Gastric Juice (gastric + juice)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Gastric Juice

  • gastric juice ph

  • Selected Abstracts


    Evaluation of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori Obtained from Culture Isolates, Gastric Juice, and Feces

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2009
    Emiko Rimbara
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Effects of Intravenously Administrated Omeprazole on Gastric Juice pH and Gastric Ulcer Scores in Adult Horses

    JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 5 2006
    Frank M. Andrews
    The study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of omeprazole powder in sterile water, administered intravenously, on gastric juice pH in adult horses with naturally occurring gastric ulcers. Omeprazole (0.5 mg/kg, IV) was administered once daily for 5 days to adult horses with gastric ulcers. Gastric juice was aspirated through the biopsy channel of an endoscope and pH was measured before and 1 hour after administration of omeprazole on day 1, and then before and after administration of omeprazole on day 5. Gastric ulcer scores were recorded on day 1 before administration of omeprazole and on day 5, 23 hours after the 4th daily dose. Gastric juice pH and ulcer scores were compared between the times. When compared with the pre-injection value (2.01 ± 0.42), mean ± SD gastric juice pH was significantly higher when measured 1 hour after administration of the initial dose (4.35 ± 2.31), and before (5.27 ± 1.74) and 1 hour after (7.00 ± 0.25) administration of omeprazole on day 5. Nonglandular gastric ulcer number score significantly decreased from a mean ± SD of 3.2 ± 0.80 to 2.0 ± 1.1, but nonglandular gastric ulcer severity score remained the same. Few glandular ulcers were seen in the study, and scores did not change. Because of its potent and long duration of action on gastric juice pH, this intravenous formulation of omeprazole may show promise for treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in horses with dysphagia, gastric reflux, or other conditions that restrict oral intake of omeprazole paste.a Aspiration of gastric juice and measurement of pH can be of use to determine whether the desired pH > 4.0 has been reached after omeprazole treatment. [source]


    Four Modes of Adhesion are Used During Helicobacter pylori Binding to Human Mucins in the Oral and Gastric Niches

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2008
    Sara K. Lindén
    Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and the oral cavity is likely to serve as a reservoir for this pathogen. We investigated the binding of H. pylori to the mucins covering the mucosal surfaces in the niches along the oral to gastric infection route and during gastric disease and modeled the outcome of these interactions. Materials and Methods:, A panel of seven H. pylori strains with defined binding properties was used to identify binding to human mucins from saliva, gastric juice, cardia, corpus, and antrum of healthy stomachs and of stomachs affected by gastritis at pH 7.4 and 3.0 using a microtiter-based method. Results:,H. pylori binding to mucins differed substantially with the anatomic site, mucin type, pH, gastritis status, and H. pylori strain all having effect on binding. Mucins from saliva and gastric juice displayed the most diverse binding patterns, involving four modes of H. pylori adhesion and the MUC5B, MUC7, and MUC5AC mucins as well as the salivary agglutinin. Binding occurred via the blood-group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA), the sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA), a charge/low pH-dependent mechanism, and a novel saliva-binding adhesin. In the healthy gastric mucus layer only BabA and acid/charge affect binding to the mucins, whereas in gastritis, the BabA/Leb -dependent binding to MUC5AC remained, and SabA and low pH binding increased. Conclusions:, The four H. pylori adhesion modes binding to mucins are likely to play different roles during colonization of the oral to gastric niches and during long-term infection. [source]


    Relationship Between Gastric Ulcer and Helicobacter pylori VacA Detected in Gastric Juice Using Bead-ELISA Method

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2002
    Daisuke Shirasaka
    Abstract Background. VacA is an important pathogenetic factor produced by Helicobacter pylori. VacA has often been detected in supernatants of liquid cultures or lysates of whole bacterial cells. However, no studies have ever tried to assay VacA produced in the human stomach. We applied a very sensitive and simple method, bead-ELISA, to detect VacA in gastric juice. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight H. pylori -positive patients (16 nonulcer dyspepsia, 16 gastric ulcer, and 16 duodenal ulcer) and four H. pylori -negative nonulcer dyspepsia patients had endoscopy performed and gastric juice were aspirated. Polystyrene beads coated with the antibody to VacA, were used in this bead-ELISA method. The nucleotide sequences of vacA in the signal and middle regions were investigated. Results. Of the 48 samples that were positive for H. pylori, 21 [43.8%] were found to be VacA positive in gastric juice. The average and maximum concentrations of detected VacA in gastric juice were 143.2 ± 216.5 and 840 pg/ml, respectively. The average density of VacA from gastric ulcer patients (227.5 ± 276.7 pg/ml) was higher than that found in nonulcer dyspepsia (51.8 ± 39.8 pg/ml) and duodenal ulcer (49.2 ± 21.5 pg/ml) patients. There was no relationship between VacA in gastric juice and vacA genotype. Conclusions. VacA in gastric juice could be directly detected by bead-ELISA. In this study, the diversity of disease outcome was associated with not the quality but the quantity of VacA. Therefore, not only the quality but also the quantity of VacA is important etiological factors in the pathogenesis of mucosal damage. [source]


    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria from Kung-Som: isolation, screening, inhibition of pathogenic bacteria

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Noraphat Hwanhlem
    Summary Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Kung-Som at various fermentation periods. Only ten strains, named D2SM22, D6SM3, D6SM24, D6SM26, D8SM21, D10SM5, D10SM11, D10SM16, D10SM20 and D16SM26 showed a survival rate of more than 50% under the simulated gastric juice. After being subjected to simulated gastric juice, four strains (D6SM3, D8SM21, D10SM16 and D10SM20) showed a survival rate of more than 50% in simulated small intestinal juices. Growth of strain D6SM3, D8SM21 and D10SM16 under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions was not different. Tested pathogenic strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella sp.) were inhibited by probiotic LAB. However, none of strains could produce bacteriocins. All strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. No differences in pH, acidity, LAB count and liking scores between Kung-Som produced with starter culture and conventional method were observed (P > 0.01). [source]


    The newly isolated lytic bacteriophages st104a and st104b are highly virulent against Salmonella enterica

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    G. O'Flynn
    Abstract Aims:, To screen Irish faecal samples from a variety of sources with a view to isolating novel anti- Salmonella phages and to subsequently evaluate their lytic capability. Methods and Results:, Two novel anti- Salmonella phages st104a and st104b were isolated from a screening programme based on their lytic capability. The phages produced significantly larger plaques (2 mm) on the chosen indicator Salmonella enterica strain, DPC6046, when compared with the well-known control phage, Felix 01 (0·5 mm). Both phages st104a and st104b were found to have a broad host range within the Salm. enterica species. During in vitro trials, both phages (st104a and st104b) reduced Salm. enterica numbers more than 99% within 1 h. In vivo studies, involving the addition of the phage to porcine gastric juice (pH 2·5) demonstrated that phage st104a and phage Felix 01 were capable of surviving (10 and 30% survival respectively) the acidic conditions, unlike st104b, which was undetectable after 2 h exposure. Conclusions:, Two novel lytic anti- Salmonella phages were isolated and characterized. Significance and Impact of the Study:, With the exception of phage Felix 01, there has been relatively little phage therapy work performed using lytic Salmonella phage. In this study, the lytic phages st104a and st104b were isolated as a result of a faecal screening programme. Subsequently, phage st104a was found to have potential for biocontrol of Salm. enterica numbers if administered orally to pigs given their survival in porcine gastric juice, whereas, phage st104b may have potential in reducing cell numbers if applied by alternative approaches. [source]


    Stability of Lactobacillus reuteri in Different Types of Microcapsules

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2006
    Parthiban Muthukumarasamy
    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri to maintain cell viability during gastric challenge. Five L. reuteri strains were individually encapsulated using alginate, alginate plus starch, K-carrageenan with locust bean gum, or xanthan with gellan by extrusion or phase separation (emulsion). The morphology of the microcapsules was studied using phase contrast and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). The resistance of these microcapsules and the viability of contained L. reuteri to simulated gastric juice were studied. The shape and size of the microcapsules produced varied with the preparation method and type of wall material. Extruded microcapsules were larger and more uniformly shaped. Survival of microencapsulated L. reuteri was significantly better than that of planktonic cells and varied with the strain, method of microencapsulation, and wall material used. In general, microencapsulation using alginate and alginate with starch by both extrusion and phase separation were found to provide bacteria significantly greater protection (P < 0.05) against simulated gastric juice. [source]


    Protective effect of glucosamine against ibuprofen-induced peptic ulcer in rats

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Sethumadhavan Santhosh
    Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori is the major causative factor of ulcer but the use of ibuprofen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have also been implicated in development of ulcer. The purpose of the present study was to determine the anti-ulcer effect of glucosamine. Methods:, The protective effect of glucosamine on ibuprofen-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats was studied with respect to changes in the volume of gastric juice, acid output, pepsin activity, activities of membrane bound ATPases, protein content, glycoprotein components and histopathology. Results:, Oral administration of ibuprofen caused significant increase in the number of lesions in the gastric mucosa, increases in the volume of gastric juice and acidity, and decreased activity of pepsin. The levels of protein content and glycoprotein components (hexose, hexosamine and sialic acid) and ATPase activities were also observed. Oral pretreatment with glucosamine resulted in significant reduction in the number of lesions in the gastric mucosa and decreases in the volume of gastric juice and acidity. The pepsin activity was also maintained at near normalcy. Prior oral administration of glucosamine significantly prevented the ibuprofen-induced depletion of protein and glycoprotein components and maintained the activities of membrane bound ATPases as compared to untreated ulcer induced group of rats. Conclusion:, The anti-ulcerogenic activity of glucosamine might be ascribable to its ability to neutralize the hydrochloric acid secreted into the stomach and to its capability to strengthen the mucosal barrier by increasing mucosal glycoprotein synthesis and to its free radical scavenging property. Histopathological investigations of the mucosal tissue also support the anti-ulcerogenic effect of glucosamine. [source]


    Determination of the optimal cut-off value for the [13C]-urea breath test based on a Helicobacter pylori -specific polymerase chain reaction assay

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Haruhiko Yoshida
    Abstract Background: This study was conducted to determine the optimal cut-off value and breath sample collection time for the [13C]-urea breath test based on the assessment of Helicobacter pylori status with a gastric juice-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Methods and Results: A total of 104 patients took 100 mg [13C]-urea orally and breath samples were collected at 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min. The increment of 13CO2: 12CO2 ratio from the baseline (,13C) was measured using a laser spectroanalyser. The PCR assay was positive in 63 and negative in 41 patients. The optimal cut-off value of ,13C was calculated for each sample collection time so that the distance from the geometric mean value among Helicobacter pylori -positive patients and that from the arithmetic mean value among negative patients were simultaneously maximized. The cut-off value of 2.7, at 20 min had the longest distance, being separated by 3.16 SD from the two mean values. Using this cut-off value, the urea breath test showed 100% specificity and 98% sensitivity for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. [source]


    Novel colon-specific microspheres with highly dispersed hydroxycamptothecin cores: Their preparation, release behavior, and therapeutic efficiency against colonic cancer

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 12 2006
    Bin Lu
    Abstract To increase therapeutic efficiency of hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) against colonic cancer and decrease its side-effects, highly dispersed HCPT was first incorporated in fast release microspheres. HCPT in the microspheres showed a solubility two times larger, and its cumulative release rate for 24 h in simulated colonic juice 140 times higher than that of free HCPT. The microspheres were then coated with a layer of Eudragit S100 by air suspension spray-drying method with a selfdesigned device to obtain colon-specific microspheres (HCPT,CSMS). The mean particle size of the microspheres was 200 µm before coating and 230 µm after coating. The in vitro cumulative release results for HCPT,CSMS in simulated gastric juice for 2 h, in simulated enteric juice for 4 h, and in simulated colonic juice for 18 h showed that over 60% of total HCPT released in simulated colonic juice in the initial 5 h. Animal tests with per os (po) administration showed that free HCPT was mainly absorbed in stomach and small intestine, while the HCPT in HCPT,CSMS was mainly delivered and absorbed in colon. po administration of HCPT,CSMS to nude mice with colonic cancer showed a cancer inhibition rate of 61.4% compared to 39.8% for free HCPT. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 95:2619,2630, 2006 [source]


    Effect of methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna against Helicobacter pylori 26695 lipopolysaccharide-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008
    Rethinam Sundaresan Devi
    Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (HP-LPS) is a potent virulence factor in the causation of gastric ulcer and gastritis. H. pylori -induced gastric pathology is prevalent throughout the world. Herbal medicines are attracting attention because of their traditional values, popularity and belief, as well as for their advantages such as less toxicity, affordability and medicinal value. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-ulcer effect of a methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against HP-LPS-induced gastric damage in rats. Ulcers were induced with HP-LPS (50 ,g per animal) administered orally daily for 3 days. The efficacy of TA on gastric secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, pepsin concentration, and the cytoprotective parameters such as protein-bound carbohydrate complexes in gastric juice and gastric mucosa was assessed. The protective effect of TA was also confirmed by histopathological examination of gastric mucosa. HP-LPS-induced alterations in gastric secretory parameters were altered favourably in rats treated with TA, suggesting that TA has an anti-secretory role. Furthermore, HP-LPS-induced impairments in gastric defence factors were also prevented by treatment with TA. These results suggest that the severe cellular damage and pathological changes caused by HP-LPS are mitigated by TA; these effects are comparable with those of sucralfate. The anti-ulcer effect of TA may reflect its ability to combat factors that damage the gastric mucosa, and to protect the mucosal defensive factors. [source]


    Effects of Intravenously Administrated Omeprazole on Gastric Juice pH and Gastric Ulcer Scores in Adult Horses

    JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 5 2006
    Frank M. Andrews
    The study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of omeprazole powder in sterile water, administered intravenously, on gastric juice pH in adult horses with naturally occurring gastric ulcers. Omeprazole (0.5 mg/kg, IV) was administered once daily for 5 days to adult horses with gastric ulcers. Gastric juice was aspirated through the biopsy channel of an endoscope and pH was measured before and 1 hour after administration of omeprazole on day 1, and then before and after administration of omeprazole on day 5. Gastric ulcer scores were recorded on day 1 before administration of omeprazole and on day 5, 23 hours after the 4th daily dose. Gastric juice pH and ulcer scores were compared between the times. When compared with the pre-injection value (2.01 ± 0.42), mean ± SD gastric juice pH was significantly higher when measured 1 hour after administration of the initial dose (4.35 ± 2.31), and before (5.27 ± 1.74) and 1 hour after (7.00 ± 0.25) administration of omeprazole on day 5. Nonglandular gastric ulcer number score significantly decreased from a mean ± SD of 3.2 ± 0.80 to 2.0 ± 1.1, but nonglandular gastric ulcer severity score remained the same. Few glandular ulcers were seen in the study, and scores did not change. Because of its potent and long duration of action on gastric juice pH, this intravenous formulation of omeprazole may show promise for treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in horses with dysphagia, gastric reflux, or other conditions that restrict oral intake of omeprazole paste.a Aspiration of gastric juice and measurement of pH can be of use to determine whether the desired pH > 4.0 has been reached after omeprazole treatment. [source]


    Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy modulates acidity and interleukin-1, mRNA levels in un-operated stomach and in remnant stomach after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 2006
    S. KATO
    Summary Background A number of studies have indicated that Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy helps prevent secondary cancers in the stomach. Aim To investigate the risk of secondary cancer in the residual stomach after gastrectomy by comparing molecular biomarkers from stomach mucosa biopsies and the pH of gastric juice between H. pylori patients with and without gastrectomy. Methods Conventional H. pylori eradication therapy was administered to 22 patients who had undergone gastrectomy and to 37 un-operated patients. We measured pH levels of gastric juice, and collected stomach mucosa biopsy specimens by gastrointestinal fiberscopy. The mRNA expression levels of interleukin-1,, interleukin-8 and cyclo-oxygenase 2 in the biopsy tissues were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Interleukin-1, levels in the antrum of un-operated H. pylori -positive patients showed a reverse correlation with pH levels in the gastric lumen (correlation coefficient: ,0.50, P = 0.007). After eradication, pH levels were strongly associated with interleukin-1, mRNA levels, r = 0.83, P = 0.01, which, in the remnant stomach mucosa, decreased from 22.5 to 4.6 in the anastomosis and from 3.1 to 2.4 in the upper corpus, with a simultaneous and statistically significant decrease in pH. Conclusions Interleukin-1, mRNA levels correlated with pH levels in the remnant stomach. This indicates that eradication therapy may contribute not only to a reduction in these cancer-associated cytokines, but also to an improvement in the internal environment of the remnant stomach. [source]


    Deoxyribonucleic acid-based diagnostic techniques to detect Helicobacter pylori

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 11 2004
    A. Ruzsovics
    Summary Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of many gastrointestinal disorders, ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. The deoxyribonucleic acid-based assays have the potential to be a powerful diagnostic tool given its ability to specifically identify H. pylori deoxyribonucleic acid. Markers used to include general H. pylori structures and pathogenetic factors like ureaseA, cagA, vacA, iceA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or bacterial ribonucleic acid for polymerase chain reaction assays can be collected from gastric biopsy, gastric juice, stool, buccal specimens. Polymerase chain reaction can yield quantitative and genotyping results with sensitivity and specificity that approaches 100%. A clear trend in the direction of the determination of quantitative H. pylori infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction can be observed. Fluorescent in situ hybridization is suggested for routine antibiotic resistance determination. To identify the organism, deoxyribonucleic acid structure and its virulence factors may be feasible by using oligonucleotide microarray specifically recognizing and discriminating bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid and various virulence factors. Deoxyribonucleic acid-based H. pylori diagnosis yields higher sensitivity, however, specificity requires sophisticated labour environment and associated with higher costs. [source]


    Duodenogastric reflux following cholecystectomy in the dog: role of antroduodenal motor function

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 8 2001
    K. Nogi
    Background : Duodenogastric reflux has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer and gastritis. Duodenogastric reflux after cholecystectomy is also a possible cause of post-cholecystectomy syndrome. Aim : To investigate the role of antroduodenal motor function in increased duodenogastric reflux following cholecystectomy and the effect of trimebutine maleate (trimebutine) on the duodenogastric reflux in conscious dogs. Methods : Antropyloric and duodenal motility and bile acids content in the gastric juice were measured for 3 h during the inter-digestive state in dogs with or without cholecystectomy. Results : Bile acids content in the gastric juice of cholecystectomized dogs was significantly higher than that of non-cholecystectomized dogs. The frequency of pyloric relaxation during phase II of the migrating motor complex was significantly increased following cholecystectomy. Intravenous infusion of trimebutine inhibited both the increased duodenogastric reflux and the frequency of pyloric relaxation in the cholecystectomized dog. Conclusion : Duodenogastric reflux and frequency of pyloric relaxations were increased in cholecystectomized dogs and trimebutine suppressed both of them. These findings suggest that the increased frequency of pyloric relaxation contributes to the duodenogastric reflux following cholecystectomy. [source]


    The antiulcer activity of Garcinia cambogia extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 1 2002
    P. Mahendran
    Abstract Garcinia cambogia extract is a herbal preparation that has been suggested as useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study this drug was tested for its antiulcerogenic effect. Oral pretreatment with Garcinia cambogia fruit extract (1,g/kg body wt/day) for 5, 10 or 15 days protected the gastric mucosa against the damage induced by indomethacin (20,mg/kg body wt). The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in the pretreated rats. The glycoprotein levels of the gastric contents which were decreased in the untreated rats, maintained near normal levels in the pretreated rats. Protein which was elevated in the gastric juice of untreated rats, showed near normal levels in the pretreated rats. Garcinia cambogia was able to decrease the acidity and to increase the mucosal defence in the gastric areas, thereby justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Assessment of respiratory symptoms with dual pH monitoring in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 7 2004
    W. K. H. Kauer
    Background: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a commonly underestimated aetiological factor in patients with respiratory symptoms. In this study, acid reflux in healthy volunteers and patients with GORD with and without respiratory symptoms was investigated by dual pH monitoring. Methods: Thirty healthy volunteers and 43 patients with GORD underwent oesophageal manometry and dual pH monitoring with one probe in the proximal and one in the distal oesophagus. Nineteen of the 43 patients complained of respiratory symptoms. Results: There were no differences in proximal probe measurements between volunteers and patients without respiratory symptoms. Patients with GORD and respiratory symptoms had a higher prevalence of abnormally high exposure to gastric juice and more reflux episodes in the proximal oesophagus compared with patients with GORD and no respiratory symptoms. Some 17 of 19 patients with GORD and respiratory symptoms showed deteriorated oesophageal body motility. Conclusion: Dual pH monitoring is feasible and well tolerated, and provides an objective means of evaluating patients with GORD and respiratory symptoms. Prolonged exposure of the proximal oesophagus to gastric juice and disorders of oesophageal body motility seem to be responsible for the development of respiratory symptoms. Copyright © 2004 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]