GaN Layers (gan + layer)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


340,350 nm GaN-free UV-LEDs

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
T. Nishida
Abstract Light extraction from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) is described. The device structure is free from a GaN binary layer for the suppression of the reabsorption of the UV emission in the GaN layer. The UV extraction becomes six times higher when compared with that of the normal structure consisting of a GaN buffer layer. The highest external quantum efficiencies of 350- and 340-nm LEDs are 2.2 and 1.7%, respectively. The maximum output powers are 8.6 and 5.5 mW at injection currents of less than 150 mA. We also investigated the potential of combining the 350-nm UV-LED with a mixture of plural fluorescence materials for the application field of lighting. This combination can provide ideal lighting equipment that offers high colour rendering, steady colour, and no glare even with changes of intensity and illumination angle. ( 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N quantum dots and quantum dashes

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 4 2009
Thomas Huault
Abstract GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N nanostructures grown on c -plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy using ammonia as N source have been studied. Depending on the ammonia pressure during the two dimensional , three dimensional transition of the GaN layer, the shape of the islands is strongly modified: elongated or isotropic islands are observed, leading to the formation of quantum dashes or quantum dots, respectively. This shape transition is seen as a consequence of a change in surface energy. The change of morphology of the GaN layer is clearly evidenced by photoluminescence measurements, and a large redshift in the emission peak is observed for quantum dashes as compared to quantum dots. An electric field ,3 MV/cm is estimated from the measurements at an excitation power ,20 mW/cm2. Weak photoluminescence quenching between low and room temperature for both QDs and QDashes structures is observed, indicating a strong confinement of carriers into the nanostructures. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


X-ray diffraction reciprocal lattice space mapping of a -plane AlGaN on GaN

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2006
Michinobu Tsuda
Abstract In this study, the anisotropic strain in a -plane AlGaN on GaN was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis using AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown on r -plane sapphire. An a -plane GaN layer is compressively strained, particularly in the m -axis direction. According to XRD reciprocal lattice space mapping, the AlGaN layer was strained under tensile stress and grown almost coherently to the underlying GaN layer. The tensile stress in the AlGaN layer in the c -axis direction is approximately 1.7 times larger than that in the m -axis direction. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Vertical-type InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with high efficiency reflector ITO/APC alloy on p-GaN

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7-8 2010
Sung Min Hwang
Abstract We demostrate the efficient p-type reflector for high performance vertical InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with 1 1mm2 chip size. The reflector consists of Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) and Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy. The ITO was inserted between p-GaN layer and APC alloy using RF magnetron sputtering to prevent inter-diffusion of APC into GaN layer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result shows that ITO plays an impotant role as a diffusion barrier to APC alloy. In addition, the contact resistivity of ITO to p-GaN layer was measured to be 1.32 10 -3 ,cm2 at annealing temperature of 600 C for 1 minute. APC alloy was adpoted to acheive a higher reflectance for improvement of a light extraction efficiency. The APC alloy reflector appeared to have a higher reflectivity compared to conventional Ni/Ag film reflector. The verical LEDs with ITO/APC alloy reflectors showed the light-output power of 295 mW at an injection current of 350 mA, which is 15% higher than that with Ni/Ag reflectors. The output power enhancement is attributed to the increase of light extraction efficiency due to high reflectivity of APC alloy ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


GaN layer growth by HVPE on m-plane sapphire substrates

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
Alexander Usikov
Abstract Semipolar GaN layers were grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by HVPE. Insertion of AlxGa1,xN (x , 0.1-0.6) layer in-between m-plane sapphire substrate and GaN layer promoted to improve crystalline quality and to grow of semipolar (11-22) plane GaN layers. X-ray diffraction (11-22) ,-scan rocking curve FWHM of 298 arcsec was measured for a 30 ,m thick (11-22) GaN layer. Depending on growth conditions, m-plane GaN layer having micro-crystallites of other orientations (mainly of (11-24) plane GaN layer) was also grown. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Raman scattering analysis of GaN with various dislocation densities

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
T. Kitamura
Abstract We characterized GaN crystals with various dislocation densities by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Defects and Strain for the GaN layer were examined through measurements of the Raman shift and the width of the TO phonon bands. The broadening of Raman bands in GaN crystals occurred as the dislocation density increased. The up-shift of the peak frequencies corresponding to compressive strain was observed for the heteroepitaxial samples grown by MOCVD and MBE. The in-plane distribution of defects and strain in epilayers with various dislocation densities was also examined by Raman mapping. The Raman maps showed that the examined phonon frequency and band width in samples fluctuated spatially. The increase of dislocation density in GaN epilayers induced not only the broadening of Raman bands but also increase of fluctuation. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Direct MOVPE- and MBE-growth of a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
T. Aschenbrenner
Abstract We report on the growth of pit-free a-plane GaN on (102) sapphire (r-plane) substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using a three step growth method without low temperature nucleation layer. X-ray diffraction , -scans of the symmetric GaN (11-20) reflex revealed for 1.2 ,m thick crack- and pit-free GaN layers low FWHM of 885 arcsec and 2484 arcsec measured by inclination in c- and m-direction, respectively. To analyze the evolution growth was stopped at different stages and the samples were measured with AFM, SEM, and XRD. Furthermore, we discuss the overgrowth of MOVPE GaN layer with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). For smooth MOVPE templates with closed surfaces the morphology was reproduced, whereas for not coalesced thinner layers a different growth mode and a smoothening of the layers occurred. We will discuss SEM- and AFMdata in detail to examine this overgrowth procedure. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Piezoelectric actuation of all-nitride MEMS

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
K. Tonisch
Abstract We present a MEMS technology based on (GaN/)AlGaN/GaN,heterostructures. Thereby the lower GaN layer represents the mechanical active layer, while the upper GaN and AlGaN layers supply the piezoelectrically active layers for actuation and the confinement of a 2D electron gas (at the lower interface). The 2DEG serves as back electrode for the piezoelectric actuation and as read,out, since it is modulated by the mechanical oscillation. The upper AlGaN and GaN layer both contribute to the total piezoelectric response, which was determined by piezoelectric force microscopy. The electrical field distribution throughout the heterostructure was determined by means of electroreflectance. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


FE simulation of InGaN QD formation at the edge of threading dislocation in GaN

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
ewski
Abstract The stress induced diffusion process of In-Ga segregation in InxGa1,xN layer deposited on GaN is simulated step by step by using a 3D nonlinear FE method. From the thermodynamical point of view this process is governed by the driving force induced by the gradient of residual stresses operating in an anisotropic nonlinear elastic structure. The source of stresses we consider is the set of threading dislocations examined in the plane view HRTEM investigation of GaN layer deposited on sapphire. [source]


Observations on surface morphologies and dislocations of a-plane GaN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
T. S. Ko
Abstract In this study, we grew non-polar a-plane GaN thin films on r-plane sapphire using a series of growth conditions by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The results showed that high temperature and low-pressure conditions benefited two-dimension growth could lead to a fully coalesced a-plane GaN layer with a very smooth surface. The best surface morphology with an excellent mean roughness of 10.5 was obtained. The different thickness AlN as a nucleation layer and the different ,/, ratio were also considered. The results revealed that the surface morphology would get worse when the thickness of nucleation layer and ,/, ratio were away from the values of optimal condition. The observation of transmission electronic microscopy shown the lowest density of threading dislocations was 1.851010/cm2. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Buffer breakdown voltage of AlGaN/GaN HFET on a 4 inch Si(111) substrate grown by MOCVD

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
Masayuki Iwami
Abstract The buffer breakdown voltage and the electron mobility in a two dimensional gas (2DEG) of AlGaN/GaN HFETs on 4 inch Si(111) substrates grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition was investigated. The relationship between the electrical properties of HFETs and the crystalline quality of the GaN layer are studied by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. The buffer breakdown voltage decreases with an increase in the FWHM of the X-ray (0002) diffraction peak. The electron mobility in a 2DEG decreases with an increase in FWHM of the X-ray (102) diffraction peak. These results indicate that a screw component of the threading dislocations in the GaN layer is a primary source for buffer leakage, and that edge dislocations in the GaN layer have a scattering effect on the 2DEG transport. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


GaN/air gap based micro-opto-electro-mechanical (MOEM) Fabry-Prot filters

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
E. Cho
Abstract Structural and optical properties of Fabry-Prot filters (FPFs) with GaN/air gap based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) were studied. Reflectance of GaN/air gap DBRs on sapphire substrate was calculated from the standard transmission matrix method and results showed that 98% reflectance is achievable with only 3.5 pairs at a center wavelength of 450 nm. The thickness of the GaN layer and the first AlN layer was determined according to the deformation induced by the residual stress. In-plane strain corresponding to growth conditions and the thickness of the GaN epilayer was considered for this analysis. Optical tuning efficiency and spectral range were found to be 0.27 and 25 nm respectively for FPFs with GaN/air gap (322 nm/113 nm) based DBRs and a ,0/2 air resonant cavity. The calculated pull-in voltage was 1.5 V. Crack free AlN grown on GaN by in-house MOCVD showed an etching rate of 0.2 nm/min. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Improvements in crystalline quality of thick GaN layers on GaAs (111)A by periodic insertion of low-temperature GaN buffer layers

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2003
H. Murakami
Abstract Thick and high quality GaN layer growth using periodic insertion of low-temperature (LT)-grown GaN buffer layers was investigated by metalorganic hydrogen chloride vapor phase epitaxy (MOHVPE). Both morphological and optical properties of GaN epitaxial layers were drastically improved by inserting a second LT-GaN buffer layer. Also, the thickness of the second buffer layer was found to affect the quality of subsequently grown epitaxial layers. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) value of X-ray diffraction for () plane (, scan) of the GaN layer with double buffer layer structure decreased to 608 arcsec whereas that with single buffer structure was 3600 arcsec. These results indicate that the free-standing GaN substrate with low dislocation density can be possible by reiterating the growth sequence of buffer layer and epitaxial layer. ( 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Nitride-based quantum structures and devices on modified GaN substrates

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
Piotr Perlin
Abstract We have studied the properties of InGaN layers and quantum wells grown on gallium nitride substrates with intentional surface misorientation with respect to its crystalline c -axis. Misorientation varied in the range from 0 up to 2 degree. The indium content was changed by using the different growth temperature (between 750 C and 820 C) during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. With increasing misorientation angle the average indium content decreased significantly. This effect was accompanied by the strong increase of the emission line bandwidth suggesting more pronounced indium segregation. The results of cathodoluminescence measurements show that these effects correspond to different number of atomic steps/terraces existing on the surface of gallium nitride substrate. Very interesting result is also demonstrated concerning p-type GaN layers. With increasing misorientation, the free hole density drastically increases above 1018 cm,3. This improvement in p-type doping is not related to the increased Mg concentration but to the reduction in the compensating donor density. Using this advantage we demonstrate nitride light emitters with improved electrical properties. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Growth optimisation of the GaN layers and GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions on bulk GaN substrates using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
C. Skierbiszewski
Abstract Influence of growth conditions in plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on quality of GaN layers and GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions is studied. The growth diagram for step-flow growth mode and different nitrogen flux is presented. The low defect density of bulk GaN substrates together with very low impurity background concentrations resulted in high electron mobility for GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions: 109,000 cm2/Vs at 1.5 K, and 2500 cm2/Vs at 295 K. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r -plane sapphire substrates

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
W. H. Sun
Abstract GaN and GaN/Al0.25Ga0.75N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) over c - and r -plane sapphire substrates have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. A comparative study of photoluminescence (PL) in GaN epitaxial layers and AlGaN/GaN MQWs on these two types of substrates is reported. At low excitation levels, the measured room temperature PL signal in GaN layers grown over r -plane sapphire was more than order of magnitude lower than in GaN on c -plane substrates. In contrast, the emission intensity from AlGaN/GaN MQWs grown over r -plane substrates was almost 30 times stronger than in the structures grown over c -plane sapphire. Furthermore, with excitation power density up to 1 MW/cm2, the PL peak position for the non-polar MQWs kept completely stable whereas the one for the c -plane structures exhibited a blue shift as large as 250 meV. We attribute this large difference in the ultraviolet emission intensity to the suppression of a strong quantum Stark effect in the AlGaN/GaN MQWs on the r -plane sapphire. ( 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Preparation of extended microtunnels in GaN by wet chemical etching

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2007
Hsin-Hsiung Huang
Abstract Extended microtunnels with triangular cross sections are demonstrated in GaN layers on sapphire substrates. The depths of the tunnels can easily reach several hundred micrometers by using wet chemical etching. To obtain this result, patterned growth of specially designed GaN layers is carried out on sapphire substrates with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequently hydride vapor-phase epitaxy techniques. The prepared samples are then chemically etched in molten potassium hydroxide, and microtunnels with triangularly etched cross sections are formed. The planes of the triangular bevels belong to the {112} family. The etch rate of the tunnel can be as high as 10 ,m/min under proper etching conditions. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Dislocation density assessment via X-ray GaN rocking curve scans

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7-8 2010
I. Booker
Abstract The line shape of X-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curves of GaN layers grown epitaxially on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates is analyzed. Measurements performed with double- and triple-crystal setup show a q -3 and q -4 intensity decay, respectively, as expected for peak broadening dominated by randomly distributed dislocations. A model developed in [2], based on a restricted random dislocation distribution is fitted to the entire peak shape and used to extract dislocation densities and correlation lengths for edge and screw type threading dislocations. Parameters extracted by double- and triple-crystal x-ray diffraction measurements agree well with each other but still must be verified by systematic cross-sectional TEM measurements. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


GaN layer growth by HVPE on m-plane sapphire substrates

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
Alexander Usikov
Abstract Semipolar GaN layers were grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by HVPE. Insertion of AlxGa1,xN (x , 0.1-0.6) layer in-between m-plane sapphire substrate and GaN layer promoted to improve crystalline quality and to grow of semipolar (11-22) plane GaN layers. X-ray diffraction (11-22) ,-scan rocking curve FWHM of 298 arcsec was measured for a 30 ,m thick (11-22) GaN layer. Depending on growth conditions, m-plane GaN layer having micro-crystallites of other orientations (mainly of (11-24) plane GaN layer) was also grown. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Impact of nitridation on structural and optical properties of MOVPE-grown m-plane GaN layers on LiAlO2

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
C. Mauder
Abstract In this paper, we investigate the influence of the nitridation of LiAlO2 substrates on the growth of m-plane (1-100) GaN layers by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Before thin film deposition, we performed an in-situ substrate pretreatment by exposing the wafer to NH3 for different times between no pretreatment and 300 s. The properties of subsequently grown layers show a significant dependency on this nitridation step. We find that this procedure is essential for obtaining pure m-plane GaN films and has a beneficial effect on the X-ray rocking curve (XRC) full width at half maximum (FWHM) value, which decreases by almost two orders of magnitude. Deposited layers with NH3 pretreatment also exhibit much smoother surfaces with a reduction of the root mean square (RMS) roughness value from ,20 to ,6 nm. Additionally, the nitridation greatly increases the GaN band edge emission intensity in room temperature (RT) photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Furthermore, we compare the sensitivity of the substrate against water for uncoated LiAlO2 wafers with and without nitridation process. While the untreated surface shows a clear roughening when dipped into de-ionized (DI) water for 5 min, we can see no significant impact on the nitridated substrate surface. This indicates a change in surface composition which protects the sensitive substrate surface and provides good conditions for the nucleation of high-quality m-plane GaN films. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


In-situ doping and implantation of GaN layers with Mn

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
k Sofer
Abstract In this paper we present a growth of Ga1,xMnxN layers by MOVPE and ion implantation of GaN layers with Mn. The Mn concentration detected by electron microprobe and PIXE was well below the solubility limit, ranging from 0.2 to 1.1 at.%. Implanted doses of Mn ions were in the range 1x1016 -5x1016 Mn atoms.cm,2 with energy of 330 keV. The analysis of the MOVPE deposition process of Ga1,xMnxN thin films revealed an unfavorable ratio between the apparent Mn concentration in the gas phase and its doping level in the deposited layer. On the other hand, the incorporation of Mn has a positive effect on the resulting surface morphology. The optimal deposition temperature of 1000 C was found out as a compromise between the layer quality and Mn concentration. In both in-situ grown and implanted samples, a ferromagnetic component persisting up to room temperature and a prevailing paramagnetic phase were observed. The ferromagnetic moment observed in implanted samples was influenced by free carrier concentration in GaN layers which were used for implantation. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


High power AlGaN/GaN HFETs on 4 inch Si substrates

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
Nariaki Ikeda
Abstract In this paper, we successfully demonstrate an AlGaN/GaN HFET with a high breakdown voltage on 4-inch Si substrates. In order to obtain the high breakdown voltage and to improve the crystalline quality of GaN layers, a thick GaN epitaxial layer including a buffer layer was grown. The breakdown voltage and the maximum drain current were achieved to be over 1.3 kV and 120 A, respectively. Furthermore, the suppression of a current collapse phenomenon was examined. The on-resistance was not significantly increased up to a high drain off-bias-stress of 900 V. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Electrical and optical properties of thick highly doped p-type GaN layers grown by HVPE

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
A. Usikov
Abstract In this paper we report 3-7 ,m thick p-GaN growth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire substrates. Mg impurity was used for doping. As-grown GaN layers had p-type conductivity with concentration NA -ND up to 31019 cm,3. Mg atom concentration was varied from 1017 to 1020 cm,3. Hydrogen concentration was about 10 times less than that for Mg, which may explain effective p-type doping for as-grown GaN layers. Micro-cathodoluminescence revealed a columnar-like structure of the GaN layers with a non-uniform distribution of material regions having dominant 362 nm or 430 nm luminescence. Use of these thick p-GaN layers to grow InGaN-based blue and green LEDs by the HVPE is demonstrated. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Fully unstrained GaN on sacrificial AlN layers by nano-heteroepitaxy

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
K. Tonisch
Abstract Usually, the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) requires unstrained or tensile strained active layers on a selectively removable sacrificial layer, since compressive strain causes instabilities due to buckling effects. For group III-nitride based MEMS, AlN is a promising material for sacrificial layers since it can be epitaxially overgrown and etched selectively to GaN. However, due to the larger lattice constants GaN is growing compressively strained on AlN. Nanoheteroepitaxy opens a way to yield fully unstrained, high quality epitaxial GaN layers on nanocrystalline AlN thin film by means of a 3D strain relaxation mechanism. For this purpose sputtered nanocrystalline AlN films were overgrown with single crystalline GaN and AlGaN/GaN layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The high quality of the layers is proven by an atomically flat surface and a 2D electron gas at the interface of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Growth of Fe doped semi-insulating GaN on sapphire and 4H-SiC by MOCVD

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2006
M. Rudzi
Abstract We report a study of iron doped GaN layers grown on sapphire and SiC by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) using ferrocene as the Fe precursor. The influence of iron doping on the electrical, structural and morphological properties of the GaN layers was studied. A resistivity of 6x103 ,cm and higher was achieved in contrast to 3 ,cm for the undoped film. Defect selective etching showed that Fe doping increases the threading dislocation (TD) density which might be responsible for the increase in resistivity. A turn-on, turn-off effect is described and a memory effect which is responsible for a decrease of the surface quality of the samples. In situ annealing of the susceptor and the use of a clean liner after each growth run helps to reduce this effect and maintain the good quality of GaN layers. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Characterization of MOCVD grown GaN on porous SiC templates

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2005
F. Yun
Abstract We have grown GaN layers by MOCVD on a set of nanoporous SiC templates with different porosity and morphology, produced by etching the anodized porous SiC starting material in a H2 environment at temperatures ,1500 C, in an effort to attain improved films. The hydrogen etching serves to remove surface damage caused during mechanical polishing prior to anodization, remove the skin layer associated with anodization, tune the pore size, and consolidate pore geometry. Growth conditions favoring lateral overgrowth of GaN were employed on this set of samples to obtian GaN to a thickness of 2 m. Atomically smooth surfaces were obtained for the epitaxial GaN layers. The GaN quality is highly dependent on the specifics of the porous templates used. An intensity increase of up to a factor of 30 was observed in the GaN excitonic peak compared to GaN grown on standard SiC substrate. The I-V data indicated significant reduction in the leakage current (in reverse bias) compared to GaN grown on standard SiC. The dependence of optical properties, crystalline quality, and surface morphology on the particulars of porous SiC templates is discussed. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Direct growth of GaN on off-oriented SiC (0001) by molecular-beam epitaxy for GaN/SiC heterojunction bipolar transistor

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2005
Y. Nakano
Abstract Direct growth of GaN on misoriented 4H- and 6H-SiC (0001) Si-face substrates and electrical characteristics of n-GaN/p-SiC heterojunction mesa diodes are presented. GaN was grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) using elemental Ga and rf plasma-excited active nitrogen. SiC substrates misoriented 8 toward the [11-20] direction were used in this study. The surfaces of MBE-grown GaN layers have wavy features with peak-to-valley height of 30 nm. These features originated from the substrate misorientation. It was found that step bunching and large faceting along [01-10] and [10-10] directions occurred during the growth of GaN. Lowering the growth temperature suppresses large faceting, and results in reduction of the peak-to-valley height to 3 nm. However, the surface still has the same undulating features (on a smaller length scale). Mesa diodes were fabricated from the grown GaN layers. The correlation between the diode electrical characteristics and GaN growth conditions is discussed. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Improvements in crystalline quality of thick GaN layers on GaAs (111)A by periodic insertion of low-temperature GaN buffer layers

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2003
H. Murakami
Abstract Thick and high quality GaN layer growth using periodic insertion of low-temperature (LT)-grown GaN buffer layers was investigated by metalorganic hydrogen chloride vapor phase epitaxy (MOHVPE). Both morphological and optical properties of GaN epitaxial layers were drastically improved by inserting a second LT-GaN buffer layer. Also, the thickness of the second buffer layer was found to affect the quality of subsequently grown epitaxial layers. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) value of X-ray diffraction for () plane (, scan) of the GaN layer with double buffer layer structure decreased to 608 arcsec whereas that with single buffer structure was 3600 arcsec. These results indicate that the free-standing GaN substrate with low dislocation density can be possible by reiterating the growth sequence of buffer layer and epitaxial layer. ( 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Effects of Mg fluctuation on the electrical and optical properties in p-GaN/undoped GaN layers dependent on the growth temperature

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2003
C. S. Kim
Abstract The effects of heavly Mg doping dependent on the growth temperature of p-GaN layers grown on undoped GaN layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on electrical and optical properties were studied by capacitance,voltage (C,V) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (TDPL), respectively. At high growth temperature of p-GaN above 1110 C, optical microscopy images as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show polygonal hillocks on heavily Mg-doped GaN surface. It was also found that fluctuation of Mg concentration ([Mg]) measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was increased with increasing growth temperature. These phenomena were appeared to decrease NA,ND and change PL emission from 3.1,3.2 eV of conduction band-to-shallow Mg acceptor (e, A) transition to 2.8,2.9 eV of Mg-related deep donor-to-acceptor pair (DAP) transition. [source]


Epitaxial Growth of AlN Layers on SiC Substrates in a Hot-Wall MOCVD System

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 1 2003
A. Kakanakova-Georgieva
Abstract In this study we report the successful growth of AlN and AlN/GaN on SiC substrates in a MOCVD process based on a hot-wall susceptor design. Different features of AlN growth are established depending on the total reactor pressure, temperature, off-cut SiC substrate orientation and V-to-III gas-flow ratio. The feasibility of the hot-wall MOCVD concept is demonstrated by the performance of AlN/GaN structures with state-of-the-art properties with strong potential for further optimization. A narrower X-ray rocking curve over the asymmetric 10.4 than the symmetric 00.2 reflection clearly underlines the high overall crystal quality of the GaN layers on AlN buffers grown in this type of MOCVD reactor. [source]