Garnet Porphyroblasts (garnet + porphyroblast)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Cold subduction and the formation of lawsonite eclogite , constraints from prograde evolution of eclogitized pillow lava from Corsica

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
E. J. K. RAVNA
Abstract A new discovery of lawsonite eclogite is presented from the Lancne glaucophanites within the Schistes Lustrs nappe at Dfil du Lancne in Alpine Corsica. The fine-grained eclogitized pillow lava and inter-pillow matrix are extremely fresh, showing very little evidence of retrograde alteration. Peak assemblages in both the massive pillows and weakly foliated inter-pillow matrix consist of zoned idiomorphic Mg-poor (<0.8 wt% MgO) garnet + omphacite + lawsonite + chlorite + titanite. A local overprint by the lower grade assemblage glaucophane + albite with partial resorption of omphacite and garnet is locally observed. Garnet porphyroblasts in the massive pillows are Mn rich, and show a regular prograde growth-type zoning with a Mn-rich core. In the inter-pillow matrix garnet is less manganiferous, and shows a mutual variation in Ca and Fe with Fe enrichment toward the rim. Some garnet from this rock type shows complex zoning patterns indicating a coalescence of several smaller crystallites. Matrix omphacite in both rock types is zoned with a rimward increase in XJd, locally with cores of relict augite. Numerous inclusions of clinopyroxene, lawsonite, chlorite and titanite are encapsulated within garnet in both rock types, and albite, quartz and hornblende are also found included in garnet from the inter-pillow matrix. Inclusions of clinopyroxene commonly have augitic cores and omphacitic rims. The inter-pillow matrix contains cross-cutting omphacite-rich veinlets with zoned omphacite, Si-rich phengite (Si = 3.54 apfu), ferroglaucophane, actinolite and hematite. These veinlets are seen fracturing idiomorphic garnet, apparently without any secondary effects. Pseudosections of matrix compositions for the massive pillows, the inter-pillow matrix and the cross-cutting veinlets indicate similar P,T conditions with maximum pressures of 1.9,2.6 GPa at temperatures of 335,420 C. The inclusion suite found in garnet from the inter-pillow matrix apparently formed at pressures below 0.6,0.7 GPa. Retrogression during initial decompression of the studied rocks is only very local. Late veinlets of albite + glaucophane, without breakdown of lawsonite, indicate that the rocks remained in a cold environment during exhumation, resulting in a hairpin-shaped P,T path. [source]


Garnet porphyroblast timing and behaviour during fold evolution: implications from a 3-D geometric analysis of a hand-sample scale fold in a schist

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 9 2003
N. E. Timms
Abstract Detailed 3-D analysis of inclusion trails in garnet porphyroblasts and matrix foliations preserved around a hand-sample scale, tight, upright fold has revealed a complex deformation history. The fold, dominated by interlayered quartz,mica schist and quartz-rich veins, preserves a crenulation cleavage that has a synthetic bulk shear sense to that of the macroscopic fold and transects the axis in mica-rich layers. Garnet porphyroblasts with asymmetric inclusion trails occur on both limbs of the fold and display two stages of growth shown by textural discontinuities. Garnet porphyroblast cores and rims pre-date the macroscopic fold and preserve successive foliation inflection/intersection axes (FIAs), which have the same trend but opposing plunges on each limb of the fold, and trend NNE,SSW and NE,SW, respectively. The FIAs are oblique to the main fold, which plunges gently to the WSW. Inclusion trail surfaces in the cores of idioblastic porphyroblasts within mica-rich layers define an apparent fold with an axis oblique to the macroscopic fold axis by 32, whereas equivalent surfaces in tabular garnet adjacent to quartz-rich layers define a tighter apparent fold with an axis oblique to the main fold axis by 17. This potentially could be explained by garnet porphyroblasts that grew over a pre-existing gentle fold and did not rotate during fold formation, but is more easily explained by rotation of the porphyroblasts during folding. Tabular porphyroblasts adjacent to quartz-rich layers rotated more relative to the fold axis than those within mica-rich layers due to less effective deformation partitioning around the porphyroblasts and through quartz-rich layers. This work highlights the importance of 3-D geometry and relative timing relationships in studies of inclusion trails in porphyroblasts and microstructures in the matrix. [source]


Three metamorphic events recorded in a single garnet: Integrated phase modelling, in situ LA-ICPMS and SIMS geochronology from the Moine Supergroup, NW Scotland

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
K. A. CUTTS
Abstract In situ LA-ICP-MS monazite geochronology from a garnet-bearing diatexite within the Moine Supergroup (Glenfinnan Group) NW Scotland records three temporally distinct metamorphic events within a single garnet porphyroblast. The initial growth of garnet occurred in the interval c. 825,780 Ma, as recorded by monazite inclusions located in the garnet core. Modelled P,T conditions based on the preserved garnet core composition indicate an initially comparatively high geothermal gradient regime and peak conditions of ,650 C and 7 kbar. Monazite within a compositionally distinct second shell of garnet has an age of 724 6 Ma. This is indistinguishable from a SIMS age of 725 4 Ma obtained from metamorphic zircon in the sample, which is interpreted to record the timing of migmatization. This second stage of garnet growth occurred on a P,T path from ,6 kbar and 650 C rising to ,9 kbar and 700 C, with the peak conditions associated with partial melting. A third garnet zone which forms the rim contains monazite with an age of 464 3 Ma. Monazite in the surrounding matrix has an age of 462 2 Ma. This corresponds well with a U,Pb SIMS zircon age of 463 4 Ma obtained from a deformed pegmatite that was emplaced during widespread folding and reworking of the migmatite fabric. The P,T conditions associated with the final phase of garnet growth were ,7 kbar and 650 C. The monazite ages coupled with the phase relations modelled from this multistage garnet indicate that it records two Neoproterozoic tectonothermal events as well as the widespread Ordovician Grampian event associated with Caledonian orogenesis. Thus, this single garnet records much of the Neoproterozoic to Ordovician thermal history in NW Scotland, and highlights the long history of porphyroblast growth that can be revealed by in situ isotopic dating and associated P,T modelling. This approach has the potential to reveal much of the thermal architecture of Neoproterozoic events within the Moine Supergroup, despite intense Caledonian reworking, if suitable textural and mineralogical relationships can be indentified elsewhere. [source]


Development of garnet porphyroblasts by multiple nucleation, coalescence and boundary misorientation-driven rotations

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
R. Spiess
Abstract Two types of garnet porphyroblast occur in the Schneeberg Complex of the Italian Alps. Type 1 porphyroblasts form ellipsoidal pods with a centre consisting of unstrained quartz, decussate mica and small garnet grains, and a margin containing large garnet grains. Orientation contrast imaging using the scanning electron microscope shows that the larger marginal garnet grains comprise a number of orientation subdomains. Individual garnet grains without subdomains are small (< 50 m), faceted and idioblastic, and have simple zoning profiles with Ca-rich cores and Ca-poor rims. Subdomains of larger garnet grains are similar in size to the individual, small garnet grains. Type 2 porphyroblasts comprise only ellipsoidal garnet, with small subdomains in the centre and larger subdomains at the margin. Each subdomain has its own Ca high, Ca dropping towards subdomain boundaries. Garnet grains, with or without subdomains, all have the same Ca-poor composition at rims in contact with other minerals. The compositional zonation patterns are best explained by simultaneous, multiple nucleation, followed by growth and amalgamation of individual garnet grains. The range of individual garnet and garnet subdomain sizes can be explained by a faster growth rate at the porphyroblast margin than in the centre. The difference between Type 1 and Type 2 porphyroblasts is probably related to the growth rate differential across the porphyroblast. Electron backscatter diffraction shows that small, individual garnet grains are randomly oriented. Large marginal garnet grains and subdomain-bearing garnet grains have a strong preferred orientation, clustering around a single garnet orientation. Misorientations across subdomain boundaries are small and misorientation axes are randomly oriented with respect to crystallographic orientations. The only explanation that fits the observational data is that individual garnet grains rotated towards coincident orientations once they came into contact with each other. This process was driven by the reduction of subdomain boundary energy associated with misorientation loss. Rotation of garnet grains was accommodated by diffusion in the subdomain boundary and diffusional creep and rigid body rotation of other minerals (quartz and mica) around the garnet. An analytical model, in which the kinetics of garnet rotation are controlled by the rheology of surrounding quartz, suggests that, at the conditions of metamorphism, the rotation required to give a strong preferred orientation can occur on a similar time-scale to that of porphyroblast growth. [source]


Geochemical constraints of the eclogite and granulite facies metamorphism as recognized in the Raobazhai complex from North Dabie Shan, China

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
Y. L. Xiao
Abstract A combined study of major and trace elements, fluid inclusions and oxygen isotopes has been carried out on garnet pyroxenite from the Raobazhai complex in the North Dabie Terrane (NDT). Well-preserved compositional zoning with Na decreasing and Ca and Mg increasing from the core to rim of pyroxene in the garnet pyroxenite indicates eclogite facies metamorphism at the peak metamorphic stage and subsequent granulite facies metamorphism during uplift. A P,T path with substantial heating (from c. 750 to 900 C) after the maximum pressure reveals a different uplift history compared with most other eclogites in the South Dabie Terrane (SDT). Fluid inclusion data can be correlated with the metamorphic grade: the fluid regime during the peak metamorphism (eclogite facies) was dominated by N2 -bearing NaCl-rich solutions, whereas it changed into CO2 -dominated fluids during the granulite facies retrograde metamorphism. At a late retrograde metamorphic stage, probably after amphibolite facies metamorphism, some external low-salinity fluids were involved. In situ UV-laser oxygen isotope analysis was undertaken on a 7 mm garnet, and impure pyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase. The nearly homogeneous oxygen isotopic composition (,18OVSMOW = c. 6.7,) in the garnet porphyroblast indicates closed fluid system conditions during garnet growth. However, isotopic fractionations between retrograde phases (amphibole and plagioclase) and garnet show an oxygen isotopic disequilibrium, indicating retrograde fluid,rock interactions. Unusual MORB-like rare earth element (REE) patterns for whole rock of the garnet pyroxenite contrast with most ultra-high-pressure (UHP) eclogites in the Dabie-Sulu area. However, the age-corrected initial ,Nd(t) is ,,2.9, which indicates that the protolith of the garnet pyroxenite was derived from an enriched mantle rather than from a MORB source. Combined with the present data of oxygen isotopic compositions and the characteristic N2 content in the fluid inclusions, we suggest that the protolith of the garnet pyroxenite from Raobazhai formed in an enriched mantle fragment, which has been exposed to the surface prior to the Triassic metamorphism. [source]


High-Si phengite, mineral chemistry and P,T evolution of ultra-high-pressure eclogites and calc-silicates from the Dabie Shan, eastern China

GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2000
Robert Schmid
Abstract A suite of coesite,eclogites and associated calc-silicate rocks from the ultra-high-pressure (UHP) belt in the Dabie Shan (eastern China) was investigated petrologically. Field relations and the presence of UHP minerals such as coesite, omphacite and high-Si phengite in the eclogites and the enclosing calc-silicates testify to a common metamorphic evolution for these two lithologies. Except for one sample, all bear phengite with unusually high silica contents (Si up to 3.7 per formula unit). Phengite occupies various textural positions indicating that different metamorphic stages are reflected by these white micas, which correlate with distinct mineral zonation patterns. Using the latest thermobarometric calibrations for eclogite-facies rocks, maximum pressure,temperature (P,T) conditions of 40,48 kbar at <,750C were estimated for the peak-metamorphic mineral assemblages. These P,T conditions were calculated for both eclogitic garnet porphyroblasts with diffusion-controlled zoning as well as garnet porphyroblasts with prograde growth zonation patterns. Most samples were affected by a strong retrograde overprint mainly under eclogite- and amphibolite-facies conditions. Thermobarometry using mineral sets from different textural positions reveals cooling and decompression of the UHP rocks down to <,20 kbar at <,600C for the bulk of the samples. Decompression and heating indicated by a few samples is interpreted to result from mineral chemical disequilibrium or late thermal influence. These new data show that subduction of continental crust in the Dabie Shan was deeper than previously thought, and also that some cooling and decompression took place at upper-mantle depths. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Characterization of polymetamorphism in the Austroalpine basement east of the Tauern Window using garnet isopleth thermobarometry

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
F. GAIDIES
Abstract Garnet in metapelites from the Wlz and Rappold Complexes of the Austroalpine basement east of the Tauern Window typically shows two distinct growth zones. A first garnet generation usually forms the cores of garnet porphyroblasts and is separated by a prominent microstructural and chemical discontinuity from a second garnet generation, which forms rims of variable width. Whereas the rims were formed during the Eo-Alpine metamorphic overprint, the garnet cores represent remnants of at least two pre-Eo-Alpine metamorphic events. The pressure and temperature estimates obtained from garnet isopleth thermobarometry applied to the first growth increments of the pre-Eo-Alpine garnet cores from the Wlz and Rappold Complexes cluster into two distinct domains: (i) in the Wlz Complex, incipient growth of the first-generation garnet occurred at 4 0.5 kbar and 535 20 C, (ii) in the Rappold Complex, incipient growth of the oldest garnet cores took place at 5.3 0.3 kbar and 525 15 C. The Eo-Alpine garnet generation started to grow at 6.5 0.5 kbar and 540 10 C. According to radiometric dating, the low-pressure garnet from the Wlz complex was formed during a Permian metamorphic event. The first-generation garnet of the Rappold Complex is probably of Variscan age. [source]


Effects of matrix grain size on the kinetics of intergranular diffusion

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 8 2004
W. D. Carlson
Abstract A linear relationship exists between the mean volume of garnet porphyroblasts and the squared inverse of mean matrix grain diameter for six samples of garnetiferous mica quartzite with identical thermal histories and similar mineralogy and modes. This relationship accords with theoretical predictions of the dependence of intergranular diffusive fluxes on the volume fraction of grain edges that function as diffusional pathways during porphyroblast growth. The impact of matrix grain size is large: compared to a rock with a 1-mm matrix, a rock with a 10- ,m matrix would experience rates of diffusion-controlled porphyroblast growth that are 10 000 times faster, and characteristic length scales for chemical equilibration that are 100 times larger. Precursor grain sizes may therefore exert a major influence on crystallization kinetics. If matrix coarsening occurs during prograde reaction, a decrease in the volume fraction of diffusional pathways will tend to counteract the exponential thermal increase in diffusive fluxes. The impact of such matrix grain growth, although difficult to assess without firm knowledge of coarsening rates in polymineralic aggregates, might be significant for matrices finer than c. 100 ,m at temperatures above c. 500,600 C, but is likely negligible for coarser grain sizes and lower temperatures. [source]


Garnet porphyroblast timing and behaviour during fold evolution: implications from a 3-D geometric analysis of a hand-sample scale fold in a schist

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 9 2003
N. E. Timms
Abstract Detailed 3-D analysis of inclusion trails in garnet porphyroblasts and matrix foliations preserved around a hand-sample scale, tight, upright fold has revealed a complex deformation history. The fold, dominated by interlayered quartz,mica schist and quartz-rich veins, preserves a crenulation cleavage that has a synthetic bulk shear sense to that of the macroscopic fold and transects the axis in mica-rich layers. Garnet porphyroblasts with asymmetric inclusion trails occur on both limbs of the fold and display two stages of growth shown by textural discontinuities. Garnet porphyroblast cores and rims pre-date the macroscopic fold and preserve successive foliation inflection/intersection axes (FIAs), which have the same trend but opposing plunges on each limb of the fold, and trend NNE,SSW and NE,SW, respectively. The FIAs are oblique to the main fold, which plunges gently to the WSW. Inclusion trail surfaces in the cores of idioblastic porphyroblasts within mica-rich layers define an apparent fold with an axis oblique to the macroscopic fold axis by 32, whereas equivalent surfaces in tabular garnet adjacent to quartz-rich layers define a tighter apparent fold with an axis oblique to the main fold axis by 17. This potentially could be explained by garnet porphyroblasts that grew over a pre-existing gentle fold and did not rotate during fold formation, but is more easily explained by rotation of the porphyroblasts during folding. Tabular porphyroblasts adjacent to quartz-rich layers rotated more relative to the fold axis than those within mica-rich layers due to less effective deformation partitioning around the porphyroblasts and through quartz-rich layers. This work highlights the importance of 3-D geometry and relative timing relationships in studies of inclusion trails in porphyroblasts and microstructures in the matrix. [source]


Strain rates from snowball garnet

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
C. Biermeier
Abstract Spiral inclusion trails in garnet porphyroblasts are likely to have formed due to simultaneous growth and rotation of the crystals, during syn-metamorphic deformation. Thus, they contain information on the strain rate of the rock. Strain rates may be interpreted from such inclusion trails if two functions are known: (1) The relationship between rotation rate and shear strain rate; (2) the growth rate of the crystal. We have investigated details of both functions using a garnetiferous mica schist from the eastern European Alps as an example. The rotation rate of garnet porphyroblasts was determined using finite element modelling of the geometrical arrangement of the crystals in the rock. The growth rate of the porphyroblasts was determined by using the major and trace element distributions in garnet crystals, thermodynamic pseudosections and information on the grain size distribution. For the largest porphyroblast size fraction (size L=12 mm) we constrain a growth interval between 540 and 590 C during the prograde evolution of the rock. Assuming a reasonable heating rate and using the angular geometry of the spiral inclusion trails we are able to suggest that the mean strain rate during crystal growth was of the order of =6.6 10,14 s,1. These estimates are consistent with independent estimates for the strain rates during the evolution of this part of the Alpine orogen. [source]


High-pressure granulites in the Sanggan area, North China craton: metamorphic evolution, P,T paths and geotectonic significance

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 8 2002
J. H. Guo
Abstract High-pressure basic granulites are widely distributed as enclaves and sheet-like blocks in the Huaian TTG gneiss terrane in the Sanggan area of the Central Zone of the North China craton. Four stages of the metamorphic history have been recognised in mineral assemblages based on inclusion, exsolution and reaction textures integrated with garnet zonation patterns as revealed by compositional maps and compositional profiles. The P,T conditions for each metamorphic stage were obtained using thermodynamically and experimentally calibrated geothermobarometers. The low-Ca core of growth-zoned garnet, along with inclusion minerals, defines a prograde assemblage (M1) of garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz, yielding 700 C and 10 kbar. The peak of metamorphism at about 750,870 C and 11,14.5 kbar (M2) is defined by high-Ca domains in garnet interiors and inclusion minerals of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and quartz. Kelyphites or coronas of orthopyroxene + plagioclase magnetite around garnet porphyroblasts indicate garnet breakdown reactions (M3) at conditions around 770,830 C and 8.5,10.5 kbar. Garnet exsolution lamellae in clinopyroxene and kelyphites of amphibole + plagioclase around garnet formed during the cooling process at about 500,650 C and 5.5,8 kbar (M4). These results help define a sequential P,T path containing prograde, near-isothermal decompression (ITD) and near-isobaric cooling (IBC) stages. The clockwise hybrid ITD and IBC P,T paths of the HP granulites in the Sanggan area imply a model of thickening followed by extension in a collisional environment. Furthermore, the relatively high-pressures (6,14.5 kbar) of the four metamorphic stages and the geometry of the P,T paths suggest that the HP granulites, together with their host Huaian TTG gneisses, represent the lower plate in a crust thickened during collision. The corresponding upper-plate might be the tectonically overlying Khondalite series, which was subjected to medium- to low-pressure (MP/LP: 7,4 kbar) granulite facies metamorphism with a clockwise P,T path including an ITD segment. Both the HP and the MP/LP granulite facies events occurred contemporaneously at c. 1.90,1.85 Ga in a collisional environment created by the assembly process of the North China craton. [source]


The development of spiral-shaped inclusion trails during multiple metamorphism and folding

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
T. H. Bell
Abstract Three periods of mineral growth and three generations of spiral-shaped inclusion trails have been distinguished within folded rocks of the Qinling-Dabie Orogen, China, using the development of three successive and differently trending sets of foliation intersection axes preserved in porphyroblasts (FIAs). This progression is revealed by the consistent relative sequence of changes in FIA trends from the core to rim of garnet porphyroblasts in samples with multiple FIAs. The first and second formed sets of FIAs trend oblique to the axial planes of macroscopic folds that dominate the outcrop pattern in this region. The porphyroblasts containing these FIAs grew prior to the development of the macroscopic folds, yet the FIAs do not change orientation across the fold hinges. The youngest formed FIAs (set 3) lie subparallel to the axial planes of these folds and the porphyroblasts containing these FIAs formed in part as the folds developed. The deformation associated with all three generations of spiral-shaped inclusion trails in garnet porphyroblasts involved the formation of subhorizontal and subvertical foliations against porphyroblast rims accompanied by periods of garnet growth; pervasive structures have not necessarily formed in the matrix away from the porphyroblasts. The macroscopic folds are heterogeneously strained from limb to limb, doubly plunging and have moderately dipping axial planes. The consistent orientation of Set 1 FIAs indicates that the development of spiral-shaped inclusion trails in porphyroblasts with FIAs belonging to Set 2 did not involve rotation of the previously formed porphyroblasts. The consistent orientation of Sets 1 and 2 FIAs indicate that the development of spiral-shaped inclusion trails in porphyroblasts with FIAs belonging to Set 3 did not involve rotation of the previously formed porphyroblasts during folding. This requires a fold mechanism of progressive bulk inhomogeneous shortening and demonstrates that spiral-shaped inclusion trails can form outside of shear zones. [source]


P,T conditions of decompression of the Limpopo high-grade terrane: record from shear zones

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
C. A. Smit
Abstract The Southern Marginal Zone of the late Archean Limpopo Belt of southern Africa is an example of a high-grade gneiss terrane in which both upper and lower crustal deformational processes can be studied. This marginal zone consists of large thrust sheets of complexly folded low-strain gneisses, bound by an imbricate system of kilometre-wide deep crustal shear zones characterized by the presence of high-strain gneisses (,primary straight gneisses'). These shear zones developed during the decompression stage of this high-grade terrane. Low- and high-strain gneisses both contain similar reaction textures that formed under different kinematic conditions during decompression. Evidence for the early M1/D1 metamorphic phase (> 2690 Ma) is rarely preserved in low-strain gneisses as a uniform orientation of relict Al-rich orthopyroxene in the matrix and quartz and plagioclase inclusions in the cores of early (M1) Mg-rich garnet porphyroblasts. This rare fabric formed at >,820 C and >,7.5 kbar. The retrograde M2/D2 metamorphic fabric (2630,2670 Ma) is well developed in high-strain gneisses from deep crustal shear zones and is microscopically recognized by the presence of reaction textures that formed synkinematically during shear deformation: M2 sigmoid-shaped reaction textures with oriented cordierite,orthopyroxene symplectites formed after the early M1 Mg-rich garnet porphyroblasts, and syn-decompression M2 pencil-shaped garnet with oriented inclusions of sillimanite and quartz formed after cordierite under conditions of near-isobaric cooling at 750,630 C and 6,5 kbar. The symplectites and pencil-shaped garnet are oriented parallel to the shear fabric and in the stretching direction. Low-strain gneisses from thrust sheets show similar M2 decompression cooling and near-isobaric cooling reaction textures that formed within the same P,T range, but under low-strain conditions, as shown by their pseudo-idioblastic shapes that reflect the contours of completely replaced M1 garnet and randomly oriented cordierite,orthopyroxene symplectites. The presence of similar reaction textures reflecting low-strain conditions in gneisses from thrust sheets and high-strain conditions in primary straight gneisses suggests that most of the strain during decompression was partitioned into the bounding shear zones. A younger M3/D3 mylonitic fabric (< 2637 Ma) in unhydrated mylonites is characterized by brittle deformation of garnet porphyroclasts and ductile deformation of the quartz,plagioclase,biotite matrix developed at <,600 C, as the result of post-decompression shearing under epidote,amphibolite facies conditions. [source]


Development of garnet porphyroblasts by multiple nucleation, coalescence and boundary misorientation-driven rotations

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
R. Spiess
Abstract Two types of garnet porphyroblast occur in the Schneeberg Complex of the Italian Alps. Type 1 porphyroblasts form ellipsoidal pods with a centre consisting of unstrained quartz, decussate mica and small garnet grains, and a margin containing large garnet grains. Orientation contrast imaging using the scanning electron microscope shows that the larger marginal garnet grains comprise a number of orientation subdomains. Individual garnet grains without subdomains are small (< 50 m), faceted and idioblastic, and have simple zoning profiles with Ca-rich cores and Ca-poor rims. Subdomains of larger garnet grains are similar in size to the individual, small garnet grains. Type 2 porphyroblasts comprise only ellipsoidal garnet, with small subdomains in the centre and larger subdomains at the margin. Each subdomain has its own Ca high, Ca dropping towards subdomain boundaries. Garnet grains, with or without subdomains, all have the same Ca-poor composition at rims in contact with other minerals. The compositional zonation patterns are best explained by simultaneous, multiple nucleation, followed by growth and amalgamation of individual garnet grains. The range of individual garnet and garnet subdomain sizes can be explained by a faster growth rate at the porphyroblast margin than in the centre. The difference between Type 1 and Type 2 porphyroblasts is probably related to the growth rate differential across the porphyroblast. Electron backscatter diffraction shows that small, individual garnet grains are randomly oriented. Large marginal garnet grains and subdomain-bearing garnet grains have a strong preferred orientation, clustering around a single garnet orientation. Misorientations across subdomain boundaries are small and misorientation axes are randomly oriented with respect to crystallographic orientations. The only explanation that fits the observational data is that individual garnet grains rotated towards coincident orientations once they came into contact with each other. This process was driven by the reduction of subdomain boundary energy associated with misorientation loss. Rotation of garnet grains was accommodated by diffusion in the subdomain boundary and diffusional creep and rigid body rotation of other minerals (quartz and mica) around the garnet. An analytical model, in which the kinetics of garnet rotation are controlled by the rheology of surrounding quartz, suggests that, at the conditions of metamorphism, the rotation required to give a strong preferred orientation can occur on a similar time-scale to that of porphyroblast growth. [source]


Petrology and P,T path of the Fuping mafic granulites: implications for tectonic evolution of the central zone of the North China craton

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
G. C. Zhao
The Fuping Complex and the adjoining Wutai and Hengshan Complexes are located in the central zone of the North China craton. The dominant rock types in the Fuping Complex are high-grade tonalitic,trondhjemitic,granodioritic (TTG) gneisses, with minor amounts of mafic granulites, syntectonic granitic rocks and supracrustal rocks. The petrological evidence from the mafic granulites indicates three stages of metamorphic evolution. The M1 stage is represented by garnet porphyroblasts and matrix plagioclase, quartz, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and hornblende. Orthopyroxene+plagioclase symplectites and clinopyroxene+plagioclaseorthopyroxene coronas formed in response to decompression during M2 following the peak metamorphism at M1. Hornblende+plagioclase symplectites formed as a result of further isobaric cooling and retrograde metamorphism during M3. The P,T estimates using TWQ thermobarometry are: 900,950 C and 8.0,8.5 kbar for the peak assemblage (M1), based on the core compositions of garnet, matrix pyroxene and plagioclase; 700,800 C and 6.0,7.0 kbar for the pyroxene+plagioclase symplectites or coronas (M2); and 550,650 C and 5.3,6.3 kbar for the hornblende+plagioclase symplectites (M3), based on garnet rim and corresponding symplectic mineral compositions. These P,T estimates define a clockwise P,T path involving near-isothermal decompression for the Fuping Complex, similar to the P,T path estimated for the metapelitic gneisses. The inferred P,T path suggests that the Fuping Complex underwent initial crustal thickening, subsequent exhumation, and finally cooling and retrogression. This tectonothermal path is similar to P,T paths inferred for the Wutai and Hengshan Complexes and other tectonic units in the central zone of the North China craton, but different from anti-clockwise P,T paths estimated for the basement rocks in the eastern and western zones of the craton. Based on lithological, structural, metamorphic and geochronological data, the eastern and western zones of the craton are considered to represent two different Archean to Paleoproterozoic continental blocks that amalgamated along the central zone at the end of Paleoproterozoic. The P,T paths of the Fuping Complex and other tectonic units in the central zone record the collision between the eastern and western zones that led to the final assembly of the North China craton at c. 1800 Ma. [source]