Gastric Mucosal Inflammation (gastric + mucosal_inflammation)

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Selected Abstracts

Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Cat: Evaluation of Gastric Colonization, Inflammation and Function

HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2001
Kenneth W. Simpson
Background. Further elucidation of the consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric mucosal inflammation and gastric secretory function would be facilitated by an animal model that is susceptible to infection with H. pylori, is broadly similar in gastric physiology and pathology to people, and is amenable to repeated non-invasive evaluation. The goal of this study was to examine the interrelationship of bacterial colonization, mucosal inflammation and gastric secretory function in cats with naturally acquired H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods. Twenty clinically healthy cats with naturally acquired H. pylori infection (cagA,, picB) and 19 Helicobacter -free cats were evaluated. Gastric colonization was determined by tissue urease activity, light microscopy, culture and PCR. The mucosal inflammatory response was evaluated by light microscopy, and by RT-PCR of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1,, IL-1,, IL-8 and TNF-, in gastric mucosa. Gastric secretory function was assessed by measuring pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion, fasting plasma gastrin, and antral mucosal gastrin and somatostatin immunoreactivity. Results. H. pylori colonized the pylorus, fundus and cardia in similar density. Bacteria were observed free in the lumen of gastric glands and were also tightly adherent to epithelial cells where they were associated with microvillus effacement. Mononuclear inflammation, lymphoid follicle hyperplasia, atrophy and fibrosis were observed primarily in H. pylori -infected cats, with the pylorus most severely affected. Neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltrates, epithelial dysplasia, and up-regulation of mucosal IL-1, and IL-8 were observed solely in infected cats. Fasting plasma gastrin concentrations and pentagastrin-stimulated acid output were similar in both infected and uninfected cats. There was no relationship of bacterial colonization density or gastric inflammation to plasma gastrin concentrations or gastric acid output. Conclusions. The pattern of colonization and the mucosal inflammatory response in cats with naturally acquired H. pylori are broadly similar to those in infected people, particularly children, and non-human primates. The upregulation of IL-8 in infected cats was independent of cagA and picB. Our findings argue against a direct acid-suppressing effect of H. pylori on the gastric secretory-axis in chronically infected cats. Abbreviations: RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, HLO; Helicobacter -like organisms. [source]

Rabeprazole treatment attenuated Helicobacter pylori -associated gastric mucosal lesion formation in Mongolian gerbils

Abstract Background and Aim: Although rabeprazole (RPZ), a proton pump inhibitor, has been reported to have a bactericidal effect on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), no studies have been conducted regarding the effect of RPZ on gastric mucosal lesion formation caused by this bacterium. In the present study, we investigated the effect of RPZ on H. pylori -associated gastric mucosal lesion formation. Methods: Sixty-two male Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori (ATCC43504) (Hp group) and 60 gerbils with the culture media alone (control group). Some gerbils in the Hp group and in the control group were injected with RPZ (1 mg/kg/day, for 7 days) at the 5th week. Gerbils were evaluated at the 12th, 24th and 48th weeks. Results: In the Hp group, all gerbils were persistently infected for 24 weeks, but 36% became negative for H. pylori at the 48th week. In the Hp + RPZ group, 18% of gerbils at the 12th week, 40% at the 24th week, and 80% at the 48th week, became negative for H. pylori. The level of neutrophil infiltration was significantly decreased in the Hp + RPZ group in comparison to the Hp group, possibly through the effects of RPZ on initial bacterial colonization and resultant inflammation. Even in the gerbils that became H. pylori -negative, the level of neutrophil infiltration was lower in the Hp + RPZ group than in the Hp group. RPZ treatment significantly increased the level of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) at the 48th week. The elevated levels of the reduced form of GSH may have been reduced by an antioxidation process in the H. pylori -positive Hp + RPZ group. Conclusion: Administration of RPZ not only inhibited gastric H. pylori colonization, but also reduced gastric mucosal inflammation in gerbils, possibly through its antibacterial action as well as pharmacological recruitment of the reduced form of GSH. 2003 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd [source]

Polaprezinc attenuates the Helicobacter pylori -induced gastric mucosal leucocyte activation in Mongolian gerbils,a study using intravital videomicroscopy

H. Suzuki
Background: We previously demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori colonization evokes gastric mucosal inflammation and an extensive increase in lipid peroxides and glutathione in Mongolian gerbils. Zinc and its derivative, polaprezinc, have been reported to be potent antioxidants in gastric mucosa. Aim: To examine the effect of polaprezinc on gastric mucosal oxidative inflammation in H. pylori -colonized Mongolian gerbils. Methods: Sixty-eight male Mongolian gerbils were orally inoculated with H. pylori (ATCC43504, 5 108 CFUs/gerbil; H. pylori group) and 35 gerbils were inoculated with the culture media (control group). Twenty-two gerbils in the H. pylori and 13 gerbils in the control group were fed with diets containing polaprezinc (0.06%, 100 mg/kg, 10 times the usual clinical dose) (H. pylori + polaprezinc group, polaprezinc group). The remaining gerbils were fed a standard laboratory chow diet. Neutrophil infiltration, assessed histologically and by the activity of myeloperoxidase, the contents of CXC-chemokine (GRO/CINC-1-like protein) and the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, was evaluated in each group 12 weeks after the inoculation. Separately, gastric mucosal leucocyte activation and capillary perfusion were also assessed using intravital microscopy 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the inoculation. Results: In all H. pylori -inoculated animals, the bacterial infection persisted throughout the experimental period. Gastric mucosal lesion formation in the H. pylori group was significantly inhibited in the H. pylori + polaprezinc group. Elevated levels of myeloperoxidase activity, GRO/CINC-1 and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the H. pylori group at 12 weeks were attenuated significantly by polaprezinc treatment. Enhanced levels of venular leucocyte activation observed in the H. pylori group were attenuated significantly in the H. pylori + polaprezinc group during both the early phase (2 weeks) and late phase (12 weeks). Conclusion: Polaprezinc inhibited H. pylori -associated gastric mucosal oxidative inflammation, including initial micro-vascular leucocyte activation, in Mongolian gerbils. [source]

Strong immunostimulatory activity of AT-oligodeoxynucleotide requires a six-base loop with a self-stabilized 5,-C,G-3, stem structure

Takeshi Shimosato
Summary Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 has recently been discovered as a probiotic that suppresses the growth of Helicobacter pylori and reduces gastric mucosal inflammation in humans. This has resulted in the development of a new type of probiotic yoghurt ,LG21' in Japan. In our previous study, we found an immunostimulatory AT5ACL oligodeoxynucleotide (AT-ODN) containing a unique core sequence (5,-ATTTTTAC-3,) in L. gasseri JCM1131T. Interestingly, although the AT-ODN does not contain any CpG sequences, it exerts mitogenic activity in B cells and augments Th-1-type immune responses via Toll-like receptor 9. These findings prompted us to identify strong immunostimulatory non-CpG AT-ODNs that contain the 5,-ATTTTTAC-3, motif in the genomic sequence of L. gasseri OLL2716. We identified 280 kinds of AT-ODNs in the L. gasseri OLL2716 genome. Mitogenicity and NF-,B gene reporting assays showed that 13 of the 280 AT-ODNs were strongly immunostimulatory when in the TLR9 transfectant. Of these, AT-ODNs LGAT-145 and LGAT-243 were the most potent. With respect to the induction of Th-1-type cytokines, LGAT-243 had the greatest activity and was more potent than the swine prototype, ODN D25. We further found that a six-base secondary loop structure containing a self-stabilized 5,-C,G-3, stem sequence is important for potent immunostimulatory activity. These results show for the first time that AT-ODNs with a specific loop and stem structure are important factors for immunostimulatory activity. Finally, we found that novel strong immunostimulatory non-CpG AT-ODNs exist in the genome of probiotic lactic acid bacteria. [source]