Garnet Cores (garnet + core)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Contact metamorphic P,T,t paths from Sm,Nd garnet ages, phase equilibria modelling and thermobarometry: Garnet Ledge, south-eastern Alaska, USA

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
H. H. Stowell
Abstract Sm,Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology, phase equilibria, and thermobarometry results from Garnet Ledge, south-eastern Alaska, provide the first precisely constrained P,T,t path for garnet zone contact metamorphism. Garnet cores from two crystals and associated whole rocks yield a four point isochron age for initial garnet growth of 89.9 3.6 Ma. Garnet rims and matrix minerals from the same samples yield a five point isochron age for final garnet growth of 89 1 Ma. Six size fractions of zircon from the adjacent pluton yield a concordant U,Pb age of 91.6 0.5 Ma. The garnet core and rim, and zircon ages are compatible with single-stage garnet growth during and/or after pluton emplacement. All garnet core,whole rock and garnet rim-matrix data from the two samples constrain garnet growth duration to ,5.5 my. A garnet mid-point and the associated matrix from one of the two garnet crystals yield an age of 90.0 1.0 Ma. This mid-point result is logically younger than the 90.7 5.6 Ma core,whole rock age and older than the 88.4 2.5 Ma rim-matrix age for this sample. A MnNaCaKFMASH phase diagram (P,T pseudosection) and the garnet core composition are used to predict that cores of garnet crystals grew at 610 20 C and 5 1 kbar. This exceeds the temperature of the garnet-in reaction by c. 50 C and is compatible with overstepping of the garnet growth reaction during contact metamorphism. Intersection of three reactions involving garnet-biotite-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz calculated by THERMOCALC in average P,T mode, and exchange thermobarometry were used to estimate peak metamorphic conditions of 678 58 C at 6.1 0.9 kbar and 685 50 C at 6.3 1 kbar, respectively. Integration of pressure, temperature, and age estimates yields a pressure-temperature-time path compatible with near isobaric garnet growth over an interval of c. 70 C and c. 2.3 my. [source]


Three metamorphic events recorded in a single garnet: Integrated phase modelling, in situ LA-ICPMS and SIMS geochronology from the Moine Supergroup, NW Scotland

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
K. A. CUTTS
Abstract In situ LA-ICP-MS monazite geochronology from a garnet-bearing diatexite within the Moine Supergroup (Glenfinnan Group) NW Scotland records three temporally distinct metamorphic events within a single garnet porphyroblast. The initial growth of garnet occurred in the interval c. 825,780 Ma, as recorded by monazite inclusions located in the garnet core. Modelled P,T conditions based on the preserved garnet core composition indicate an initially comparatively high geothermal gradient regime and peak conditions of ,650 C and 7 kbar. Monazite within a compositionally distinct second shell of garnet has an age of 724 6 Ma. This is indistinguishable from a SIMS age of 725 4 Ma obtained from metamorphic zircon in the sample, which is interpreted to record the timing of migmatization. This second stage of garnet growth occurred on a P,T path from ,6 kbar and 650 C rising to ,9 kbar and 700 C, with the peak conditions associated with partial melting. A third garnet zone which forms the rim contains monazite with an age of 464 3 Ma. Monazite in the surrounding matrix has an age of 462 2 Ma. This corresponds well with a U,Pb SIMS zircon age of 463 4 Ma obtained from a deformed pegmatite that was emplaced during widespread folding and reworking of the migmatite fabric. The P,T conditions associated with the final phase of garnet growth were ,7 kbar and 650 C. The monazite ages coupled with the phase relations modelled from this multistage garnet indicate that it records two Neoproterozoic tectonothermal events as well as the widespread Ordovician Grampian event associated with Caledonian orogenesis. Thus, this single garnet records much of the Neoproterozoic to Ordovician thermal history in NW Scotland, and highlights the long history of porphyroblast growth that can be revealed by in situ isotopic dating and associated P,T modelling. This approach has the potential to reveal much of the thermal architecture of Neoproterozoic events within the Moine Supergroup, despite intense Caledonian reworking, if suitable textural and mineralogical relationships can be indentified elsewhere. [source]


On the mechanism of resorption zoning in metamorphic garnet

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 8 2003
S. L. Hwang
Abstract An analytical electron microscope study of almandine garnet from a metamorphosed Al,Fe-rich rock revealed detailed composition profiles and defect microstructures of resorption zoning along fluid-infiltrated veins and even into the garnet/ilmenite (inclusion) interface. This indicates a limited volume diffusion for the cations in substitution (mainly Ca and Fe) and an interface-controlled partition for the extension of a composition-invariant margin. A corrugated interface between the Ca-rich margin/zone and the almandine garnet core is characterized by dislocation arrays and recovery texture further suggesting a resorption process facilitated by diffusion-induced recrystallization, diffusion-induced dislocation migration and diffusion,induced grain boundary migration. Integrated microstructural and chemical studies are essential for understanding the underlying mechanisms of processes such as garnet zoning and its modification. Without this understanding, it will not be possible to reliably use garnet compositions for thermobarometry and other applications that rely on garnet chemical information. [source]


Contact metamorphic P,T,t paths from Sm,Nd garnet ages, phase equilibria modelling and thermobarometry: Garnet Ledge, south-eastern Alaska, USA

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
H. H. Stowell
Abstract Sm,Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology, phase equilibria, and thermobarometry results from Garnet Ledge, south-eastern Alaska, provide the first precisely constrained P,T,t path for garnet zone contact metamorphism. Garnet cores from two crystals and associated whole rocks yield a four point isochron age for initial garnet growth of 89.9 3.6 Ma. Garnet rims and matrix minerals from the same samples yield a five point isochron age for final garnet growth of 89 1 Ma. Six size fractions of zircon from the adjacent pluton yield a concordant U,Pb age of 91.6 0.5 Ma. The garnet core and rim, and zircon ages are compatible with single-stage garnet growth during and/or after pluton emplacement. All garnet core,whole rock and garnet rim-matrix data from the two samples constrain garnet growth duration to ,5.5 my. A garnet mid-point and the associated matrix from one of the two garnet crystals yield an age of 90.0 1.0 Ma. This mid-point result is logically younger than the 90.7 5.6 Ma core,whole rock age and older than the 88.4 2.5 Ma rim-matrix age for this sample. A MnNaCaKFMASH phase diagram (P,T pseudosection) and the garnet core composition are used to predict that cores of garnet crystals grew at 610 20 C and 5 1 kbar. This exceeds the temperature of the garnet-in reaction by c. 50 C and is compatible with overstepping of the garnet growth reaction during contact metamorphism. Intersection of three reactions involving garnet-biotite-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz calculated by THERMOCALC in average P,T mode, and exchange thermobarometry were used to estimate peak metamorphic conditions of 678 58 C at 6.1 0.9 kbar and 685 50 C at 6.3 1 kbar, respectively. Integration of pressure, temperature, and age estimates yields a pressure-temperature-time path compatible with near isobaric garnet growth over an interval of c. 70 C and c. 2.3 my. [source]


Structural and metamorphic evolution of the phengite-bearing schists of the northern Adula Nappe (Central Alps, Switzerland)

GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
F. Zulbati
Abstract Phengite-bearing schists of the northern Adula Nappe experienced a polymetamorphic and polycyclic evolution that was associated with five deformation episodes. Evidence of a pre-Alpine metamorphic event is preserved within garnet cores of some amphibole-bearing schists. The D1 and D2 deformation episodes are recorded by S1 and S2 foliations preserved only within metre-scale domains of low-D3 strain. S1 is a relict foliation. Blueschist-facies conditions at 565,,10C and 11.5,,1.5,kbar were attained during D2 and were associated with the development of isoclinal folding and an S2 foliation. The D3 episode took place at 665,,50C and 11.5,,2.1,kbar and was responsible for the development of a transpositive S3 foliation. The D4 episode took place at T,<,550,,10C and was associated with the development of a discrete S4 foliation and S-C structures. The D5 episode is recorded by sub-vertical metre-scale open folds or centimetre-scale kinks. The structural and metamorphic evolution described here indicates that the northern and central parts of the Adula Nappe were distinct continental crustal fragments and were brought together under amphibolite-facies conditions. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Variations in the transient prograde geothermal gradient from chloritoid-staurolite equilibria: a case study from the Barrovian and Buchan-type domains in the Bohemian Massif

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
M. KO
Abstract Thermodynamic modelling of metamorphic rocks increases the possibilities of deciphering prograde paths that provide important insights into early orogenic evolution. It is shown that the chloritoid,staurolite transition is not only an indicator of temperature on prograde P,T paths, but also a useful indicator of pressure. The approach is applied to the Moravo-Silesian eastern external belt of the Bohemian Massif, where metamorphic zones range from biotite to staurolite-sillimanite. In the staurolite zone, inclusions of chloritoid occur in garnet cores, while staurolite is included at garnet rims and is widespread in the matrix. Chloritoid XFe = 0.91 indicates transition to staurolite at 5 kbar and 550 C and consequently, an early transient prograde geothermal gradient of 29 C km,1. The overall elevated thermal evolution is then reflected in the prograde transition of staurolite to sillimanite and in the achievement of peak temperature of 660 C at a relatively low pressure of 6.5 kbar. To the south and to the west of the studied area, high-grade metamorphic zones record a prograde path evolution from staurolite to kyanite and development of sillimanite on decompression. Transition of chloritoid to staurolite was reported in two places, with chloritoid XFe = 0.75,0.80, occurring at 8,10 kbar and 560,580 C, and indicating a transient prograde geothermal gradient of 16,18 C km,1. These data show variable barric evolutions along strike and across the Moravo-Silesian domain. Elevated prograde geothermal gradient coincides with areas of Devonian sedimentation and volcanism, and syn- to late Carboniferous intrusions. Therefore, we interpret it as a result of heat inherited from Devonian rifting, further fuelled by syntectonic Carboniferous intrusions. [source]


Characterization of polymetamorphism in the Austroalpine basement east of the Tauern Window using garnet isopleth thermobarometry

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
F. GAIDIES
Abstract Garnet in metapelites from the Wlz and Rappold Complexes of the Austroalpine basement east of the Tauern Window typically shows two distinct growth zones. A first garnet generation usually forms the cores of garnet porphyroblasts and is separated by a prominent microstructural and chemical discontinuity from a second garnet generation, which forms rims of variable width. Whereas the rims were formed during the Eo-Alpine metamorphic overprint, the garnet cores represent remnants of at least two pre-Eo-Alpine metamorphic events. The pressure and temperature estimates obtained from garnet isopleth thermobarometry applied to the first growth increments of the pre-Eo-Alpine garnet cores from the Wlz and Rappold Complexes cluster into two distinct domains: (i) in the Wlz Complex, incipient growth of the first-generation garnet occurred at 4 0.5 kbar and 535 20 C, (ii) in the Rappold Complex, incipient growth of the oldest garnet cores took place at 5.3 0.3 kbar and 525 15 C. The Eo-Alpine garnet generation started to grow at 6.5 0.5 kbar and 540 10 C. According to radiometric dating, the low-pressure garnet from the Wlz complex was formed during a Permian metamorphic event. The first-generation garnet of the Rappold Complex is probably of Variscan age. [source]


A counter-clockwise P,T path for the Voltri Massif eclogites (Ligurian Alps, Italy)

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 7 2005
G. VIGNAROLI
Abstract Integrated petrological and structural investigations of eclogites from the eclogite zone of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps) have been used to reconstruct a complete Alpine P,T deformation path from burial by subduction to subsequent exhumation. The early metamorphic evolution of the eclogites has been unravelled by correlating garnet zonation trends with the chemical variations in inclusions found in the different garnet domains. Garnet in massive eclogites displays typical growth zoning, whereas garnet in foliated eclogites shows rim-ward resorption, likely related to re-equilibration during retrogressive evolution. Garnet inclusions are distinctly different from core to rim, consisting primarily of Ca-, Na/Ca-amphibole, epidote, paragonite and talc in garnet cores and of clinopyroxene talc in the outer garnet domains. Quantitative thermobarometry on the inclusion assemblages in the garnet cores defines an initial greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metamorphic stage (M1 stage) at c. 450,500 C and 5,8 kbar. Coexistence of omphacite + talc + katophorite inclusion assemblage in the outer garnet domains indicate c. 550 C and 20 kbar, conditions which were considered as minimum P,T estimates for the M2 eclogitic stage. The early phase of retrograde reactions is polyphase and equilibrated under epidote,blueschist facies (M3 stage), characterized by the development of composite reaction textures (garnet necklaces and fluid-assisted Na-amphibole-bearing symplectites) produced at the expense of the primary M2 garnet-clinopyroxene assemblage. The blueschist retrogression is contemporaneous with the development of a penetrative deformation (D3) that resulted in a non-coaxial fabric, with dominant top-to-the-N sense of shear during rock exhumation. All of that is overprinted by a texturally late amphibolite/greenschist facies assemblages (M4 & M5 stages), which are not associated with a penetrative structural fabric. The combined P,T deformation data are consistent with an overall counter-clockwise path, from the greenschist/amphibolite, through the eclogite, the blueschist to the greenschist facies. These new results provide insights into the dynamic evolution of the Tertiary oceanic subduction processes leading to the building up of the Alpine orogen and the mechanisms involved in the exhumation of its high-pressure roots. [source]


Evolution of Caledonian deformation fabrics under eclogite and amphibolite facies at Vrdalsneset, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
Engvik
The Vrdalsneset eclogite situated in the Western Gneiss Region, SW Norway, is a well preserved tectonite giving information about the deformation regimes active in the lower crust during crustal thickening and subsequent exhumation. The eclogite constitutes layers and lenses variably retrograded to amphibolite and is composed of garnet and omphacite with varying amounts of barroisite, actinolite, clinozoisite, kyanite, quartz, paragonite, phengite and rutile. The rocks record a five-stage evolution connected to Caledonian burial and subsequent exhumation. (1) A prograde evolution through amphibolite facies (T =49063 C) is inferred from garnet cores with amphibole inclusions and bell-shaped Mn profile. (2) Formation of L>S-tectonite eclogite (T =68020 C, P=162 kbar) related to the subduction of continental crust during the Caledonian orogeny. Lack of asymmetrical fabrics and orientation of eclogite facies extensional veins indicate that the deformation regime during formation of the L>S fabric was coaxial. (3) Formation of sub-horizontal eclogite facies foliation in which the finite stretching direction had changed by approximately 90. Disruption of eclogite lenses and layers between symmetric shear zones characterizes the dominantly coaxial deformation regime of stage 3. Locally occurring mylonitic eclogites (T =69020 C, P=151.5 kbar) with top-W kinematics may indicate, however, that non-coaxial deformation was also active at eclogite facies conditions. (4) Development of a widespread regional amphibolite facies foliation (T =56444 C, P<10.3,8.1 kbar), quartz veins and development of conjugate shear zones indicate that coaxial vertical shortening and sub-horizontal stretching were active during exhumation from eclogite to amphibolite facies conditions. (5) Amphibolite facies mylonites mainly formed under non-coaxial top-W movement are related to large-scale movement on the extensional detachments active during the late-orogenic extension of the Caledonides. The structural and metamorphic evolution of the Vrdalsneset eclogite and related areas support the exhumation model, including an extensional detachment in the upper crust and overall coaxial deformation in the lower crust. [source]


Super-silicic garnet microstructures from an orogenic garnet peridotite, evidence for an ultra-deep (>6 GPa) origin

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
Van Roermund
We report the field, petrographic and mineral chemical characteristics of relict super-silicic (=majoritic) garnet microstructures from the Otry peridotites in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway. The evidence for the former existence of super-silicic garnet consists of two-pyroxene exsolution microstructures from garnet. Estimates of the initial composition of the super-silicic garnet imply pressures of 6,6.5 GPa, indicating that the Otry garnet peridotites were derived from depths >185 km. The garnet peridotites consist of inter-banded variable compositions with c. 50% garnet peridotite and 50% garnet-free peridotite. Two distinct garnet types were identified: (a) normal matrix garnet, grain-size ,4 mm, and (b) large isolated single garnet crystals and/or (polycrystalline) garnet nodules up to 10 cm in size. Large garnet nodules occur only within limited bands within the garnet peridotites. The relicts of super-silicic garnet were exclusively found in some (not all) of the larger garnet nodules. Petrographic observations revealed that the microstructure of nodular garnet consists of the following four characteristic elements. (1) Individual garnet nodules are polycrystalline, with grain sizes of 2,8 mm. Garnet grain boundaries are straight with well-defined triple junctions. (2) Some garnet triple junctions and garnet grain boundaries are decorated by interstitial orthopyroxene. (3) Cores of larger polycrystalline garnet contain two-pyroxene exsolution microstructures. (4) Precipitation-free rims (2 mm thick) surround garnet cores containing the exsolved pyroxene microstructure. Pyroxene exsolution from super-silicic garnet was subsequently followed by brittle,ductile deformation of garnet. Both exsolved pyroxene needles and laths become undulous or truncated by fractures. Simultaneous garnet plasticity is indicated by the occurrence of high densities of naturally decorated dislocations. Transmission electron microscopy observations indicate that decoration is due to Ti-oxide precipitation. Estimates of the P,T conditions for mineral chemical equilibration were obtained from geothermobarometry. The mineral compositions equilibrated at mantle conditions around 80540 C and 3.20.2 GPa. These P,T estimates correspond to cold continental lithosphere conditions at depths of around 105 km. From a combination of both depth estimates it can be concluded that the microstructural memory of the rock extends backwards to twice as great a depth range as obtained by thermobarometric methods. Available geochronological and geochemical data of Norwegian garnet peridotites suggest a multi-stage, multi-orogenic exhumation history. [source]