Future Investigations (future + investigation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Is Age Associated with the Number or Types of Medications Prescribed to Renal Transplant Recipients?

Marie A. Chisholm PharmD
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether age influences the number or types of medications prescribed to younger (aged 18,64) and elderly (aged ,65) renal transplant recipients 3 years posttransplant. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study involving renal transplant recipients. SETTING: Medical College of Georgia. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 100 elderly and 100 younger renal transplant recipients who received posttransplant care at the Medical College of Georgia, were on stable immunosuppressant therapy regimens, and were at least 3 years posttransplant. MEASUREMENTS: Medical and pharmacy data of recipients were evaluated for demographics; presence of a lipid-lowering agent; number of antihypertensives, immunosuppressants, antidiabetic agents, and total medications; number of rejections; dose per kilogram of immunosuppressant(s); infection-related hospitalizations; and measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, serum creatinine, serum tacrolimus/cyclosporine concentrations, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. RESULTS: Elderly recipients were more likely to have diabetes mellitus before the transplant and to develop diabetes mellitus afterwards (P=.04) and were prescribed more total medications (12.40±3.72 vs 10.25±4.07, P<.001) and antidiabetic agents (0.89±0.93 vs 0.42±0.77, P<.001) 3 years posttransplant than younger recipients. Elderly recipients also had fewer chronic rejections, more infection-related hospitalizations, lower diastolic blood pressure, and greater fasting blood glucose levels 3 years posttransplant (P<.05) than younger recipients. CONCLUSION: Future investigation should focus on deciphering the implications of the greater numbers of medications prescribed to elderly renal transplant recipients in terms of maximizing desired health outcomes (e.g., graft survival) and minimizing adverse drug-related experiences (e.g., infection). [source]

Identification of Oxalobacter formigenes in the faeces of healthy cats

J.S. Weese
Abstract Aims:,Oxalobacter formigenes is an oxalate-degrading intestinal bacterium that has been found in humans, cattle, sheep, rats and dogs. Its presence in the intestinal tract may be a protective factor against calcium oxalate urolithiasis because of its ability to degrade oxalate. The objective of this study was to determine whether O. formigenes could be detected in the faeces of healthy cats. Methods and Results:, A convenience sample of 28 cats was enrolled. Faecal samples were tested for oxc, a gene specific for O. formigenes, by real-time PCR. This gene was detected in 5/28 (18%) cats; however, the prevalence increased to 86% (24/28) with a modification of the methodology. Conclusions:, Demonstrating the presence of O. formigenes in the faeces of healthy cats for the first time in this study. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Future investigation of the role of this organism in the pathophysiology of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in cats is indicated. [source]

Clinical and Experimental Aspects of Olmesartan Medoxomil, a New Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist

Kazunori Yoshida
ABSTRACT Olmesartan medoxomil is a new orally active angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor antagonist. It is a prodrug and is rapidly de-esterified during absorption to form olmesartan, the active metabolite. Olmesartan is a potent, competitive and selective Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist. Olmesartan is not metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 and has a dual route of elimination, by kidneys and liver. In patients with essential hypertension olmesartan medoxomil administered once daily at doses of 10,80 mg dose-dependently reduced diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Troughto-peak ratios for both DBP and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were above 50%. At the recommended once-daily starting doses, olmesartan medoxomil (20 mg) was more effective than losartan (50 mg), valsartan (80 mg) or irbesartan (150 mg) in reducing cuff DBP in patients with essential hypertension. The results of cuff SBP and mean 24-h DBP and SBP were similar to those of cuff DBP measurement. In mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients the recommended starting dose of olmesartan medoxomil was as effective as that of amlodipine besylate (5 mg/day) in reducing both cuff and 24-h blood pressure. In lowering DBP olmesartan medoxomil, at 10,20 mg/day, was as effective as atenolol at 50,100 mg/day. In mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients, olmesartan medoxomil, at 5,20 mg once daily, was more effective than captopril at 12.5,50 mg twice daily. At 20,40 mg once daily olmesartan medoxomil was as effective as felodipine, at 5,10 mg once daily. Olmesartan medoxomil has minimal adverse effects with no clinically important drug interactions. Animal studies have shown that olmesartan medoxomil provides a wide range of organ protection. Olmesartan medoxomil ameliorated atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic animals and ameliorated cardiac remodeling and improved survival in rats with myocardial infarction. Olmesartan medoxomil has renoprotective effects in a remnant kidney model and type 2 diabetes models. Future investigation should reveal whether these beneficial effects of olmesartan medoxomil are applicable to human diseases. [source]

Parenting, autonomy and self-care of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

C. Dashiff
Abstract Background During adolescence diabetes creates a juncture of very complex disease management demands with developmental needs, including the striving of adolescents for greater autonomy. Parents' concerns and fears about the teen's diabetes self-management abilities during this time can heighten parental attachment behaviour and affect the parents' ability to support autonomy development necessary for effective self-care. Maternal parenting processes may be especially important for those adolescents who have Type 1 diabetes because mothers are the primary caregivers. Purpose Based on attachment theory, the aim was to test a model of the influence of mother,adolescent developmental conflict, maternal separation anxiety and maternal inhibition of autonomy and relatedness on cognitive autonomy and self-care of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Method A total of 131 families with an adolescent, aged 11,15 years, contributed data annually across three waves. Mothers and adolescents completed paper-and-pencil measures and two interaction scenarios that were coded by trained staff from audio-tapes. The adolescent also completed a structured interview and questionnaire to assess self-care. Results Maternal separation anxiety when adolescents were 11,15 years of age directly predicted cognitive autonomy at 1-year follow-up, and that cognitive autonomy was directly related to self-care 1 year later, but did not mediate between separation anxiety and self-care. Conclusions Future investigation of the influence of separation anxiety of parents on adolescent autonomy development is warranted, as well as the contribution of autonomy development to diabetes self-management behaviours of adolescents. [source]

Hepatotoxic cyanobacterial blooms in the lakes of northern Poland

Joanna Mankiewicz
Abstract The lakes of northern Poland are among the recreational sites most valued by Polish and German holiday makers. Given the socioeconomic importance of these lakes, water quality should be maintained at high levels for such intensive recreational purposes. In 2002 studies of species composition, biomass, and toxin production by phytoplankton and the attendant physicochemical variables were performed in order to assess the risk of cyanobacterial blooms in selected northern lakes: Lakes Jeziorak, Jagodne, Szymoneckie, Szymon, Taltowisko, Siecino, and Trzesiecko. The research showed that total phosphorus (0.1 mg P/L) and total nitrogen (1.5 mg N/L) in the studied lakes almost exceeded the permissible limits for eutrophication of water bodies. Most phytoplankton samples were taken in late summer, when cyanobacteria were expected to reach their highest biomass. At the time of sampling most of the lakes were dominated by oscillatorialean and nostocalean species. Average chlorophyll-a concentration was higher than 10 ,g/L in almost all the lakes studied, which corresponded with an average microcystin concentration in the range of 4,5 ,g/L. The main microcystins in the analyzed samples were dmMC-RR, MC-RR, MC-YR, and MC-LR. The results demonstrated a potential for intensive cyanobacterial blooms to appear during the summer in northern Polish lakes. The levels of cyanobacteria found in the lakes investigated indicated that toxicity had reached the first-alert level according to World Health Organization recommendations. If microcystin-producing cyanobacteria dominate, with a microcystin concentration of 2,4 ,g/L, symptoms of toxicity can appear in the swimmers most sensitive to exposure. Analysis of cyanobacterial assemblages in northern Polish lakes also indicated a significant presence of Aphanizomenon species including a Scandinavian species, A. skujae (Skuja) Kom.-Legn. & Cronb. Future investigations of Polish lakes also should assess neurotoxins and study the biology of their producers. This study was the first attempt to evaluate the potential danger of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in the lakes of northern Poland. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 20: 499,506, 2005. [source]

Comparison of risk factors for colon and rectal cancer

Esther K. Wei
Abstract Predictors of colorectal cancer have been extensively studied with some evidence suggesting that risk factors vary by subsite. Using data from 2 prospective cohort studies, we examined established risk factors to determine whether they were differentially associated with colon and rectal cancer. Our study population included 87,733 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 46,632 men from the Health Professionals Follow Up Study (HPFS). Exposure information was collected via biennial questionnaires (dietary variables were collected every 4 years). During the follow-up period (NHS: 1980 to May 31, 2000; HPFS: 1986 to January 31, 2000), we identified 1,139 cases of colon cancer and 339 cases of rectal cancer. We used pooled logistic regression to estimate multivariate relative risks for the 2 outcomes separately and then used polytomous logistic regression to compare these estimates. In the combined cohort, age, gender, family history of colon or rectal cancer, height, body mass index, physical activity, folate, intake of beef, pork or lamb as a main dish, intake of processed meat and alcohol were significantly associated with colon cancer risk. However, only age and sex were associated with rectal cancer. In a stepwise polytomous logistic regression procedure, family history and physical activity were associated with statistically significant different relative risks of colon and rectal cancer. Our findings support previous suggestions that family history and physical activity are not strong contributors to the etiology of rectal cancer. Future investigations of colon or rectal cancer should take into consideration risk factor differences by subsite. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Sonographic examination of the oral phase of swallowing: Bolus image enhancement

Michael J. Casas DDS
Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of 4 liquid boluses to enhance pixel brightness and the ease with which the boluses could be identified during the sonographic evaluation of oral swallowing in healthy young adults. Methods Ten healthy adult volunteers (5 men and 5 women), ranging in age from 21 to 31 years, underwent sonographic evaluation of the oral phase of swallowing while sitting in their usual feeding position. We compared the ability of the 4 following liquids to improve sonographic visualization of swallowing with that of water: a carbonated cola beverage, 5.0 ml of Thick-It in 120 ml of water, 2.5 ml of Thick-It in 120 ml of water, and 7.5 ml of confectioners' sugar in 120 ml of water. Water was used as a control. In each case, 5 ml of the liquid was introduced into the subject's oral cavity using a syringe, and the subject was instructed to swallow. Digitized still images and recorded video sequences of sonographic examinations of the swallowing were analyzed. The brightness of the bolus image on selected digitized video frames was measured digitally using Image Analyst software. Pixel brightness within selected regions of interest for each of the test liquids was statistically compared with that for water. Seven clinicians rated the visualization of each test liquid and water on paired sonographic videotape sequences. These ratings and the level of agreement between them were statistically tested. Results Only the carbonated cola beverage demonstrated statistically greater pixel brightness than that of water on digitized video frames (p = 0.01), whereas both cola (with a moderate inter-rater agreement, , = 0.50) and 5.0 ml Thick-It mixed with 120 ml of water (with a fair inter-rater agreement, , = 0.24) were significantly better visualized on sonographic video sequences. Conclusions The digital still-frame analysis confirmed the clinicians' ratings of bolus visualization on real-time sonography, but dynamic sonography is more important than still frames in assessing sonographic swallow media because the dynamic images more closely parallel what is seen in clinical practice. Future investigations of sonographic contrast agents for use in the examination of the oral phase of swallowing should use both static digital (still-frame) and dynamic (real-time) assessment methods, as well as expert reviewers. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 30:83,87, 2002; DOI 10.1002/jcu.10034 [source]

Androgen profiles among Egyptian adults considering liver status

Cristina E Aguilar
Abstract Background and aim:, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and environmental hepatotoxins may have an indirect influence on health by altering the synthesis and function of hormones, particularly reproductive hormones. We aimed to evaluate liver diseases and sex steroid hormones in Egypt, which has the highest prevalence of HCV worldwide. Methods:, We measured markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV and schistosomiasis infection as well as liver function in 159 apparently healthy subjects. We measured total testosterone (T), sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin, and calculated the free androgen index. Results:, Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 51% of men and 42% of women. Based on HCV reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) of 44 men and 33 women, 11% of men and 21% of women showed HCV viremia. There was schistosomiasis in 25% of men and 9% of women, and mixed HCV viremia and schistosomiasis in 57% of men and 52% of women. Compared with men with schistosomiasis only (mean 593.3 ± 73.4 ng/dL), T was higher in men with mixed HCV viremia and schistosomiasis (mean 854.5 ± 47.9 ng/dL; P = 0.006) and men with mixed chronic HCV and schistosomiasis (mean 812.1 ± 43.3 ng/dL; P = 0.001). Men with mixed chronic HCV and schistosomiasis had also significantly higher SHBG (mean 57.7 ± 3.9 ng/dL) than males with schistosomiasis only (mean 34.8 ± SE 4.5 ng/dL; P = 0.0003). Conclusion:, Future investigations should consider that a high prevalence of asymptomatic liver disease may alter associations between hormone concentrations and chronic disease etiology. [source]

Glaciomarine deposition around the Irish Sea basin: some problems and solutions

Dr. Jasper Knight
Abstract Reconstructing the depositional processes and setting (marine or terrestrial depositional environment) of late Devensian age glacigenic sediments around the Irish Sea basin (ISB) is critical for developing an all-embracing and consistent glacial model that can account for all observed field evidence. Identifying episodes of marine and terrestrial glacial deposition from field data is considered the first step in achieving this goal. Criteria for distinguishing marine and terrestrial glacial environments in the ISB include the geomorphology, sedimentology and faunal content (biofacies) of the associated deposits. Exposures of glacigenic sediments around the ISB are very diverse in terms of their morphosedimentary characteristics and associated biofacies, and thus inferred depositional processes and setting. Possible reasons for the diverse geological record include the differing geometry of eastern and western ISB coasts, time-transgressive ice retreat, and differential land rebound effects as a result of forebulge collapse and neotectonics. Poor geochronometric control on ice sheet events has not helped the correlation of ISB events with glacial and climatic events elsewhere. Future investigations of glacial sites around the ISB should use an integrated methodological approach involving a range of geomorphological, sedimentary and biofacies data, and dating control where possible. This will help in developing a more precise and holistic late Devensian glacial model that is constrained rigorously by field geological evidence. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Hypothalamic Function in Response to 2-Deoxy- d -Glucose in Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2001
John C. Umhau
Background: The body adapts to diverse stressful stimuli with a response characterized by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Chronic alcohol consumption can cause changes in the function of this neuroendocrine system. Although many studies have examined this phenomenon in drinking and recently sober alcoholics, few studies have examined HPA axis function in long-term sober alcoholics. Methods: To characterize HPA axis function in long-term sober alcoholics, we used a challenge paradigm with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG). An infusion of 2-DG (a nonmetabolizable glucose analog) induces a well-characterized stress response. In a previous study, our laboratory found an exaggerated corticotropin and cortisol response in alcoholics abstinent 3 weeks; in this investigation we compared the effects of an infusion of 2-DG on 19 healthy volunteers and 20 community-living alcoholics who had been abstinent more than 6 months. Results: In contrast to the previous study, long-term sober alcoholics did not have an exaggerated corticotropin and cortisol response after 2-DG. Conclusions: Previously observed abnormalities in cortisol regulation in 3-week-sober alcoholics may be related to the acute effects of recent alcohol consumption and withdrawal. Future investigations into the metabolic function of alcoholics, particularly investigations involving the HPA system, should consider the possibility that normalization may not occur until long-term abstinence has been achieved. [source]

Cross-spectral analysis of the X-ray variability of Markarian 421

Y. H. Zhang
ABSTRACT Using the cross-spectral method, we confirm the existence of the X-ray hard lags discovered with cross-correlation function technique during a large flare of Mrk 421 observed with BeppoSAX. For the 0.1,2 versus 2,10 keV light curves, both methods suggest sub-hour hard lags. In the time domain, the degree of hard lag, i.e. the amplitude of the 3.2,10 keV photons lagging the lower energy ones, tends to increase with the decreasing energy. In the Fourier frequency domain, by investigating the cross-spectra of the 0.1,2/2,10 keV and the 2,3.2/3.2,10 keV pairs of light curves, the flare also shows hard lags at the lowest frequencies. However, with the present data, it is impossible to constrain the dependence of the lags on frequencies even though the detailed simulations demonstrate that the hard lags at the lowest frequencies probed by the flare are not an artefact of sparse sampling, Poisson and red noise. As a possible interpretation, the implication of the hard lags is discussed in the context of the interplay between the (diffusive) acceleration and synchrotron cooling of relativistic electrons responsible for the observed X-ray emission. The energy-dependent hard lags are in agreement with the expectation of an energy-dependent acceleration time-scale. The inferred magnetic field (B, 0.11 G) is consistent with the value inferred from the spectral energy distributions of the source. Future investigations with higher quality data that show whether or not the time-lags are energy-/frequency-dependent will provide a new constraint on the current models of the TeV blazars. [source]

Hospital discharge among frail elderly people: a pilot study in Sweden,

Ingrid Söderback
Abstract A conceptual framework for the hospital discharge process was designed. It was intended to measure frail elderly people's experience of their quality of care in terms of satisfaction and trustworthiness during their hospital discharge and their experience at home. The present pilot study aimed at evaluating the viability of an occupational therapy clinical tool. Nine frail elderly Swedish individuals reported the quality of their care as mostly satisfactory and trustworthy, according to their responses to the Discharged Patients' Enquiry Questionnaire (DPEQ). However, the participants were not satisfied with the non-continuity among the home-helpers, the lack of rehabilitation services and the non-availability of professional help, for example occupational therapy for increasing social contacts. The participant's responses indicated that occupational therapy interventions, that is, assessment of home environment (n = 6), improvement of housing accessibility (n = 3) and prescription of assistive devices (n = 4), contributed to their ability to live at home. The results are limited owing to the small number of participants. Future investigations of the care that patients discharged from hospitals receive are recommended to explore supplementary assessments of spouses' care burden and participants' quality of life, and the psychometric functions of the conceptual framework. In summary, the conceptual framework described may be a viable tool for evaluating the discharge process among frail elderly people discharged from hospitals to their homes. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Phase II study of bryostatin 1 and vincristine for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma relapsing after an autologous stem cell transplant,

Paul M. Barr
Bryostatin 1, isolated from a marine bryozoan, enhances the efficacy of cytotoxic agents through modulation of the protein kinase C pathway and is active in combination with vincristine for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Further, the apoptotic frequency of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as determined by flow cytometry may predict which patients will respond to this combination. We tested the efficacy and safety of bryostatin 1 50 ,g/m2 given over 24 hr and vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 on days 1 and 15 every 28 days in aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) relapsing after autologous stem cell transplantation. End points included tumor response, toxicity, and survival. Responses were correlated with an increase in apoptotic frequency of CD5+ cells by flow cytometry using annexin V staining. Fourteen patients were enrolled with 13 being evaluable for a response. The overall response rate was 31% with two patients achieving a complete response. The most common toxicities were Grade 3 lymphopenia (seven patients), Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia (two patients), and Grade 3 hypophosphatemia (two patients). Median progression-free and overall survivals for all patients were 5.7 and 21.4 months, respectively. One patient demonstrated an increase in T-cell apoptotic frequency, also achieving a complete response. Bryostatin 1 and vincristine have efficacy in select patients with aggressive NHL. Future investigations of agents targeting the protein kinase C pathway may benefit from early response assessment using flow cytometry to evaluate T-cell apoptosis. Am. J. Hematol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Occupational categories at risk for Parkinson's disease

Kandace L. Kirkey MPH
Abstract Background The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered to have a strong environmental component, but relatively few studies have investigated the potential association between occupation and the disease. Methods In a population-based case-control study, we collected comprehensive occupational histories from all study participants, 144 case and 464 control subjects. Results Chi-square analysis revealed that working in an agricultural occupation increased estimated PD risk (OR,=,1.74; 95% CI,=,0.85, 3.60). In contrast, a history of ever working in a service occupation was negatively associated with PD risk (OR,=,0.69; 95% CI,=,0.47, 1.00). Risk estimates were close to one for specific service occupations. Adjusted odds ratios for all non-service occupational and industrial categories were similar, and working in a service occupation was the only significant inverse predictor of PD risk. Conclusions Future investigations focusing on lifestyle factors and environmental exposures within the agricultural and service occupational categories are warranted. Am. J. Ind. Med. 39:564,571, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Yale University Experience of Early-Stage Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC) and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) Treated with Breast Conservation Treatment (BCT): Analysis of Clinical-Pathologic Features, Long-Term Outcomes, and Molecular Expression of COX-2, Bcl-2, and p53 as a Function of Histology

Meena S. Moran MD
Abstract:, To evaluate our experience of the clinical-pathologic features and outcomes of early-stage Invasive Lobular (ILC) versus Invasive Ductal (IDC) carcinoma treated with breast conservation treatment (BCT). 142 ILC and 1,760 IDC patients were treated with BCT at our institution. All patients underwent breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy (median total dose: 64 Gy). Clinical-pathologic and outcome parameters were analyzed to detect differences between the two cohorts. In addition, COX-2, Bcl-2, and p-53 expression was analyzed from our existing tissue micro-array database. Median follow-up was 6.8 years. A higher percentage of ILC patients presented at >40 years of age (94% ILC versus 89% IDC, p = 0.0353) and had more mammographically occult tumors (p < 0.002). There were no significant differences in T stage, nodal status, family history, final margin, ER/PR/HER-2 status or triple negative tumors (all p-values >0.05). From the immuno-histochemical analysis, expression of p53, COX-2, and Bcl-2 did not differ significantly (all p-values >0.05) between the two cohorts. At 10 years, there was no difference in breast relapse (20% versus 13%, p = 0.25), distant relapse (26% versus 20%, p = 0.28), cause-specific survival (72% versus 84%, p = 0.09) and OS (68% versus 78%, p = 0.08). Patients with ILC had higher contralateral breast relapses (26% versus 12%, p = 0.0006). Patients with early-stage ILC have comparable outcomes to IDC when treated with BCT. Because of the higher risk of contralateral breast cancers for ILC patients, careful evaluation of the contralateral breast will be important in the follow-up of these patients. Future investigations of chemo-preventive strategies to decrease contralateral breast cancers are warranted. [source]

Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy: A Risk Factor for Delayed Function and Rejection in Pediatric Kidney Recipients?

A UNOS Analysis
The impact of laparoscopic (vs. open) donor nephrectomy on early graft function and survival in pediatric kidney recipients (,18 years) is unknown. We studied 995 pediatric live donor txs reported to UNOS from January 2000 to June 2002, in two recipient age groups: 0,5 years (n = 212, 44% laparoscopic donors [LapD]) and 6,18 years (n = 783, 50% LapD). Delayed graft function (DGF) rates were higher for LapD versus open donor (OpD) txs (0,5 years, 12.8% vs. 2.5%[p = 0.004]; 6,18 years, 5.9% vs. 2.8%[p = 0.03]). Acute rejection incidence for LapD versus OpD txs was higher at 6 months for recipients 0,5 years (18.6% vs. 5.9%, p = 0.01) and 6,18 years (22.5% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.03), and 1 year for recipients 0,5 years (24.3% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.004). In multivariate analyses, significant independent risk factors for rejection at 6 months and 1 year were recipient age 6,18 years, pretx dialysis, LapD nephrectomy and DGF. Graft survival was similar for LapD versus OpD txs. In this retrospective UNOS database analysis, LapD procurement was associated with increased DGF and an independent risk factor for rejection during the first year, particularly for recipients 0,5-years old. Future investigations must confirm these findings and identify strategies to optimize procurement and pediatric recipient outcome. [source]

Future investigations of GPS and CSS radio sources with LOFAR

I.A.G. Snellen
Abstract In the next few years, the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) will open up one of the last astronomically unexplored wavelength regimes. While the LOFAR core is currently being erected in the Netherlands, its outer stations will cover a large part of Europe, resulting in an unprecedented angular resolution at > meter wavelengths. Next to many other exciting scientific endeavours, LOFAR will be the first instrument to probe the low frequency spectra of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources. It will give new insights into their absorption processes, and probe associated extended emission (possibly linked to earlier epochs of activity) in these enigmatic class of young active galactic nuclei. Furthermore, LOFAR will be sensitive to possibly the most distant GPS and CSS sources, of which their spectral turnovers have redshifted down to the lowest observable radio frequencies (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Growth plasticity of the embryonic and fetal heart

BIOESSAYS, Issue 12 2009
Jörg-Detlef Drenckhahn
Abstract The developing mammalian heart responds to a variety of conditions, including changes in nutrient availability, blood oxygenation, hemodynamics, or tissue homeostasis, with impressive growth plasticity. This ensures the formation of a functional and normal sized organ by birth. During embryonic and fetal development the heart is exposed to various physiological and potentially pathological changes in the intrauterine environment which dramatically impact on normal cardiac function, tissue composition, and morphology. This paper summarizes the mechanisms employed by the embryonic and fetal heart to adapt to various intrauterine challenges to prevent or minimize postnatal consequences of impaired cardiac development. Future investigations of this growth plasticity might lead to new therapeutic strategies for the prevention of cardiac disease in postnatal life. [source]

Phase II study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Kristie A. Blum
Summary MGCD0103, an orally available class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, was examined for pre-clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). A phase II clinical trial was performed, starting at a dose of 85 mg/d, three times per week. Dose escalation to 110 mg or the addition of rituximab was permitted in patients without a response after two or more cycles. MGCD0103 demonstrated pre-clinical activity against CLL cells with a LC50 (concentration lethal to 50%) of 0·23 ,mol/l and increased acetylation of the HDAC class I specific target histone H3. Twenty-one patients received a median of two cycles of MGCD0103 (range, 0,12). All patients had previously received fludarabine, 33% were fludarabine refractory, and 71% had del(11q22·3) or del(17p13·1). No responses according to the National Cancer Institutes 1996 criteria were observed. Three patients received 110 mg and four patients received concomitant rituximab, with no improvement in response. Grade 3,4 toxicity consisted of infections, thrombocytopenia, anaemia, diarrhoea, and fatigue. HDAC inhibition was observed in six out of nine patients on day 8. Limited activity was observed with single agent MGCD0103 in high risk patients with CLL. Future investigations in CLL should focus on broad HDAC inhibition, combination strategies, and approaches to diminish constitutional symptoms associated with this class of drugs. [source]

Ibudilast: A Non-selective PDE Inhibitor with Multiple Actions on Blood Cells and the Vascular Wall

Yukio Kishi
ABSTRACT Ibudilast (3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine) is a nonselective inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE). It is widely used in Japan for improving prognosis and relieving symptoms in patients suffering from ischemic stroke or bronchial asthma. These clinical applications are based on the properties of ibudilast that inhibit platelet aggregation, improve cerebral blood flow and attenuate allergic reactions. The inhibition of platelet aggregation and vasodilatation by ibudilast may be due to synergistic elevation of intracellular cyclic nucleotides and release of nitric oxide (NO) or prostacyclin from endothelium, rather than direct inhibition of PDE5 or PDE3. Another important property of ibudilast is its antiinflammatory activity possibly associated with potent inhibition of PDE4. Combined with its relaxing effects on bronchial smooth muscle, antiinflammatory actvity of ibudilast could favorably influence pathophysiology of asthma by antagonizing chemical mediators triggering asthmatic attacks. Ibudilast was also reported to significantly attenuate inflammatory cell infiltration in the lumbar spinal cord in an animal model of encephalomyelitis. Future investigations should include effects of ibudilast on inflammatory reactions between endothelium and blood cells, which may initiate the development of atherosclerosis. [source]


Phillip Hellier
The decline in enrolments in economics degrees and majors has been the focus of much concern in recent times. In 2001, two of the current researchers published a paper outlining a framework with which future investigation into the issue could be conducted (Keneley and Hellier 2001). Essentially this paper argued that a market orientated approach, which takes into account the value students and employers place on economics studies may point the way to a solution to the problem. As a first step in developing such an approach it is necessary to determine what employers require of the economics graduates they hire. With the support of the Economics Society of Australia such a survey was conducted in 2002. This paper presents the results of this survey and discusses some of the ramifications for the teaching of undergraduate economics. [source]

Entrepreneurship Research on Network Processes: A Review and Ways Forward

Susanna Slotte-Kock
Although entrepreneurship research on networks has studied issues pertaining to network content, governance and structure, we believe it requires a greater understanding of network processes. In this paper, we review how the entrepreneurship literature interprets and applies the concept of process to the study of networks. This allows us to identify areas for future investigation. Our work is also informed by social network theory and research on dyadic interactions in business networks. The paper concludes by presenting a theoretical framework for conceptualizing and studying the various processes associated with network development. [source]

District magnitude, electoral formula, and the number of parties

Duverger's propositions concerning the psychological and mechanical consequences of electoral rules have previously been examined mainly through the lens of district magnitude, comparing the properties of single,member district plurality elections with those of multimember proportional representation elections. The empirical consequences of multimember plurality (MMP) rules, on the other hand, have received scant attention. Theory suggests that the effect of district magnitude on the number and concentration of parties will differ with regard to whether the allocation rules are plurality,based or proportional. I test this theory by drawing on a uniquely large,sample dataset where district magnitude and electoral formula vary but the basic universe of political parties is held constant, applying regression analysis to data from several thousand Hungarian local bodies elected in 1994 consisting of municipal councils, county councils, and mayors. The results indicate that omitting the variable of electoral formula has the potential to cause significant bias in estimates of Duvergerian consequences of district magnitude. In addition, the analysis of multi,member plurality elections from the local election dataset reveals counter,intuitively that candidate and party entry may increase with district magnitude under MMP, suggesting important directions for future investigation of MMP rules. [source]

Trypanosoma brucei brucei induces alteration in the head proteome of the tsetse fly vector Glossina palpalis gambiensis

T. Lefèvre
Abstract Parasitic manipulations of host behaviour are known from a wide range of host,parasite associations. However, the understanding of these phenomena is far from complete and detailed investigation of their proximate causes is needed. Many studies report behavioural modifications, such as altered feeding rates in tsetse fly (Glossina) infected with the mature transmissible stage (i.e. metacyclic) of the trypanosomes. Here, bidimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were employed to analyse and compare the head proteome between four Glossina palpalis gambiensis categories (uninfected, refractory, mature infection, immature infection). Twenty-four protein spots specifically present or absent in the head of metacyclic-infected flies were observed. These protein spots were subsequently identified and functionally classified as glycolitic, neurotransmiter synthesis, signalling, molecular chaperone and transcriptional regulation proteins. Our results indicate altered energy metabolism in the head of metacyclic-infected tsetse flies. Some of the proteins identified, such as casein kinase 2 and jun kinase have previously been shown to play critical roles in apoptosis in insect neurones. In addition, we found two pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylases (dopa decarboxylase and alpha methyldopa hypersensitive protein), suggesting a modification of serotonin and/or dopamine in the brain of metacyclic-infected tsetse flies. Our data pave the way for future investigation of the alteration of the glossina central nervous system during infection by trypanosomes. [source]

Effect of ethyl icosapentate on urinary calcium and oxalate excretion

Eiji Konya
Background: The effect of ethyl icosapentate (EPA-E) on urinary calcium and oxalic acid excretion was examined to evaluate whether EPA-E is useful in the prevention of calcium-containing urinary stones. Methods: For 6 months, urine was measured daily from 40 calcium-containing urinary stone producers at an outpatient clinic, before and after the administration of 1800 mg/day EPA-E. The urine was measured for volume, urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalic acid and citric acid. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride were also measured. Results: Urinary calcium excretion was not reduced in any of the patients or particular hypercalciuric groups, nor did the level of calcium change. However, nine of the 25 hypercalciuric patients experienced a significant urinary calcium reduction to the normal calciuric level (a reduction of approximately 44%). It is not known why these particular patients experienced a reduction. Urinary oxalic acid did not change, whether hypercalciuria was present or not. Conclusions: These findings suggest that EPA-E is not particularly effective in reducing urinary calcium excretion in the hypercalciuric patients, but it needs future investigation because some patients experienced significant urinary calcium reduction. [source]

Priority research areas for ecosystem services in a changing world

Emily Nicholson
Summary 1.,Ecosystem services are the benefits humans obtain from ecosystems. The importance of research into ecosystem services has been widely recognized, and rapid progress is being made. However, the prevailing approach to quantifying ecosystem services is still based on static analyses and single services, ignoring system dynamics, uncertainty and feedbacks. This is not only partly due to a lack of mechanistic understanding of processes and a dearth of empirical data, but also due to a failure to engage fully with the interdisciplinarity of the problem. 2.,We argue that there is a tendency to ignore the feedbacks between and within both social and ecological systems, and a lack of explicit consideration of uncertainty. Metrics need to be developed that can predict thresholds, which requires strong linkages to underlying processes, while the development of policy for management of ecosystem services needs to be based on a broader understanding of value and drivers of human well-being. 3.,We highlight the complexities, gaps in current knowledge and research, and the potentially promising avenues for future investigation in four priority research areas: agendas, processes, metrics and uncertainty. 4.,Synthesis and applications. The research interest in the field of ecosystem services is rapidly expanding, and can contribute significantly to the sustainable management of natural resources. However, a narrow disciplinary approach, or an approach which does not consider feedbacks within and between ecological and social systems, has the potential to produce dangerously misleading policy recommendations. In contrast, if we explicitly acknowledge and address uncertainties and complexities in the provision of ecosystem services, progress may appear slower but our models will be substantially more robust and informative about the effects of environmental change. [source]

Biochemical aspects of the neuroprotective mechanism of PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1)

Ryan D. Mills
Abstract Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause PARK6 familial Parkinsonism. To decipher the role of PINK1 in pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), researchers need to identify protein substrates of PINK1 kinase activity that govern neuronal survival, and establish whether aberrant regulation and inactivation of PINK1 contribute to both familial Parkinsonism and idiopathic PD. These studies should take into account the several unique structural and functional features of PINK1. First PINK1 is a rare example of a protein kinase with a predicted mitochondrial-targeting sequence and a possible resident mitochondrial function. Second, bioinformatic analysis reveals unique insert regions within the kinase domain that are potentially involved in regulation of kinase activity, substrate selectivity and stability of PINK1. Third, the C-terminal region contains functional motifs governing kinase activity and substrate selectivity. Fourth, accumulating evidence suggests that PINK1 interacts with other signaling proteins implicated in PD pathogenesis and mitochondrial dysfunction. The most prominent examples are the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin, the mitochondrial protease high temperature requirement serine protease 2 and the mitochondrial chaperone tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1. How PINK1 may regulate these proteins to maintain neuronal survival is unclear. This review describes the unique structural features of PINK1 and their possible roles in governing mitochondrial import, processing, kinase activity, substrate selectivity and stability of PINK1. Based upon the findings of previous studies of PINK1 function in cell lines and animal models, we propose a model on the neuroprotective mechanism of PINK1. This model may serve as a conceptual framework for future investigation into the molecular basis of PD pathogenesis. [source]

Organizational commitment, supervisory commitment, and employee outcomes in the Chinese context: proximal hypothesis or global hypothesis?

Bor-Shiuan Cheng
This study examines the relationship between organizational commitment and supervisory commitment (commitment to supervisor) in terms of their effects on employee outcomes in the Chinese context. Based on the principle of compatibility, we hypothesized that organizational commitment and supervisory commitment served as logical mediators (global hypothesis and proximal hypothesis) for predicting organization-relevant and leader-relevant outcomes respectively. Moreover, because of the impact of personalism in Chinese culture, we predicted that supervisory commitment also significantly influenced organization-relevant outcomes, in addition to its effect on leader-relevant outcomes. Two separate questionnaires were administered to 538 subordinates and their supervisors in Taiwanese companies. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical block regression analysis shows that the principle of compatibility and personalism can explain the proposed relationship in this study. Implications and research directions are discussed in light of Chinese culture for future investigation into organizational commitment and supervisory commitment. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Process orientation through enterprise resource planning (ERP): a review of critical issues,

Majed Al-Mashari
The significant development in global information technologies and the ever-intensifying competitive market climate have both pushed many companies to transform their businesses. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is seen as one of the most recently emerging process-orientation tools that can enable such a transformation. Its development has presented both researchers and practitioners with new challenges and opportunities. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state of research in the ERP field relating to process management, organizational change and knowledge management. It surveys current practices, research and development, and suggests several directions for future investigation. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Microvessel Density

Jefferson C. Frisbee
ABSTRACT The growing incidence and prevalence of the overweight/obese condition across developed economies worldwide has an enormous impact on increasing the risk for the development of impaired glycemic control or insulin resistance and ultimately peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in afflicted individuals. This places an enormous economic and social burden on these societies, in terms of additional health care costs and lost productivity and through a reduction in the quality of life of the individual owing, in part, to the progressive PVD. Characterized by an inability of the vascular systems to adequately perfuse tissues and organs relative to their metabolic demand, PVD is in part a function of a structural remodeling of the microvascular networks such that the density of microvessel and capillaries within tissues is reduced below that under normal conditions, with the potential for profound negative impacts on the processes of mass transport and exchange. The review discusses the severity of the obesity "epidemic" from the perspective of PVD and the effects of the development of the obese, insulin-resistant condition on tissue/organ microvessel density. Additional material is reviewed that addresses ameliorative treatments, primarily exercise training, on blunting microvessel loss in the obese, insulin-resistant individual, and on potential mechanistic contributors that warrant considerable future investigation. [source]