that treating depression in patients with a chronic physical condition may improve their medical condition, reduce the degree of pain, increase activity and lessen disability, enhance their quality of life and increase their ability to follow their treatment plan. Health care providers, elderly and their family should be aware of geriatric depression. [source]


    Valproate activates the Notch3/c-FLIP signaling cascade: a strategy to attenuate white matter hyperintensities in bipolar disorder in late life?

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 3 2009
    Peixiong Yuan
    Objectives:, Increased prevalence of deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) has been consistently observed in patients with geriatric depression and bipolar disorder. DMWHs are associated with chronicity, disability, and poor quality of life. They are thought to be ischemic in their etiology and may be related to the underlying pathophysiology of mood disorders in the elderly. Notably, these lesions strikingly resemble radiological findings related to the cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephelopathy (CADASIL) syndrome. CADASIL arises from mutations in Notch3, resulting in impaired signaling via cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1-beta-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway. These signaling abnormalities have been postulated to underlie the progressive degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study investigates the possibility that the anticonvulsant valproate (VPA), which robustly activates the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, may exert cytoprotective effects on VSMC through the Notch3/c-FLIP pathway. Methods:, Human VSMC were treated with therapeutic concentrations of VPA subchronically. c-FLIP was knocked down via small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection. Cell survival, apoptosis, and protein levels were measured. Results:, VPA increased c-FLIP levels dose- and time-dependently and promoted VSMC survival in response to Fas ligand-induced apoptosis in VSMC. The anti-apoptotic effect of VPA was abolished by c-FLIP knockdown. VPA also produced similar in vivo effects in rat brain. Conclusions:, These results raise the intriguing possibility that VPA may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of CADASIL and related disorders. They also suggest that VPA might decrease the liability of patients with late-life mood disorders to develop DWMHs. [source]