Future Needs (future + need)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Oral hygiene practices, periodontal conditions, dentition status and self-reported bad mouth breath among young mothers, Tanzania

EGS Mumghamba
Abstract:,Objectives:,To determine the oral hygiene practices, periodontal conditions, dentition status and self-reported bad mouth breath (S-BMB) among young mothers. Study participants and methods:,This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 302 postpartum mothers, aged 14,44 years, were interviewed on oral hygiene practices and S-BMB using structured questionnaire. Oral hygiene, dentition and periodontal status were assessed using the Community Periodontal Index probe and gingival recessions (GR) using Williams Periodontal probe. Results:,Tooth brushing practice was 99%; tongue brushing (95%), plastic toothbrush users (96%), chewing stick (1%), wooden toothpicks (76%), dental floss (<1%); and toothpaste (93%). The prevalence of plaque and gingival bleeding on probing was 100%, gum bleeding during tooth brushing (33%), calculus (99%), probing periodontal pocket depth (PPD) 4,5 mm (27%), PPD 6+ mm (3%), GR 1+ mm (27%) and tooth decay (55%). The prevalence of S-BMB was 14%; the S-BMB had higher mean number of sites with plaque compared to the no S-BMB group (P = 0.04). Factors associated with S-BMB were gum bleeding on tooth brushing (OR = 2.4) and PPD 6+ mm (OR = 5.4). Conclusion:,Self-reported bad mouth breath is a cause of concern among young mothers, and associated significant factors were gum bleeding on tooth brushing and deep periodontal pockets of 6+ mm. Further research involving clinical diagnosis of bad mouth breath and intervention through oral health promotion and periodontal therapy are recommended. Clinical relevance:,This study provides baseline information on oral health status and the complaint on bad mouth breath which necessitates in the future need for objective assessment, diagnosis and management of bad mouth breath for enhanced social and professional interaction without embarrassments. [source]

Use of over-the-counter medicines in children

John McIntyre senior lecturer in child health
ABSTRACT Objective To assess the reasons for over-the-counter (OTC) medicine use in children and the sociodemographic factors influencing this choice of self-care rather than GP consultation. Method Questionnaires were sent to the home address of a randomly generated list of children under 12 years of age from three GP practices in the East Midlands selected to represent bottom, middle and top tertiles of deprivation on the basis of the Jarman score. Analysis using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests was used to identify associated factors (number of carers in the home, number of children, deprivation score, parent/carer's age, age and number of children in the house) of the responses. Setting Primary care setting in the East Midlands region of England. Key findings From 424 completed questionnaires returned (response rate 61%), 413 parents/carers had purchased OTC medicines. Fifty-one different products had been purchased, with analgesic/antipyretic and cough/cold remedies the most frequently bought. The most commonly reported reasons for parent/carer initiated medication were to avoid troubling the GP with minor childhood ailments (79% of respondents) and to have medicines available in case of future need (74%). Cost was a barrier to buying OTC medicines for the more deprived. Advice-seeking behaviour was associated with the symptom, the number of children, affluence and the age of the child. Conclusion Parent/carer initiated use of OTC medication is widespread, particularly for analgesic/antipyretic and cough/cold remedies. Differences in advice-seeking behaviour are associated with the presenting symptom and a variety of sociodemographic factors. [source]

Residential Provision for Adult Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in Ireland

Fiona Mulvany
Background, The type of accommodation provided for persons with an intellectual disability is a major indicator of the social policy for this client group. This is likely to vary within and across countries; hence the importance of undertaking national and international comparisons. Estimations of future need are also required to assist service planning. Method, A database of all persons in receipt of intellectual disability services has been operating in the Republic of Ireland since 1995. In Northern Ireland, regional databases were used to provide similar information. Results, Around 10 000 people live in some form of residential provision: 56% in special settings, 35% in ordinary housing and 9% in hospitals. Most residents were classed as having ,severe' disabilities and were aged over 35 years. There were marked differences in the amount and type of provision provided in the two parts of the island. This was also mirrored in differences across health service areas within each country. The demand for future places was greater in Northern Ireland. Conclusions, A planning target of 3.5 places per 1000 adult population is proposed although substantial investments in services is required to achieve this. Longitudinal surveys are an important way of monitoring the impact of new policy initiatives. [source]

The need and total cost of Finnish eyecare services: a simulation model for 2005,2040

Anja Tuulonen
Abstract. Purpose:, The aims of this study were: (i) to create a structural simulation model capable of predicting the future need and cost of eyecare services in Finland; and (ii) to test and rank different policy alternatives for access to care and the required physician workforce. Methods:, Using the system dynamics approach, the number and cost of patients with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were described with causal-loop diagrams and were then translated into a set of mathematical equations to build a computer simulation model. Mathematically, the problem was formulated as a set of differential equations that were solved numerically with specialized software. The validity of the model was tested against prevalence and administrative historical data. The costs covered by the public sector in Finland were obtained from 2003 from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (including outpatient care), the Finnish Social Insurance Institution and a survey of hospital price lists. Different levels of access to public care were then simulated in four eye diseases, for which the model estimated the need for services and resources and their costs in the years 2005,2040. Results:, The model forecasted that the adoption of the 2005 national ,access to care' criteria for cataract surgery would shorten waiting lists. If the workload of Finnish ophthalmologists were kept at the 2003 level, the graduation rate of new ophthalmologists would have to increase by 75% from the current level. If all glaucoma patients were followed in the public sector in future, even this increase in training would not meet the demand for physician workforce. The current model indicated that the screening frequency of diabetes can be increased without large sacrifices in terms of costs. AMD therapy has a significant role in the allocation of future resources in eyecare. The modelling study predicted that ageing alone will increase the costs of eyecare during the next four decades in Finland by about 1% per year in real terms (undiscounted and without inflation of unit costs). The increases in total yearly costs were on average 8.6% between 2001 and 2003. Conclusions:, The results of this modelling study indicate that policy initiatives, such as defining criteria for access to care, can have substantial implications on the demand for care and waiting times whereas the effect of ageing alone was relatively small. Measures to control several other factors , such as the adoption and price level of new technologies, treatments and practice patterns , will be at least equally important in order to restrain healthcare costs effectively. [source]

Substance use disorder among older adults in the United States in 2020

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
Beth Han
ABSTRACT Aims This study aimed to project the number of people aged 50 years or older with substance use disorder (alcohol/illicit drug dependence or abuse) in the United States in 2020. Design Logistic regression models were applied to estimate parameters predicting past-year substance use disorder using the 2002,06 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. We applied these parameters to the projected US 2020 population to estimate the number of adults aged 50 or older with substance use disorder in 2020. Setting Non-institutionalized US residences. Participants Representative sample of the US civilian, non-institutionalized population. Measurements Substance use disorder is classified based on criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Findings Due to the large population size and high substance use rate of the baby-boom cohort, the number of adults aged 50 or older with substance use disorder is projected to double from 2.8 million (annual average) in 2002,06 to 5.7 million in 2020. Increases are projected for all examined gender, race/ethnicity and age groups. Conclusions Our estimates provide critical information for policymakers to allocate resources and develop prevention and treatment approaches to address future needs of the US older adult population with substance use disorder. [source]

Space Internet architectures and technologies for NASA enterprises

Kul Bhasin
NASA's future space communication needs and requirements will be addressed through a space communications network that mirrors the terrestrial Internet in its capabilities and flexibility. NASA's needs and requirements for future data gathering and distribution by this Space Internet have been obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), the Human Exploration and Development in Space (HEDS), and the Space Science Enterprise (SSE). To address NASA's future needs, we propose and describe an integrated communications infrastructure based on Internet technologies, the architectures within the infrastructure, and the elements that make up the architectures. The architectures meet the requirements of the enterprises beyond 2010 with Internet compatible technologies and functionality. The elements of an architecture include the backbone, access, inter-spacecraft, and proximity communication parts. From the architectures, technologies have been identified which have the most impact and are critical for the implementation of the architectures. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Future Directions for the Teaching and Learning of Statistics at the Tertiary Level

Des F. Nicholl
Summary Significant advances in, and the resultant impact of, Information Technology (IT) during the last fifteen years has resulted in a much more data based society, a trend that can be expected to continue into the foreseeable future. This phenomenon has had a real impact on the Statistics discipline and will continue to result in changes in both content and course delivery. Major research directions have also evolved during the last ten years directly as a result of advances in IT. The impact of these advances has started to flow into course content, at least for advanced courses. One question which arises relates to what impact will this have on the future training of statisticians, both with respect to course content and mode of delivery. At the tertiary level the last 40 years has seen significant advances in theoretical aspects of the Statistics discipline. Universities have been outstanding at producing scholars with a strong theoretical background but questions have been asked as to whether this has, to some degree, been at the expense of appropriate training of the users of statistics (the ,tradespersons'). Future directions in the teaching and learning of Statistics must take into account the impact of IT together with the competing need to produce scholars as well as competent users of statistics to meet the future needs of the market place. For Statistics to survive as a recognizable discipline the need to be able to train statisticians with an ability to communicate is also seen as an areŕ of crucial importance. Satisfying the needs of society as well as meeting the needs of the profession are considered as the basic determinants which will derive the future teaching and training of statisticians at the tertiary level and will form the basis of this presentation. [source]

Towards a European registry of severe allergic reactions: current status of national registries and future needs

ALLERGY, Issue 6 2010
M. Worm
To cite this article: Worm M, Timmermans F, Moneret-Vautrin A, Muraro A, Malmheden Yman II, Lövik M, Hattersley S, Crevel R. Towards a European registry of severe allergic reactions: current status of national registries and future needs. Allergy 2010; 65: 671,680. Abstract The incidence of severe allergic reactions is largely unknown and information about triggering allergens, aggravating factors, demography of patients and medical care is lacking. A European wide registry could provide a powerful tool to improve the management of severe allergic reactions from both a medical and a public health perspective. Analysis of existing registries regarding the type and quality of data being collected was used to develop a plan for a pan-European registry, including the type of system to be used and the range of data to be entered. Surveillance will provide evidence for the efficacy of risk management measures and may identify the emergence of new allergenic foods, and aid monitoring of novel foods, ingredients and technologies. Patients need a clear indication of factors that may increase their risk of having an adverse reaction, which such a registry can help compile. Based on the collected data, food businesses will be able to develop educational programmes for allergen risk assessment and allergen risk communication. Finally, and most importantly preventive measures can be developed and government agencies receive population based data which may be relevant for legislative purposes. [source]

Progress in corrosion protection as a requirement for technical progress,

W. Fürbeth
Abstract In many of the more recent technologies, corrosion plays a crucial role in determining their successful application. The present paper identifies such important corrosion issues in a number of technologies, which are currently under development or have been recently discussed. In this sense, CO2 sequestration, fuel cells, offshore wind energy and other offshore technologies, geothermal energy, advanced coal conversion technologies, nuclear energy, light weight construction in transport, ionic liquids as well as medical technologies are discussed with respect to corrosion problems and existing research needs. In this way, this paper intends to show the complexity and the variety of corrosion topics of today and at the same time, point at the economic aspects and the impact on daily life. In the end, this leads to an introduction of the World Corrosion Organization and its study on future needs for research and development in materials degradation and corrosion control. [source]

Cryobanking of viable biomaterials: implementation of new strategies for conservation purposes

Abstract Cryobanking, the freezing of biological specimens to maintain their integrity for a variety of anticipated and unanticipated uses, offers unique opportunities to advance the basic knowledge of biological systems and their evolution. Notably, cryobanking provides a crucial opportunity to support conservation efforts for endangered species. Historically, cryobanking has been developed mostly in response to human economic and medical needs , these needs must now be extended to biodiversity conservation. Reproduction technologies utilizing cryobanked gametes, embryos and somatic cells are already vital components of endangered species recovery efforts. Advances in modern biological research (e.g. stem cell research, genomics and proteomics) are already drawing heavily on cryobanked specimens, and future needs are anticipated to be immense. The challenges of developing and applying cryobanking for a broader diversity of species were addressed at an international conference held at Trier University (Germany) in June 2008. However, the magnitude of the potential benefits of cryobanking stood in stark contrast to the lack of substantial resources available for this area of strategic interest for biological science , and society at large. The meeting at Trier established a foundation for a strong global incentive to cryobank threatened species. The establishment of an Amphibian Ark cryobanking programme offers the first opportunity for global cooperation to achieve the cryobanking of the threatened species from an entire vertebrate class. [source]

Profile of the Australian dietetic workforce: 1991,2005

Leanne BROWN
Abstract Objective:, The present study aims to review current available data that describe the dietetics workforce in Australia. Design:, A literature search was conducted using CIHNAL and hand searches. Following this, a review of the current available dietetics workforce data was conducted. Dietitians Association of Australia (DAA) membership data were analysed. Subjects and setting:, Sources of workforce data included: the Australian Bureau of Statistics Census data, DAA membership database, state health department and national workforce reports, reports by allied health organisations and independent research. Main outcome measures:, Descriptive data profiling the Australian dietetic workforce and employment trends. Statistical analysis:, A descriptive analysis of DAA membership data was undertaken. The DAA membership data were mapped by postcode with the Australian Standard Geographical Classification for remoteness. Counts and proportions were used to summarise and compare available data. Results:, There has been a growth and diversity of the dietetics profession in Australia in recent years, despite a lower proportion of qualified dietitians working as dietitians. The dietetic workforce is relatively young, predominantly female and unevenly distributed across the country. The available data are complex and difficult to interpret. Conclusions:, The present review of currently available dietetic workforce data provides a profile of the dietetics profession in Australia. Further workforce data are required in order to adequately describe the dietetics workforce in Australia and to determine future needs for the profession. National monitoring and systematic workforce data collection are urgently required. [source]

Genetic diversity of Forest and Savannah chicken populations of Ghana as estimated by microsatellite markers

ABSTRACT The characterization of indigenous animal genetic resources is a requisite step in providing needed information for the conservation of useful genotypes against future needs. Thus, in this study, 22 microsatellite markers were used to genotype 114 local chickens from the Forest (n = 59) and Savannah (n = 55) eco-zones of Ghana and the results compared to those of the ancestral red junglefowl (n = 15) and two European commercial chicken populations , a broiler (n = 25) and white leghorn (n = 25). A total of 171 alleles were observed, with an average of 7.8 alleles per locus. The local Ghanaian chickens showed higher diversity in terms of the observed number of alleles per locus (6.6) and observed heterozygosity (0.568) compared with the combined control populations (6.0 and 0.458, respectively). However, Wright's F -statistics revealed negligible genetic differentiation (FST) in local Ghanaian chicken populations. In addition, 65% of the Savannah chickens were inferred to be more likely from the Forest, suggesting a south-north dispersal of chickens from their probable original location in the Forest zone to the Savannah areas. It is concluded that the Forest and Savannah chickens of Ghana are a single, randomly mating unselected population, characterized by high genetic diversity and constitute a valuable resource for conservation and improvement. [source]

Protein and amino acid nutrition and metabolism in fish: current knowledge and future needs

Sadasivam J Kaushik
Abstract Optimising the amino acid supply in tune with the requirements and improving protein utilization for body protein growth with limited impacts on the environment in terms of nutrient loads is a generic imperative in all animal production systems. With the continued high annual growth rate reported for global aquaculture, our commitments should be to make sure that this growth is indeed reflected in provision of protein of high biological value for humans. The limited availability of fish meal has led to some concerted efforts in fish meal replacement, analysing all possible physiological or metabolic consequences. The rising costs of plant feedstuffs make it necessary to strengthen our basic knowledge on amino acid availability and utilization. Regulation of muscle protein accretion has great significance with strong practical implications. In fish, despite low muscle protein synthesis rates, the efficiency of protein deposition appears to be high. Exploratory studies on amino acid flux, inter-organ distribution and particularly of muscle protein synthesis, growth and degradation and the underlying mechanisms as affected by dietary factors are warranted. Research on specific signalling pathways involved in protein synthesis and degradation have been initiated in order to elucidate the reasons for high dietary protein/amino acid supply required and their utilization. [source]