Future Population (future + population)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The cost of Natura 2000 in Spain

Ramón Barberán
Abstract The conservation of natural areas gives rise to costs that are borne both by the inhabitants of the area affected and by government, and to benefits that are enjoyed not only by locals but also by the existing and future population as a whole. The appraisal of such costs and the identification of the agents who bear them provides a useful tool for efficient decision-making, to support funding demands made on other levels of government, at both national and international level, and for the adoption of measures to compensate agents for rights. This paper describes a methodology for the calculation of such costs and presents the results obtained from its application in three areas forming part of the Natura 2000 network in Spain. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

ORIGINAL RESEARCH,EPIDEMIOLOGY: Male Erectile Dysfunction: Its Prevalence in Western Australia and Associated Sociodemographic Factors

FRCPEdin, FRCPGlasg, Kew-Kim Chew MBBS
ABSTRACT Introduction., This is a report of a population-based cross-sectional observational study in Western Australia (WA) on male erectile dysfunction (ED). Aim., To assess the prevalence of ED in WA and to examine its associated sociodemographic factors. Method., Postal questionnaires were sent to randomly selected age-stratified male population samples obtained from the WA Electoral Roll. Main Outcome Measures., In addition to items covering sociodemographic and clinical information, the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO), the Socioeconomic Index for Area (SEIFA), and the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) were used. Results., One thousand seven hundred seventy (41.9%) of 4,228 questionnaires were returned. One thousand five hundred eighty (89.3%) were completed questionnaires from men aged 20.1 to 99.6 years (mean 57.9, median 59.1, standard deviation 18.5). The prevalences of any ED and of severe ED among adult males in WA, adjusted for age distribution, were 25.1 and 8.5%, respectively. Standardized to World Health Organization (WHO) World Standard Population, the corresponding prevalences were 23.4 and 7.4%. Prevalence, as well as severity, of ED increased with age. Thirty-eight percent of the participants who were married or had partners experienced ED (severe ED 19.1%). The prevalence of ED was not significantly different between "white-collar" and "blue-collar" workers. Despite the great majority of the affected participants having experienced ED for >1 year, only 14.1% reported having ever received any treatment for ED. Conclusions., The study has provided population-based epidemiological data on ED in Western Australian men covering a wide range of ages. The finding that ED is age related, highly prevalent, and grossly underdiagnosed and undertreated is pertinent to global population aging and a rapidly aging Australian population. To facilitate comparisons across populations with different age distributions, all future population-based studies on ED should be standardized to WHO World Standard Population. Chew K-K, Stuckey B, Bremner A, Earle C, and Jamrozik K. Male Erectile Dysfunction: Its Prevalence in Western Australia and Associated Sociodemographic Factors. J Sex Med 2008;5:60,69. [source]

Child health indicators for Europe.

A priority for a caring society
Background Measurement of children's health is important for two reasons: first, because young people are citizens in their own right, yet largely unable to act as self-advocates, particularly at the population level; and second, because their health determines the health of the future population. Indicators based on measurements of child health are important for identifying progress, problems and priorities, changes over time, and newly emergent issues. The European Community Health Monitoring Programme (HMP) is a comprehensive programme to develop and implement a set of national-level indicators. The Child Health Indicators of Life and Development (CHILD) project is the only population group-specific project, seeking to determine a holistic set of measures. Methods The project endeavoured to address all aspects of child health and its determinants, balancing positive and negative aspects. It undertook a structured search of published evidence to seek to identify, and validate, indicators of health and illness, health determinants and challenges to health, quality of healthcare support and health-promoting national policies. A systematic approach was used in identifying valid indicators, and in assembling a balanced composite list. All ages from infancy to adolescence were covered. Results The project's final report identifies 38 core desirable national indicators, citing purpose and evidence for each. Of equal importance, it also identifies 17 key child health topics on which further research work is needed in order to identify and validate indicators appropriate across different national settings. [source]

Genetic maladaptation of coastal Douglas-fir seedlings to future climates

Abstract Climates are expected to warm considerably over the next century, resulting in expectations that plant populations will not be adapted to future climates. We estimated the risk of maladaptation of current populations of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) to future climates as the proportion of nonoverlap between two normal distributions where the means and genetic variances of current and future populations are determined from genecological models derived from seedling common garden studies. The risk of maladaptation was large for most traits when compared with the risk associated with current transfers within seed zones, particularly for the more drastic climate change scenario. For example, the proportion of nonoverlap for a composite trait representing bud set, emergence, growth, and root : shoot ratio was as high as 0.90. We recommend augmenting within-population variation by mixing local populations with some proportion of populations from lower elevations and further south. Populations expected to be adapted to climates a century from now come from locations as far down in elevation as 450,1130 m and as far south in latitude as 1.8,4.9°. [source]