Gastrostomy Tube (gastrostomy + tube)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Gastrostomy Tube

  • gastrostomy tube placement

  • Selected Abstracts


    Shinji Nishiwaki
    Background:, Upper gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is sometimes reported as one of the serious complications. Our purpose was to clarify the cause of upper GI hemorrhage after PEG. Patients and Methods:, We retrospectively investigated the causes of upper GI hemorrhage among a total of 416 patients out of 426 consecutive patients who underwent PEG in our institution, excluding 10 patients who showed upper GI tumors on PEG placement. Results:, Among 17 patients who developed upper GI hemorrhage after PEG, three and four patients showed PEG tube placement and replacement-related hemorrhage, respectively; these lesions were vascular or mucosal tears around the gastrostomy site. Ten patients experienced 12 episodes of upper GI hemorrhage during PEG tube feeding. The lesions showing bleeding were caused by reflux esophagitis (five patients), gastric ulcer (two patients), gastric erosion due to mucosal inclusion in the side hole of the internal bolster (two patients), and duodenal diverticular hemorrhage (one patient). Anticoagulants were administered in six patients, including four patients with replacement-related hemorrhage and one patient each with reflux esophagitis and gastric ulcer. Conclusions:, Reflux esophagitis was the most frequent reason for upper GI hemorrhage after PEG. The interruption of anticoagulants should be considered for the prevention of hemorrhage on the placement as well as replacement of a gastrostomy tube. [source]

    Complete hypopharyngeal obstruction by mucosal adhesions: A complication of intensive chemoradiation for advanced head and neck cancer

    Elizabeth J. Franzmann MD
    Abstract Background. Severe swallowing dysfunction is the dominant long-term complication observed in patients treated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with treatment protocols using intensive concurrent chemotherapy with radiation therapy (chemo/XRT). We identified a subset of these patients, who were seen with complete obstruction of the hypopharynx distal to the site of the primary cancer, and in whom we postulate that the obstruction was caused by separable mucosal adhesions rather than obliteration by a mature fibrous stricture. Methods. Seven patients were referred to the senior author with a diagnosis of complete hypopharyngeal obstruction between 1992 and 2001. The diagnosis was confirmed by barium swallow imaging and/or endoscopy before referral in all patients. Patients underwent recanalization by passing a Jesberg esophagoscope under general anesthesia, followed by serial dilations and intensive swallowing therapy. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively after institutional review board approval. Results. All seven patients were successfully recanalized. No patient had a perforation or other significant complication related to the recanalization procedure or subsequent dilations. Five of the seven patients showed improvement in swallowing at some point after the initial procedure, but just two patients recovered sufficiently to have their gastrostomy tube removed permanently. Conclusions. We conclude that complete hypopharyngeal obstruction secondary to mucosal adhesions is one cause of gastrostomy tube dependence in patients who have been treated with chemo/XRT for HNSCC. It is a difficult problem to treat, but most patients can recover useful swallowing function without undergoing laryngectomy or major surgical reconstruction. The postulated pathophysiology has implications for prevention as well as treatment. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2006 [source]

    Salivary bacteria and oral health status in children with disabilities fed through gastrostomy

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 179,185 Objectives., This study examined caries level, amount of calculus, and oral microbial environment in gastrostomy tube (GT)-fed children compared with healthy children and children with disabilities orally fed (PO). Study design., The study group consisted of 12 GT-fed children and the two control groups consisted of 16 children with disabilities orally fed and 17 healthy children. DMF-T/dmf-t index, calculus index, Mutans Streptococci (MS), Lactobacilli (LB) levels and salivary buffer capacity were examined. Results., DMF-T/dmf-t index was significantly lower in the tube-fed group. Calculus index was highest in the tube-fed group. MS and LB levels were the lowest in the tube-fed children. Correlation was found between MS and DMF-T/dmf-t. Conclusions., Tube-fed children demonstrated significantly higher calculus levels and less caries, MS, and LB levels then healthy children or children with disabilities eating PO. [source]

    An audit designed to assess the need for planned pretreatment PEG placement in patients with stage III & stage IV oral cancer

    F.R. Dawson
    Background:, Nutritional support is a crucial and challenging part of treatment for patients with oral cancer. The aim of this audit was to assess the need for planned pretreatment percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement in this group of patients and to assess diet consistency as a predictor of poor outcomes. Method:, This was a retrospective study of 77 consecutive patients with stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated by radical surgery and post-operative radiotherapy between January 1999 and December 2001. Information was taken from dietitians' records. Patients were divided into two groups according to survival: group 1 (40 patients) comprised nonsurvivors and group 2 (37 patients), survivors. All patients were enterally fed post-operatively. After approximately 10 days, swallowing was assessed and, if deemed competent, patients progressed to a fluid diet. Tube feeding was gradually reduced and then stopped when oral nutrition was sufficient to maintain weight. Patients progressed to soft diet as they were able. During radiotherapy, liquid diet or tube feeding was instigated as required. Results:, In group 1, 65% required tube feeding for less than 30 days (mean 17 days), 20% for 31,100 days (mean 51 days) and 15% for over 100 days (mean 231 days). The overall mean length of tube feeding was 97 days. Thirty-eight per cent of nonsurvivors developed recurrence and went on to subsequent operations necessitating further tube feeding for an average of 129 days. In group 2, 70% were tube fed for less than 30 days (mean 11 days), 14% for between 31,100 days (mean 43 days), and 17% for more than 100 days. The overall mean length of tube feeding was 72 days. The dietary consistency of nonsurvivors was worse than survivors throughout treatment. At first presentation, only 37% of nonsurvivors managed a normal diet, 8% managed a near normal diet and 3% required tube feeding, whereas 48% of survivors managed a normal diet and 16% a near normal diet. At 1 year, there was a significant difference between the two groups' diets. No patients in group 1 managed a normal or near normal diet, whilst 62% required tube feeding. In group 2, 12 and 32% managed a normal and near normal diet, respectively and only 9% required or wished to remain on tube feeding to supplement their diet. Five per cent of patients in this group remained nil by mouth due to fistula. Conclusion:, Deciding whether a patient has a naso-gastric tube, PEG or radiologically inserted gastrostomy tube placed can be a difficult decision. However, a gastrostomy should be considered prior to treatment in patients whose diet is of poor consistency at presentation or who have an inadequate oral intake to maintain or increase weight and in those with a fistula, expected slow recovery of swallowing function, for example, pharyngeal tumour or undergoing brachytherapy or chemoradiotherapy. [source]

    Congenital hypomyelination neuropathy in a newborn infant: unusual cause of diaphragmatic and vocal cord paralyses

    JS Hahn
    We report a case of congenital hypomyelination neuropathy presenting at birth. The infant had generalized hypotonia and weakness. There was decreased respiratory effort along with a right phrenic nerve and left vocal cord paralyses. Tongue fasciculations were present. Deep tendon reflexes were absent in the upper extremities and hypoactive (1+) in the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed no intracranial abnormalities, including normal cerebral myelination. Nerve conduction study showed absence of motor and sensory action potentials in the hands when the nerves in the upper limbs were stimulated. A motor response could be elicited only in the proximal leg muscles. Needle electromyography study was normal in the proximal limb muscles, but showed active denervation in the distal muscles of the arm and leg. These findings were thought to be consistent with a length-dependent sensorimotor peripheral polyneuropathy of axonal type with greater denervation of the distal muscles. A biopsy of the quadriceps muscle showed mild variability in fiber diameter, but no group typing or group atrophy. The muscle fibers showed no intrinsic abnormalities. Biopsy of the sural nerve showed scattered axons with very thin myelin sheaths. There was also a nearly complete loss of large diameter myelinated fibers. No onion bulb formations were noted. These findings were thought to be consistent with congenital hypomyelination neuropathy with a component of axonopathy. DNA analysis for identification of previously characterized mutations in the genes MPZ, PMP22, and EGR2 was negative. Several attempts at extubation failed and the infant became increasingly ventilator-dependent with increasing episodes of desaturation and hypercapnea. He also developed increasing weakness and decreased movement of all extremities. He underwent surgery at 2 months of age for placement of a gastrostomy tube and a tracheostomy. He was discharged from the hospital on a ventilator at 6 months of age. The infant was 13 months old at the time of submission of this report. Although he appears cognitively normal, he remains profoundly hypotonic and is on a home ventilator. There was no evidence of progressive weakness. Congenital hypomyelination neuropathy is a rare form of neonatal neuropathy that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a newborn with profound hypotonia and weakness. It appears to be a heterogeneous disorder with some of the cases being caused by specific genetic mutations. [source]

    Treatment of a Myasthenic Dog with Mycophenolate Mofetil

    C.W. Dewey DVM, DACVIM (Neurology), DACVS
    Summary A ten-year-old, male castrated Springer Spaniel was presented for dysphagia, ptyalism, and regurgitation. Evidence of megaesophagus and mild aspiration pneumonia were apparent on thoracic radiographs. A diagnosis of focal acquired myasthenia gravis was suspected and subsequently confirmed with a positive serum acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antibody concentration (3.87 nM/L). A gastrostomy tube was placed shortly after presentation; food and drugs (including azathioprine) were administered through the tube. After transient improvement, the dog suddenly deteriorated clinically, experiencing frequent episodes of regurgitation and developing severe aspiration pneumonia. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a novel immunosuppressive drug with relative specificity for lymphocytes, was instituted every twelve hours via the gastrostomy tube. Within four days of beginning MMF therapy, both clinical evidence of pharyngeal/esophageal dysfunction and radiographic evidence of megaesophagus had resolved. Initially, clinical side-effects of combined MMF/AZA administration were not apparent, but the patient experienced several vomiting episodes during the third week of treatment. The vomiting resolved after decreasing the dose of both drugs. The patient made a full recovery, and a one-month follow-up ACh receptor antibody concentration was normal (0.26 nM/L). After one month of combination therapy, the patient was weaned off of AZA and maintained on MMF as the sole immunosuppressive drug. The dog was subsequently weaned off of MMF on two occasions. Mycophenolate mofetil was reinstituted after the first discontinuation due to the development of profound appendicular muscle weakness two days after stopping MMF; the weakness resolved within 24 hours of reinstituting MMF. A positive ACh receptor antibody concentration (0.89 nM/L) after the second MMF weaning prompted the second reinstitution of MMF. Two months following this second MMF reinstitution, the dog was again serologically negative (0.51 nM/L) for myasthenia gravis. At the time of last followup, the dog remained in clinical remission eight months after initial presentation. The use of MMF to treat acquired myasthenia gravis in dogs has not been reported previously. The literature concerning MMF and its potential use in treating patients with autoimmune diseases is discussed. [source]

    Is Sanfilippo type B in your mind when you see adults with mental retardation and behavioral problems?,

    Ute Moog
    Abstract Sanfilippo type B is an autosomal recessive mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IIIB) caused by deficiency of N -acetyl-,- D -glucosaminidase, a lysosomal enzyme involved in the degradation of heparan sulfate. It is characterized by neurologic degeneration, behavioral problems, and mental decline. Somatic features are relatively mild and patients with this disorder can reach late adulthood. It is the most common subtype of MPS in the Netherlands and probably underdiagnosed in adult persons with mental retardation (MR). In order to increase knowledge on the adult phenotype and natural history in Sanfilippo type B, we present the clinical data of 20 patients with this disorder. Sixteen of them were followed for one to three decades. Six died between 28 and 69 years of age, mainly from pneumonia and cachexia; the surviving patients were 18,63 years old. Apart from the youngest, they had lost mobility at 36,68 years. Most had developed physical problems, in particular in the 4th,6th decade of life: cardiac disease (cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillations), arthritis, skin blistering, swallowing difficulties requiring feeding by a gastrostomy tube, and seizures. The course of the disease was dominated in most of them by challenging behavioral problems with restlessness, extreme screaming and hitting, difficult to prevent or to treat pharmaceutically. Even in absence of knowledge of the history of an elderly patient with MR, the presence of behavioral problems should prompt metabolic investigation for MPS. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Management of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer without prophylactic feeding tubes: The University of Pittsburgh experience

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2010
    Brian T. McLaughlin MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Mucositis and dysphagia are common complications of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for head and neck cancer that may necessitate nutritional support with a gastrostomy tube (G-tube). Methods: We reviewed records of patients who underwent and completed CRT, which included at least one traditional chemotherapeutic, for previously untreated head and neck cancer. G-tubes were placed as needed. The timing and duration of G-tube placement and treatment-related complications and risk factors for long-term G-tube use were analyzed. Results: A total of 91 consecutive patients who received CRT, 68 as primary and 23 as postoperative treatment, were studied. Radiation doses ranged from 59.4 to 74 Gy (median, 70 Gy). Seventy-nine percent of patients received platinum-based therapy during CRT. Severe mucositis occurred in 40% of patients. Forty percent of patients required G-tube placement (15 prior to CRT and 21 during CRT). Median duration of G-tube use was 5.8 months. Two patients who had a G-tube placed during CRT developed a G-tube-related complication. At 6 and 12 months, 15 (18%) and four (6%) patients who were disease free were using G-tubes, respectively. Patients with G-tubes placed prior to CRT or advanced T stage had longer G-tube dependence. Conclusions: With aggressive supportive care it is feasible to avoid G-tubes in the majority of patients undergoing CRT for head and neck cancer. G-tube placement prior to CRT due to pre-existing dysphagia and advanced T stage are associated with prolonged G-tube dependence. Laryngoscope, 2010 [source]

    Resolving Feeding Difficulties With Early Airway Intervention in Pierre Robin Sequence

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2008
    Michael E. Lidsky MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: To observe rates of gastrostomy tube (g-tube) placement in Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) and to determine whether relieving airway obstruction solves feeding difficulties. Study Design: All PRS referrals to a multidisciplinary cleft team for children at a tertiary pediatric hospital from January 1988 to June 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Methods: Patients were analyzed for occurrence of g-tube placement, neurologic disorders, and airway intervention including tracheotomy and mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Results: Sixty-seven PRS patients were divided into two categories: 51 (76.1%) isolated PRS (iPRS) and 16 (23.9%) with additional disorders and syndromes (sPRS). Patients were then placed into two subgroups: those who received early airway intervention and those who received late or no airway intervention. Of the 51 iPRS children, 12 (23.5%) received early airway intervention, none of whom required a g-tube. There were 39 (76.5%) children who received late or no airway intervention, and 5 (12.8%) of these required g-tube placement. Of the 16 sPRS children, 8 (50%) received early airway intervention, and 7 (87.5%) of these still required a g-tube. Of the remaining 8 (50%) sPRS patients who received late or no airway intervention, 5 (62.5%) required a g-tube. Conclusion: In children with iPRS, feeding difficulties can be resolved with early airway intervention. Delaying airway intervention may necessitate feeding assistance because all of the iPRS children who required a g-tube fell into this category. The presence of additional disorders and syndromes further complicates treatment because most of the sPRS children required g-tubes regardless of airway intervention. [source]

    Concomitant weekly cisplatin and altered fractionation radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer

    CANCER, Issue 19 2010
    Heather E. Newlin MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Both concomitant chemotherapy and altered fractionation radiotherapy (RT) have been shown to improve outcomes for patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, both strategies also increase acute toxicity, and it is questionable whether the 2 can be safely combined. Traditional concomitant chemotherapy regimens include high-dose cisplatin given at 100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. The authors' purpose was to report efficacy and toxicity after weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m2/wk) concurrent with altered fractionation RT. METHODS: One hundred twenty-one patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages II (3%), III (13%), or IV (84%) squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx (70%), hypopharynx (20%), or larynx (10%) were treated between 2000 and 2006 at the University of Florida with hyperfractionated RT (55 patients) or concomitant boost RT (66 patients) and concomitant cisplatin (30 mg/m2/wk). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.9 years; median follow-up on survivors was 3.6 years. Seventy-nine percent of patients completed ,6 cycles of chemotherapy; 94% received ,7200 centigrays. Seven (6%) patients changed from cisplatin to carboplatin because of bone marrow toxicity. Gastrostomy tube feeding was required in 54% of patients either before (16%) or during RT (38%). Two (1.6%) patients died from therapy-related complications. The 5-year outcomes were: local control, 83%; locoregional control, 79%; distant metastasis-free survival, 88%; cause-specific survival, 76%; and overall survival, 59%. Seven (6%) patients had severe late complications. Three (3%) patients required a permanent gastrostomy tube. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant weekly cisplatin with altered fractionation RT is a safe and effective treatment regimen. Cancer 2010. 2010 American Cancer Society. [source]