Future Potential (future + potential)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Medical Assessment of Migrants: Current Limitations and Future Potential

V.P. Keane
Attempts to control the importation of infectious diseases through the medical screening and evaluation of immigrants and refugees represent the modern application of some of the earliest recorded public health interventions. States with long-standing immigration programmes continue to require the medical examination and screening of migrants for certain diseases. In some instances, the public health effectiveness of these immigration medical assessments is of questionable value when considered from a population health basis. This article reviews current practices and describes recent studies where more modern and epidemiologically based immigration medical interventions have been undertaken. A more effective immigration medical assessment process is proposed through the use of results of this more empirical approach to immigration medical screening. [source]

rFVIIa, for acute rebleeding of a cerebral cavernous malformation

K. Engelhardt
Recurrent bleeding episodes of cavernomas especially in the brainstem can cause progressive neurological deficits. Therefore brainstem cavernomas are still a therapeutic dilemma and a treatment challenge for the neuro critical care community. We report a 39-year-old woman with spontaneous ataxia diplopia and vomiting, who has been treated for multiple intracerebral cavernomas during the last 10 years. A cerebral computed tomography (cCT) revealed a re-bleeding cavernoma in the left cerebral peduncle with consecutive obstructive hydrocephalus. As a result of the difficult anatomical location, no surgical approach was possible. As an off-label treatment, recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) was administered to prevent possible further bleeding and especially further sequelae. The patient recovered well and no adverse events and especially no further bleeding of the cavernoma were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the safe and successful use of rFVIIa to treat re-bleeding episodes in cavernomas. Further clinical studies are needed to specify the future potential of rFVIIa. [source]

Developing an OD-intervention metric system with the use of applied theory-building methodology: A work/life-intervention example

Michael Lane Morris
This article presents a new model, generated through applied theory-building research methods, that helps human resource development (HRD) practitioners evaluate the return on investment (ROI) of organization development (OD) interventions. This model, called organization development human-capital accounting system (ODHCAS), identifies return-on-investment measures for each of the elements of the human-capital employment life cycle that are impacted by OD interventions. We illustrate an application of the new model by using work/life (w/l) interventions as a test of the model. The contribution of this new model is fourfold: 1.It fills a gap in the literature by suggesting a holistic ROI framework for typically nonfinancial OD-type interventions. 2.It is generated from an accepted applied theory-building methodology. 3.It offers decision makers methods to develop "hard" evidence on which to evaluate w/l interventions. 4.It has the future potential to be expanded and used to evaluate the ROI for multiple types of OD interventions. [source]

Current status and future potential of MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery

Ferenc A. Jolesz MD
Abstract The combination of the imaging abilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the ability to delivery energy to targets deep in the body noninvasively with focused ultrasound presents a disruptive technology with the potential to significantly affect healthcare. MRI offers precise targeting, visualization, and quantification of temperature changes and the ability to immediately evaluate the treatment. By exploiting different mechanisms, focused ultrasound offers a range of therapies, ranging from thermal ablation to targeted drug delivery. This article reviews recent preclinical and tests clinical of this technology. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008;27:391,399. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Dynamic foams in topical drug delivery

Yanjun Zhao
Abstract Objectives Pharmaceutical foams are not new inventions and their application in topical therapy can be traced back three decades. However, foam formulations have been gaining in popularity with over 100 patents published globally in the last 10 years alone. The aim of this paper is to review the current status and explore the future potential of dynamic foam vehicles in the field of topical drug delivery. Key findings The use of foam technology to deliver a range of topical active agents has been claimed, including sun-screening compounds, corticosteroids, and antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agents. Although foams present distinct application advantages and improved patient compliance, the real reason for the rapid growth of topical foam technology is that foams as elegant, aesthetic and cosmetically appealing vehicles provide an alternative, promising formulation strategy in the highly competitive dermatological market. Although there is a plethora of published data proving the safety profiles of topical foams there is a lack of sufficient clinical evidence to demonstrate any superiority of foams over other traditional topical vehicles such as creams and ointments for drug delivery. Summary Recent literature suggests that when foams are properly engineered using the advances of in situ analysis techniques, the enhancement of topical drug delivery via engineering this type of vehicle can be achieved. [source]

Identification of the Fugloyarbanki tephra in the NGRIP ice core: a key tie-point for marine and ice-core sequences during the last glacial period,

S. M. Davies
Abstract A visible tephra horizon in the NGRIP ice core has been identified by geochemical analysis as the Fugloyarbanki Tephra, a widespread marker horizon in marine cores from the Faroe Islands area and the northern North Atlantic. An age of 26,740,,390 yr b2k (1, uncertainty) is derived for this tephra according to the new Greenland Ice Core Chronology (GICC05) based on multi-parameter counting of annual layers. Detection of this tephra for the first time within the NGRIP ice core provides a key tie-point between marine and ice-core records during the transition between MIS 3 and 2. Identification of this volcanic event within the Greenland records demonstrates the future potential of using tephrochronology to precisely correlate palaeoarchives in widely separated localities that span the last glacial period, as well as providing a potential method for examining the extent of the radiocarbon marine reservoir effect at this time. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Synchrotron radiation circular-dichroism spectroscopy as a tool for investigating protein structures

B. A. Wallace
This paper reviews the use of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy for examining protein structures, discussing the differences between conventional circular dichroism and SRCD, as well as examples of what SRCD studies have revealed about protein structures to date. It further discusses the future potential of the technique, including roles in structural genomics, membrane protein structure elucidation, relationships to crystallographic studies, and protein folding and dynamics. [source]

INTRODUCTION: Contributions of landscape genetics , approaches, insights, and future potential

First page of article [source]

Coping with third parties in a nursery pollination mutualism: Hadena bicruris avoids oviposition on pathogen-infected, less rewarding Silene latifolia

Arjen Biere
Summary ,,In nursery pollination systems, pollinator offspring usually feed on pollinated fruits or seeds. Costs and benefits of the interaction for plant and pollinator, and hence its local outcome (antagonism,mutualism), can be affected by the presence of ,third-party' species. Infection of Silene latifolia plants by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum halts the development of fruits that provide shelter and food for larvae of the pollinating moth Hadena bicruris. We investigated whether the moth secures its benefit by selective oviposition on uninfected flowers. ,,Oviposition was recorded in eight natural populations as a function of plant infection status, local neighbourhood, plant and flower characteristics. ,,Oviposition was six times lower on flowers from infected than on those from uninfected plants. Oviposition decreased with decreasing flower and ovary size. Moths could use the latter to discriminate against diseased flowers. ,,Although moths show an adaptive oviposition response, they reduce the future potential of healthy hosts because they still visit infected plants for nectar, vectoring the disease, and they reduce any fitness advantage gained by disease-resistant plants through selective predation of those plants. [source]

Gene therapy for psoriasis in the K14-VEGF transgenic mouse model by topical transdermal delivery of interleukin-4 using ultradeformable cationic liposome

Jiong Li
Abstract Background Topical transdermal gene delivery to the skin shows great potential for painless, non-invasive administration of vaccines and therapeutic agents. Interleukin (IL)-4 strategies have shown a good antipsoriatic effect in clinic trials. To date, no information has been acquired on the effectiveness of gene therapy for psoriasis in the K14-VEGF transgenic mouse model by topical transdermal penetration of murine IL-4 (mIL-4) using ultradeformable cationic liposome (UCL). Methods In the present study, we synthesized an UCL and determined a suitable formula for transdermally delivering plasmid DNA to mouse skin. We then tested the antipsoriatic efficacy in the K14-VEGF transgenic mouse model by transdermal delivery of mIL-4 using UCL. Results We found that plasmid DNA was transdermally delivered to vicinal sites of epidermis and hair follicles using this optimized formula. Plasmid DNA expression was detected in ear skin. Twenty-four hours after topical application, plasmid DNA was not detected in blood serum and liver, which may decrease the risk of insertion of promoter from plasmid to genomic DNA. Mice treated with UCL/mIL-4 displayed a mild psoriasis phenotype. Histological analysis of pathological score using the Baker scoring system revealed an antipsoriatic effect. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that hyperplastic and inflamed vessels were suppressed. Conclusions These observations provide evidence of antipsoriatic efficacy by topical transdermal delivery of mIL-4. Therefore, topical transdermal gene transfer is attractive and offers future potential for application in human patients with other dermatogic diseases. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

On the economic interdependence between China and Japan: Challenges and possibilities

Claes G. Alvstam
Abstract The paper presents an analysis of the economic relationship between the two most important economies in Asia. Over the last decades, the Chinese and Japanese economies have become more economically interdependent, a development which will, in the long run, impact the countries' political relationship. The paper seeks to answer the question: How can China and Japan gain from the current economic situation, further enhance their relationship and increase their synergies for regional economic development? Data on trade and Foreign Direct Investment are used in combination with primary data from interviews with Japanese and Chinese companies on how they perceive the current business situation and future potential. The result of the data analysis shows that the countries have much to gain from their economic interdependence. The firms see great potential in their respective markets but are concerned about political turbulence. Three possible scenarios for the future economic relationship are presented, including fierce competition on all markets and a leveraging of resources for mutual development between Chinese and Japanese companies. [source]

Young researchers win Philip Leverhulme Prizes

Article first published online: 23 NOV 200
The Philip Leverhulme Prizes for 2009 included astronomy and astrophysics; six young researchers in these fields have been recognized for their achievements and future potential. [source]

The physical scale modelling of braided alluvial architecture and estimation of subsurface permeability

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2002
D. J. Moreton
ABSTRACT The quantitative modelling of fluvial reservoirs, especially in the stages of enhanced oil recovery, requires detailed three-dimensional data at both the scale of the channel belt and within-channel. Although studies from core, analogue outcrop and modern environments may partially meet these needs, they often cannot provide detail on the smaller-scale (i.e. channel-scale) heterogeneity, frequently suffer from limited three-dimensional exposure and cannot be used to examine the influence of different variables on the process,deposit relationship. Physical modelling offers a complementary technique that can address many of these quantitative requirements and holds great future potential for integration with reservoir modelling. Physical modelling provides the potential to upscale results and derive reservoir information on three-dimensional facies geometry, connectivity and permeability. This paper describes the development and use of physical modelling, which employs generic Froude-scaling principles, in an experimental basin that permits aggradation in order to model the morphology and subsurface depositional stratigraphy of coarse-grained braided rivers. An example is presented of a 1:50 scale model based on the braided Ashburton River, Canterbury Plains, New Zealand and the adjacent late Quaternary braided alluvium exposed in the coastal cliffs. Critically, a full, bimodal grain size distribution (20% sand and 80% gravel) was used to replicate the prototype, which allows the realistic reproduction of the surface morphology and importantly permits grain size sorting during deposition. Uncertainties associated with the compression of time, sediment mass balance and the hydrodynamics of the finest particle sizes do not appear to affect the reproducibility of stratigraphy between experimental and natural environments. Sectioning of the preserved sedimentary sequence in the physical model allows quantification of the geometry, shape, spatial distribution and internal sedimentary structure of the coarse- and fine-grained facies. A six-fold facies scheme is proposed for the model braided alluvium and a direct link is established between the grain size distribution and facies type: this allows permeability to be estimated for each facies, which can be mapped onto two-dimensional vertical cross-sections of the preserved stratigraphy. Results demonstrate the dominance of four facies based on permeability that range over three orders of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity. Quantification of such variability, and linkage to both vertical proportion curves for facies distribution and connectivity presents significant advantages over other methodologies and offers great potential for the modelling of heterogeneous braided river sediments at the within channel-belt scale. This paper outlines how physical models may be used to develop high-resolution, geologically-accurate, object-based reservoir simulation models. [source]

On the diabetic menu: Zebrafish as a model for pancreas development and function

BIOESSAYS, Issue 2 2009
Mary D. Kinkel
Abstract Development of the vertebrate pancreas is a complex stepwise process comprising regionalization, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis. Studies in zebrafish are contributing to an emerging picture of pancreas development in which extrinsic signaling molecules influence intrinsic transcriptional programs to allow ultimate differentiation of specific pancreatic cell types. Zebrafish experiments have revealed roles for several signaling molecules in aspects of this process; for example our own work has shown that retinoic acid signals specify the pre-pancreatic endoderm. Time-lapse imaging of live zebrafish embryos has started to provide detailed information about early pancreas morphogenesis. In addition to modeling embryonic development, the zebrafish has recently been used as a model for pancreas regeneration studies. Here, we review the significant progress in these areas and consider the future potential of zebrafish as a diabetes research model. [source]

Renewable resources , green biorefinery: separation of valuable substances from fluid,fractions by means of membrane technology

Senad Novalin
Abstract The aim of this study is to emphasize the potential of membrane technologies and the specific performance-limiting borders of pressure-driven (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse ssmosis) as well as electro-membrane (electrodialysis, electrodialysis using bipolar membranes) techniques for the separation of valuable substances from silage press-juice obtained in green biorefineries. Depending on the product, nanofiltration can be considered a partially fractionating technique with great future potential. Electrodialysis turns out to be a suitable separation technique for removing huge amounts of salt and isolating individual valuable substances. However, residual impurities must be taken into account for subsequent separation steps. In any case, further separation processes (e.g. chromatography) must be integrated in future green biorefinery production plants. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd [source]

On the Future of Reanimatology,

Peter Safar MD
Abstract: This article is adapted from a presentation given at the 1999 SAEM annual meeting by Dr. Peter Safar. Dr. Safar has been involved in resuscitation research for 44 years, and is a distinguished professor and past initiating chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh. He is the founder and director of the Safar Center for Resuscitation Research at the University of Pittsburgh, and has been the research mentor of many critical care and emergency medicine research fellows. Here he presents a brief history of past accomplishments, recent findings, and future potentials for resuscitation research. Additional advances in resuscitation, from acute terminal states and clinical death, will build upon the lessons learned from the history of reanimatology, including optimal delivery by emergency medical services of already documented cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation, basic-advanced,prolonged life support, and future scientific breakthroughs. Current controversies, such as how to best educate the public in life-supporting first aid, how to restore normotensive spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest, how to rapidly induce mild hypothermia for cerebral protection, and how to minimize secondary insult after cerebral ischemia, are discussed, and must be resolved if advances are to be made. Dr. Safar also summarizes future technologies already under preliminary investigation, such as ultra-advanced life support for reversing prolonged cardiac arrest, extending the "golden hour" of shock tolerance, and suspended animation for delayed resuscitation. [source]