Future Pregnancies (future + pregnancy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency: mutational spectrum in Italian patients and identification of a novel ASL pseudogene,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 7 2007
Eva Trevisson
Abstract Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) gene, which leads to the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid (ASA) in body fluids and severe hyperammonemia. A severe neonatal form and a milder late-onset variant are described. We report a novel ASL pseudogene located in the centromeric region of chromosome 7, 14 novel mutations in the ASL gene, and a novel intronic polymorphism found in a cohort of Italian patients. Our approach relied exclusively on genomic DNA analysis. We found seven missense mutations, two nonsense, three small insertions/deletions, and two splicing mutations. Only two patients harbored previously described mutations, and among the novel variants only two were present in more than one kindred. The pathogenicity of the splicing mutations was demonstrated by a functional splicing assay that employed a hybrid minigene. We also performed molecular modeling using the reported three-dimensional structure of ASL to predict the functional consequences of the missense mutations. There was no genotype,phenotype correlation. Patients with neonatal onset display developmental delay and seizures despite adequate metabolic control. Moreover, hepatomegaly, fibrosis, and abnormal liver function tests are common complications in these patients, but not in patients with the late infancy form. We stress the importance of mutation analysis in patients with ASAuria, to confirm the clinical diagnosis, and to perform DNA-based prenatal diagnosis in future pregnancies of these families. Hum Mutat 28(7), 694,702, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The nurse,family partnership: An evidence-based preventive intervention

David L. Olds
Pregnancy and the early years of the child's life offer an opportune time to prevent a host of adverse maternal, child, and family outcomes that are important in their own right, but that also reflect biological, behavioral, and social substrates in the child and family that affect family formation and future life trajectories. This article summarizes a 27-year program of research that has attempted to improve early maternal and child health and future life options with prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses. The program is designed for low-income mothers who have had no previous live births. The home-visiting nurses have three major goals: to improve the outcomes of pregnancy by helping women improve their prenatal health, to improve the child's health and development by helping parents provide more sensitive and competent care of the child, and to improve parental life course by helping parents plan future pregnancies, complete their education, and find work. The program has been tested in three separate large-scale, randomized controlled trials with different populations living in different contexts. Results from these trials indicate that the program has been successful in achieving two of its most important goals: (a) the improvement of parental care of the child as reflected in fewer injuries and ingestions that may be associated with child abuse and neglect and better infant emotional and language development; and (b) the improvement of maternal life course, reflected in fewer subsequent pregnancies, greater work-force participation, and reduced dependence on public assistance and food stamps. The impact on pregnancy outcomes is equivocal. In the first trial, the program also produced long-term effects on the number of arrests, convictions, emergent substance use, and promiscuous sexual activity of 15-year-old children whose nurse-visited mothers were low-income and unmarried when they registered in the study during pregnancy. In general, the impact of the program was greater on those segments of the population at greater risk for the particular outcome domain under examination. Since 1996, the program has been offered for public investment outside of research contexts. Careful attention has been given to ensuring that organizational and community contexts are favorable for development of the program, to providing excellent training and guidance to the nurses in their use of the program's visit-by-visit guidelines, to monitoring the functioning of the program with a comprehensive clinical information system, and to improving the performance of the programs over time with continuous improvement strategies. [source]

X-Linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata: prenatal diagnosis and autopsy findings

Shalini Umranikar
Abstract Objective To report our experience of the prenatal diagnosis of X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2) and highlight its variable phenotypic presentation. Methods We report the sonographic features of three female fetuses affected with CDPX2. The ultrasound, radiographic and pathological findings were compared. Results Family 1: Two affected pregnancies, both terminated. Fetus 1: Presented with epiphyseal stippling involving the vertebrae, upper and lower limbs, asymmetric shortening of the long bones and flat facial profile. Fetus 2: Prenatal findings included premature epiphyseal stippling, paravertebral cartilaginous calcific foci, mild shortening of the long bones and flat facies. Mutation analysis of the mother and both fetuses revealed mutation in the emopamil-binding protein (EBP) gene. Family 2: Prenatal sonography showed scattered epiphyseal stippling, minimal vertebral segmentation anomalies, mild asymmetric limb shortening and flat facies. Female infant delivered at 39 weeks of gestation. Biochemical analysis in all three fetuses showed increased levels of serum 8(9)-cholestenol consistent with delta (8), delta (7)-isomerase deficiency and CDPX2. Conclusion Prenatal diagnosis of CDPX2 is difficult because of marked phenotypic variation. Epiphyseal stippling, ectopic paravertebral calcifications, asymmetric shortening of long bones and dysmorphic flattened facies are crucial for prenatal diagnosis. DNA analysis of the CDPX2 gene and biochemical determination of the serum 8(9)-cholestenol level are important for diagnosis, especially if future pregnancies are planned. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

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PRESCRIBER, Issue 8 2008
Article first published online: 12 MAY 200
Glargine preferred to lispro as type 2 add-on Basal insulin glargine (Lantus) and insulin lispro (Humalog) at mealtimes improved glycaemic control equally well in patients with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled by oral agents, but patient satisfaction was greater with basal insulin (Lancet 2008;371:1073-84). The 44-week APOLLO trial, funded by Sanofi Aventis, was a nonblinded randomised comparison of basal and prandial insulin regimens added to oral treatment in 418 patients. It found similar reductions in HbA1C (,1.7 vs ,1.9 per cent respectively). Fasting and nocturnal glucose levels were lower with insulin glargine and postprandial levels were lower with insulin lispro. The basal regimen was associated with fewer hypoglycaemic events (5.2 vs 24 per patient per year), less weight gain (3.01 vs 3.54kg) and greater improvement in patient satisfaction scores. Treating hypertension cuts mortality in over-80s Treating hypertension in the over-80s reduces all-cause mortality by 21 per cent, the HYVET study has shown (N Engl J Med online: 31 March 2008; doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa 0801369). Compared with placebo, treatment with indapamide alone or with perindopril for an average of 1.8 years also reduced the incidence of fatal stroke by 39 per cent, cardiovascular death by 23 per cent and heart failure by 64 per cent. The incidence of stroke was reduced by 30 per cent but this was of borderline statistical significance. Fewer serious adverse events were reported with treatment than with placebo. New work for NICE The DoH has announced the 18th work programme for NICE. Seven public health interventions include preventing skin cancer, smoking by children and excess weight gain during pregnancy. Public health guidance will include the provision of contraceptive services for socially disadvantaged young people. Two new clinical guidelines are sedation in young people and management of fractured neck of femur. New technology appraisals may include eight therapies for cancer, two new monoclonal antibodies for psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, an oral retinoid for severe chronic hand eczema and methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Combinations no better against CV disease Taking ezetimibe and simvastatin (Inegy) does not appear to slow the progression of atherosclerosis more than high-dose simvastatin alone, say researchers from The Netherlands (N Engl J Med 2008;358: 1431-43). In patients with hypercholesterolaemia, there was no difference in regression or progression of atherosclerosis after two years' treatment with simvastatin 80mg per day alone or combined with ezetimibe 10mg per day. Adverse event rates were similar. In patients with vascular disease or high-risk diabetes, there was no difference between the ACE inhibitor ramipril 10mg per day or the ARB telmisartan (Micardis) 80mg per day as monotherapy, or their combination, in the risk of a composite outcome of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke and admission for heart failure (N Engl J Med 2008;358:1547-59). Combined treatment was associated with higher risks of hypotensive symptoms, syncope and renal dysfunction. Twice-daily celecoxib increases CV risk Taking celecoxib (Celebrex) twice daily carries a higher risk of cardiovascular events than the same total dose taken once daily, a metaanalysis suggests (Circulation 2008; doi: 10.1161/ CIRCULATIONAHA.108. 764530). The analysis of six placebo-controlled trials involving a total of 7950 patients taking celecoxib for indications other than rheumatoid arthritis found that the combined risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure or thromboembolic event increased with dose over the range 400-800mg per day. The risk was significantly greater with 200mg twice daily (HR 1.8) than 400mg once daily (HR 1.1). Patients at greatest baseline risk were at disproportionately increased risk from celecoxib. Long-term etanercept effective in AS An open-label study suggests that etanercept (Enbrel) remains effective in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in the long term (Ann Rheum Dis 2008;67:346-52). Of 257 patients who completed six months' treatment with etanercept and who entered the nonblinded extension study, 126 completed a total of 168-192 weeks' treatment. The commonest adverse events were injection-site reactions (22 per cent), headache (20 per cent) and diarrhoea (17.5 per cent). The annual rate of serious infections was 0.02 per person. Response and partial remission rates after 192 weeks were similar to those reported after 96 weeks. Metformin reduces risk Metformin reduces the risk of developing diabetes in individuals at increased risk, a meta-analysis suggests (Am J Med 2008;121:149-57.e2). The study included 31 mostly small, randomised, controlled trials involving a total of 4570 participants and lasting at least eight weeks (8267 patient-years of treatment). Metformin was associated with reductions in body mass (,5.3 per cent), fasting glucose (,4.5 per cent) and insulin resistance (,22.6 per cent); lipid profiles also improved. The odds of developing diabetes were reduced by 40 per cent,an absolute risk reduction of 6 per cent over 1.8 years. MHRA clarifies cough and colds advice Press reports mistakenly suggested that the MHRA had banned some cough and cold remedies when it issued new guidance on treating young children, the MHRA says. The Agency's advice followed a review of over-thecounter cough and cold medicines for children by the Commission on Human Medicines. Children under two are at increased risk of adverse reactions and should no longer be treated with products containing antihistamine (chlorphenamine, brompheniramine, diphenhydramine), antitussives (dextromethorphan, pholcodine), expectorants (guaifenesin, ipecacuanha) and decongestants (phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, oxymetazoline and xylometazoline). The MHRA said these products, which are classified as general sale medicines, should be removed from open shelves until available in new packaging that complies with the advice. They may still be supplied by a pharmacist for the treatment of older children. Coughs and colds should be treated with paracetamol or ibuprofen for fever, a simple glycerol, honey or lemon syrup for cough, and vapour rubs and inhalant decongestants for stuffy nose. Saline drops can be used to thin and clear nasal secretions in young babies. Parents are being urged not to use more than one product at a time to avoid inadvertently administering the same constituent drug twice. Perindopril brand switch Servier Laboratories is replacing its current formulations of perindopril (Coversyl, Coversyl Plus) with a new product that is not bioequivalent. The current Coversyl brand contains perindopril erbumine (also known as tert -butylamine). The new formulation contains perindopril arginine; it will be distinguished by new brand names (Coversyl Arginine, Coversyl Arginine Plus) and new packaging. Coversyl 2, 4 and 8mg tablets are equivalent to Coversyl Arginine 2.5, 5 and 10mg. Servier says the change is part of the simplification and harmonisation of global manufacturing; the arginine salt is already used in other countries and offers greater stability and a longer shelf-life. Both Coversyl and Coversyl Arginine will be in the supply chain for the next few weeks. Generic perindopril will continue to be the erbumine salt and prescriptions for generic perindopril are not affected. New from NICE Diabetes in pregnancy: management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period. Clinical Guidance No. 63, March 2008 This clinical guideline focuses on additional aspects of care for women with gestational diabetes (88 per cent of cases) or pre-existing diabetes (of which about 40 per cent is type 2 diabetes) and their babies. To date, insulin aspart (NovoRapid) is the only drug in the guideline specifically licensed for use in pregnancy and NICE advises obtaining informed consent to implement its recommendations for using other insulins and oral hypoglycaemic agents. As with other guidelines, NICE begins by stressing the importance of patient-centred care and involving women in decisions about their treatment. The guideline is divided into six sections, dealing with consecutive periods of pregnancy. Preconceptual planning should include empowering women to help them reduce risks, optimising glycaemic control (after retinal assessment) and increasing monitoring intensity, and providing information about the effects of pregnancy on diabetes. Metformin may be recommended as an adjunct or alternative to insulin, but other oral hypoglycaemic agents should be replaced with insulin, although glibenclamide is an option during pregnancy. Isophane insulin is the preferred long-acting insulin; lispro (Humalog) and aspart are considered safe to use. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers should be replaced with other antihypertensive agents and statins should be discontinued. Recommendations for screening and treatment of gestational diabetes build on previous guidance (CG62). Drug treatment will be needed by 10-20 per cent , this includes insulin (soluble, aspart or lispro) and/or metformin or glibenclamide, tailored to individual need. Antenatal care includes optimising glycaemic control. Insulin lispro or aspart should be considered in preference to soluble insulin. If glycaemic control cannot be achieved with insulin injections, an insulin pump may be indicated. The guideline includes a timetable for appointments and the care that should offered after each interval. Recommendations for intrapartum care, which supplement those in CG55, include frequent monitoring of blood glucose. Neonatal care includes recommendations for monitoring and screening the infant and the management of hypoglycaemia. Postnatal care (supplementing CG37) involves adjusting maternal treatment to avoid hypoglycaemia and recommendations for returning to community care. Metformin and glibenclamide are the only oral agents suitable for breastfeeding women. Women with gestational diabetes need advice about glycaemic control and planning for future pregnancies. Lifestyle advice and measurement of annual fasting plasma glucose should be offered. Inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of chronic asthma in adults and in children aged 12 years and over. Technology Appraisal No. 138, March 2008 The latest technology appraisal of asthma treatments covers inhaled steroids for adults and children over 12 with chronic asthma. It makes only two recommendations. First, the cheapest appropriate option is recommended. Second, when a steroid and a long-acting beta2-agonist are indicated, the decision to prescribe a combined inhaler or separate devices should take into account therapeutic need and likely adherence. Combined inhalers are currently less expensive than separate devices, though they may not remain so. When a combined inhaler is chosen it should be the cheapest. NICE concludes that, at equivalent doses, there is little difference in the effectiveness or adverse event profile of the available steroids or the fixed-dose combinations. According to specialist advice, choosing the best device for an individual remains the overriding concern. Continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Technology Appraisal No. 139, March 2008 NICE recommends continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for adults with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnoea, and for those with a milder disorder if quality of life and functioning are impaired and alternative strategies such as lifestyle change have failed. Diagnosis and treatment is the responsibility of a specialist team. A CPAP device costs £250-£550 and lasts for seven years. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

Recurrence rates of cardiac manifestations associated with neonatal lupus and maternal/fetal risk factors

Carolina Llanos
Objective Identifying the frequency of recurrent cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (NL) in a second child is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of anti-SSA/Ro,mediated injury and would improve counseling strategies regarding future pregnancies and power the design of clinical prevention trials. Accordingly, this study was undertaken to address the recurrence rates of cardiac NL and associated risk factors in a large US-based cohort. Methods Families enrolled in the Research Registry for Neonatal Lupus were evaluated for rates of recurrence of cardiac NL and potential risk factors, with a focus on pregnancies immediately following the birth of an affected child. Results The overall rate of recurrence of cardiac NL in 161 pregnancies of 129 mothers with anti-SSA/Ro antibodies was 17.4% (95% confidence interval 11.1,23.6%). Analysis of the potential risk factors among 129 mothers with a pregnancy immediately following the birth of a child with cardiac NL showed that the maternal diagnosis was not associated with the outcome in a subsequent pregnancy. In this group, 23% of mothers who were either asymptomatic or had an undifferentiated autoimmune syndrome, compared with 14% of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjögren's syndrome, had a second child with cardiac NL (P = 0.25). The recurrence rate was not statistically significantly different in mothers who had taken steroids compared with those who had not taken steroids (16% versus 21%; P = 0.78). The antibody status of the mother was not predictive of outcome in subsequent pregnancies. Moreover, death of the first child with cardiac NL was not predictive of recurrence of cardiac NL in a subsequent pregnancy (P = 0.31). The risk of cardiac NL was similar between male and female children (17.2% versus 18.3%; P = 1.0). Conclusion In this cohort, the overall recurrence rate for cardiac NL was 17%. The recurrence rate appeared to be unaffected by maternal health, use of steroids, antibody status, severity of cardiac disease in the first affected child, or sex of the subsequent child. [source]

Nephron-sparing tumorectomy for a large benign renal mass: A case of massive bilateral renal angiomyolipomas associated with tuberous sclerosis

Yoshiyuki Shiroyanagi
Abstract A case of massive bilateral angiomyolipomas (AML) associated with tuberous sclerosis in a 33-year-old woman is reported. She was hospitalized because she had been experiencing abdominal fullness and epigastralgia. Several imaging studies revealed massive bilateral renal tumors and she was diagnosed as having renal AML associated with tuberous sclerosis. Left nephrectomy was carried out after renal arterial embolization for intratumor hemorrhage. Two years after left nephrectomy, nephron-sparing surgery (tumorectomy) for right AML was done because of an increase in the size of the right renal AML and she hoped for a future pregnancy. The left kidney with AML weighed 5700 g and the right AML weighed 1700 g. Postoperative serous creatinine did not differ from that before operation and an increase in the size of the residual tumor was not observed 8 months after operation. We consider that tumorectomy is an effective therapy in patients with a very large tumor involving a solitary kidney. [source]

Cutaneous manifestations of neonatal lupus and risk of subsequent congenital heart block

Peter M. Izmirly
Objective Cutaneous disease associated with placental transport of maternal anti-SSA/Ro or anti-SSB/La antibodies is transient, and children often appear to be otherwise healthy. However, the impact of this manifestation of neonatal lupus (NL) on the risk of cardiac disease occurring in a future pregnancy is critical for family counseling and for powering preventive trials. The purpose of this study was to determine the recurrence rates of NL, with specific focus on cardiac NL following cutaneous NL in a child enrolled in the Research Registry for Neonatal Lupus (RRNL). Methods Fifty-eight families who were enrolled in the RRNL met the following inclusion criteria for our study: maternal anti-SSA/Ro or anti-SSB/La antibodies, a child with cutaneous NL, and a pregnancy subsequent to the child with cutaneous NL. Results The majority of the 58 mothers (78%) were Caucasian. Of 77 pregnancies that occurred following the birth of a child with cutaneous NL, the overall recurrence rate for any manifestation of NL was 49% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 37,62%); 14 pregnancies (18.2%) were complicated by cardiac NL, 23 (29.9%) by cutaneous NL, and 1 (1.3%) by hematologic/hepatic NL. A subset analysis was restricted to the 39 children who were born after the initial child with cutaneous NL had been enrolled in the RRNL. The overall recurrence rate for NL was 36% (95% CI 20,52%); 5 pregnancies (12.8%) were complicated by cardiac NL and 9 (23.1%) by cutaneous NL. There were no significant differences in the following maternal risk factors for having a subsequent child with cardiac or cutaneous NL: age, race/ethnicity, anti-SSB/La status, diagnosis, use of nonfluorinated steroids, or breastfeeding. The sex of the subsequent fetus did not influence the development of cardiac or cutaneous NL. Conclusion Based on data from this large cohort, the identification of cutaneous NL in an anti-SSA/Ro antibody,exposed infant is particularly important, since it predicts a 6,10-fold risk of a subsequent child developing cardiac NL. [source]