Fuller Understanding (fuller + understanding)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Disease, deficit or denial?

Models of poor insight in psychosis
Objective:, To examine the evidence for the three kinds of aetiological model that dominate the current literature on poor insight in psychosis: clinical models, the neuropsychological model, and the psychological denial model. Method:, Studies pertaining to one or more of these aetiological models were identified, reviewed and critically evaluated. Results:, There is little support for clinical models, partly because they lack testable hypotheses. Several studies reveal a positive relationship between insight and executive function, which may be related to frontal lobe dysfunction. However, the extent to which this relationship is specific and independent of general cognitive impairment remains unclear. There is tentative evidence to support the psychological denial model. Recent data combining the latter two approaches suggest that multiple factors contribute to poor insight. Conclusion:, Integration of different aetiological models is necessary for a fuller understanding of insight in psychosis. Future research should assess multiple aetiological mechanisms in single investigations. [source]

Comparing the solid phase and saline extract Microtox® assays for two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

Carolyn M. Acheson
Abstract The performance of remedial teatments is typically evaluated by measuring the concentration of specific chemicals. By adding toxicity bioassays to treatment evaluations, a fuller understanding of treatment performance is obtained. The solid phase Microtox® assay is a useful tool in characterizing the toxicity of contaminated soils and sediments. This study compares the performance of the solid phase and saline extract Microtox assays in two experiments using two soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The first experiment, conducted to refine the solid phase assay procedures, evaluated sample holding times, sample replication, and reference toxicant controls. The effective concentration reducing light emission by 50% (EC50) of four samples was measured with eight replicates of each sample. Samples were stored for as long as two weeks without showing substantial changes in toxicity. For future studies, three replicates of each sample are recommended because that degree of replication yielded a statistical power of more than 95% in most samples. Phenol was a reliable reference toxicant with a mean EC50 of 21.76 and a 95% confidence interval of 15.6 to 27.9 mg/L. In a second experiment, the solid phase Microtox assay was compared to saline extract Microtox assays with mixing times ranging from 5 min to 16 h. The solid phase assay was more sensitive yielding EC50s 7 to 50 times lower than the extract EC50s. In addition, the saline extract assays displayed results that varied for mixing times of less than 2 h. Based on these two experiments, the solid phase Microtox test has proved to be a useful assay for measuring the toxicity of PAH-contaminated soils. [source]

Spinoza on the Problem of Akrasia

Eugene Marshall
Though each is intuitive in a certain way, they both fail as explanations of the most interesting cases of akrasia. Spinoza's own thoughts on bondage and the affects follow, from which a Spinozist explanation of akrasia is constructed. This account is based in Spinoza's mechanistic psychology of cognitive affects. Because Spinoza's account explains action asissuing from modes of mind that are both cognitive and affective, it captures the intuitions that motivate the two traditional views while avoiding the pitfalls that result from their one-sided approaches. This project will allow us a fuller understanding of Spinozist moral psychology. In addition to this historical value, the Spinozist theory may offer a satisfactory explanation of certain hard cases of akrasia while avoiding the problems be set by other theories. For this reason, the Spinozist account could also be seen as a useful contribution to our philosophical understanding of the phenomenon of akrasia. [source]

Foreign firms in China: modelling HRM in a toy manufacturing corporation

Fang Lee Cooke
This article reports the study of a large, wholly foreign-owned toy factory in China. It explores whether foreign direct investment (FDI) manufacturing firms in China inevitably operate in a Taylorist fashion, in contrast to the much praised HR model of blue chip multinational corporations (MNCs) in the country, or whether there is a ,third way' in which good HR practices may be adopted on the ground. The article concludes that a more nuanced approach is needed in our study of FDI companies in order to gain a fuller understanding of the institutional and cultural factors at play and of the consequent diversity in the HR and employment practices of FDI firms, instead of being trapped in a simplistic and polarising typological framework of analysis. This study is necessary in light of the growing diversity in the patterns of FDI companies operating in China in terms of their ownership structure, product market, management style and HR strategy, both for managers and for workers. [source]

Client-Situated Architectural Practice: Implications for Architectural Education

Brian Schermer
The rising proportion of architects who work as in-house employees of large client organizations represents an important shift in the pattern of architectural employment. Client-situated practice presents new challenges for architects that they do not otherwise face in more traditional work settings. This research attempts to provide, through a case study of one group of in-house architects, a fuller understanding of the nature of this form of work. The study uses a community of practice perspective to shed light on how the architects fit within the client's organizational structure and hierarchy, the practical actions and strategies of the architects and others who are involved in building design, and the material and social context in which the architectural work is situated. After comparison with traditional practice, this article offers suggestions for preparing students for this growing form of architectural employment. [source]

Duiker demography and dispersal under hunting in Northern Congo

Miranda H. Mockrin
Abstract Duikers are the most heavily hunted species across forested Central and West Africa. Although these species form a vital food resource for people, little is known about their ecology and demography. The information available to date was collected from populations protected from hunting. However, hunting can profoundly alter demography and behaviour, such as dispersal, which in turn determine the sustainability of harvest. To address this research gap, I used radiotelemetry to examine duiker demography under hunting in Congo-Brazzaville. Among blue duikers (Philantoba monticola, n = 17) I found annual survival rates (0.94), immature dispersal rates (0.25), and average home ranges (5.5 ha) that largely coincided with previous research from unhunted regions. Neighbouring animals all showed some home range overlap, in contrast to previous studies which found blue duikers to be strictly territorial. Although limited by sample size, immature animals' dispersal distances were relatively high (1.5 km, n = 2). Animals' dispersal rates do not appear to be greatly increased by hunting pressure, although source-sink theory depends upon high rates of dispersal to maintain the elevated and localized hunting offtakes observed around settlements. Building a fuller understanding of duiker demography under hunting, including dispersal, will be essential for conservation and management efforts. Résumé Les céphalophes sont les espèces les plus chassées dans les forêts d'Afrique centrale et de l'Ouest. Bien que ces espèces constituent une source de nourriture vitale pour les populations, on sait peu de choses de leur écologie et de leur démographie. Les informations disponibles à ce jour ont été récoltées chez des populations protégées contre la chasse, or la chasse peut modifier considérablement la démographie et le comportement, comme la dispersion, qui à leur tour déterminent la durabilité de la chasse. Pour combler ce manque de données, j'ai eu recours à la radio-télémétrie pour étudier la démographie des céphalophes soumis à la pression de la chasse au Congo Brazzaville. Chez les céphalophes bleus (P. monticola, n = 17), j'ai trouvé un taux de survie annuel (0.94), un taux de dispersion des immatures (0.25) et un domaine vital moyen (5.5 ha) qui coïncidaient en grande partie avec des études antérieures portant sur des régions sans chasse. Les animaux voisins présentaient tous un certain degré de recouvrement des domaines vitaux, contrairement aux études précédentes qui avaient trouvé que les céphalophes bleus étaient strictement territoriaux. Bien que la taille de l'échantillon soit limitée, les distances de dispersion des animaux immatures étaient relativement grandes (1.5 km, n = 2). Le taux de dispersion des animaux ne semble pas être fort accru par la pression de la chasse bien que la théorie source-sink dépende de taux de dispersion élevés pour pouvoir maintenir les prélèvements locaux importants constatés autour des installations. Il sera essentiel d'arriver à une compréhension plus complète de la démographie des céphalophes soumis à la chasse, y compris de leur dispersion, pour orienter les efforts de conservation et de gestion. [source]

Dissecting Damages: An Empirical Exploration of Sexual Harassment Awards

Catherine M. Sharkey
My empirical study first replicates and then extends a prior preliminary empirical study by Cass Sunstein and Judy Shih of sexual harassment damages awards. It covers a comprehensive set of 232 cases in which plaintiffs won some positive amount of compensatory damages from state and federal, trial and appellate court decisions from 1982,2004 (published either in official reporters or solely on Westlaw). Contrary to Sunstein and Shih's finding, my analysis of these data reveals a consistent, and statistically significant, positive relationship between punitive and compensatory damages (at least in cases where punitive damages are awarded). My new empirical study then employs dependent variables that, in my view, are more theoretically and statistically sound than those employed by Sunstein and Shih and others who have focused exclusively on the relationship between punitive and compensatory damages: total combined damages (i.e., all compensatory and punitive damages), and what I term "outrage" damages, or combined noneconomic compensatory and punitive damages. My empirical results, using these new dependent variables, essentially confirm Sunstein and Shih's conclusions regarding the irrelevance of variables pertaining to the nature and severity of harassment. What my study reveals as crucial predictive factors, by contrast, are factors pertaining to damages limitations. My study highlights that these factors,including the effect of the 1991 Civil Rights Act, and whether plaintiffs append state civil rights and tort claims to their Title VII claims,are critical to a fuller understanding of damages determinations in sexual harassment cases. [source]

Mapping global inequalities: Beyond income inequality to multi-dimensional inequalities

Ben Crow
Abstract Current discussions of global inequality are trapped by their core reliance on measures of income. While our field has become ever-knowledgeable on poverty's multi-faceted nature (e.g. the Human Development Index, based on Sen and other's work on the capabilities approach), discussions and debates over global inequalities give short shrift to measurements and understandings of inequality beyond income. The papers in this issue all lend insight to how we may start the long-term process of moving beyond income inequality to re-think common understandings of inequality and to present new questions and opportunities in order to work towards a fuller understanding of the shape and pathways of global inequalities. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Riparian vegetation-environment relationships: complimentarity of gradients versus patch hierarchy approaches

Alan L. van Coller
Arnold & de Wet (1993) Abstract. Two prominent conceptual frameworks, environmental gradients and patch hierarchies, are used in combination to describe vegetation patterns along a riparian corridor in a semi-arid South African system. We adopt both approaches, since riparian corridors are characterized by both strong environmental gradients above, away from and along the river, as well as a mosaic of patches in the geomorphology at multiple hierarchical scales. Constrained and unconstrained ordinations were used to determine the variability in vegetation pattern accounted for by the gradient and the geomorphic patch hierarchy data sets. The gradient data set consisted of vertical, lateral and longitudinal dimensions of the macro-channel, while the patch hierarchy data set consisted of substratum type, morphological unit and channel type. Elevation up the macro-channel bank, of the gradient data set, explained the main variation in vegetation pattern, and alluded to overriding processes of flooding frequency and water availability as determinants of vegetation pattern. Along the fluvially dynamic macro-channel floor (lower elevation range), patchiness at the scale of the morphological unit best explained vegetation pattern. This relationship with morphological units suggests that the formation of well developed alluvial bars, and the degree of bedrock influence are important processes. The nested hierarchical framework used provided a good basis for identifying scale specific pattern in a relational manner. In systems characterized by strong environmental gradients as well as a patch mosaic at different spatial and temporal scales, the combined use of both perspectives to develop a fuller understanding of vegetation pattern is imperative and is encouraged. [source]

Interaction between hepatitis B and C viruses in hepatocellular carcinogenesis

M. C. Kew
Summary., Although hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses (HCV) are, individually, major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma, the interaction, if any, between the carcinogenic effects of the two viruses is uncertain. Equal numbers of published studies have reported no risk interaction or a synergistic risk interaction. These conflicting results are explained by the rarity of concurrent infection with HBV and HCV in individuals without clinically evident liver disease, which severely limits the ability to accurately estimate the hepatocarcinogenic risk of dual infection compared with that of either infection alone. In an attempt to circumvent this difficulty, two meta-analyses have been performed, one based on studies published from a number of countries and the other on studies confined to Chinese patients. Both analyses concluded that a synergistic carcinogenic interaction existed between the two viruses and that the increased risk was super-additive but not multiplicative. If confirmed, this risk interaction will occur against a background of negative confounding effects on viral replication between HBV and HCV, which may be reciprocal. The mechanisms responsible for the carcinogenic interaction between the viruses are unknown. One possibility is that the increased incidence of cirrhosis with concurrent HBV and HCV infections acts as an even more potent tumour promoter than occurs with either virus alone. Synergism between the direct hepatocarcinogenic effects of the two viruses is another possible mechanism, but proof will have to await a fuller understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved with the individual viruses. [source]

Towards a fuller understanding of mosquito behaviour: use of electrocuting grids to compare the odour-orientated responses of Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus in the field

Abstract The epidemiological role of and control options for any mosquito species depend on its degree of ,anthropophily'. However, the behavioural basis of this term is poorly understood. Accordingly, studies in Zimbabwe quantified the effects of natural odours from cattle and humans, and synthetic components of these odours, on the attraction, entry and landing responses of Anopheles arabiensis Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald. The numbers of mosquitoes attracted to human or cattle odour were compared using electrocuting nets (E-nets), and entry responses were gauged by the catch from an odour-baited entry trap (OBET) relative to that from an odour-baited E-net. Landing responses were estimated by comparing the catches from E-nets and cloth targets covered with an electrocuting grid. For An. arabiensis, E-nets baited with odour from a single ox or a single man caught similar numbers, and increasing the dose of human odour from one to three men increased the catch four-fold. For An. quadriannulatus, catches from E-nets increased up to six-fold in the progression: man, three men, ox, and man + ox, with catch being correlated with bait mass. Entry responses of An. arabiensis were stronger with human odour (entry response 62%) than with ox odour (6%) or a mixture of cattle and human odours (15%). For An. quadriannulatus, the entry response was low (< 2%) with both cattle and human odour. Anopheles arabiensis did not exhibit a strong entry response to carbon dioxide (CO2) (0.2,2 L/min). The trends observed using OBETs and E-nets also applied to mosquitoes approaching and entering a hut. Catches from an electrocuting target baited with either CO2 or a blend of acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-methylphenol and 3-n-propylphenol , components of natural ox odour , showed that virtually all mosquitoes arriving there alighted on it. The propensity of An. arabiensis to enter human habitation seemed to be mediated by odours other than CO2 alone. Characterizing ,anthropophily' by comparing the numbers of mosquitoes caught by traps baited with different host odours can lead to spurious conclusions; OBETs baited with human odour caught around two to four times more An. arabiensis than cattle-baited OBETs, whereas a human-baited E-net caught less (, 0.7) An. arabiensis than a cattle-baited E-net. Similar caution is warranted for other species of mosquito vectors. A fuller understanding of how to exploit mosquito behaviour for control and surveys requires wider approaches and more use of appropriate tools. [source]


Abstract:, Isolated lobopodian plates are reported from Early Cambrian strata at five localities in southern China. A wide variety of morphologies is represented, reflecting a considerable diversification within the phylum at this time. The new taxon Microdictyon jinshaense is erected and new observations are recorded on established taxa, based on examination of more than 600 well-preserved plates; irregular patterns of node distribution and the presence of large spines are documented on some taxa for the first time. Rare specimens in which two plates are conjoined, with a larger plate underlying a smaller one, are interpreted as showing a new sclerite emerging underneath its predecessor, which has not yet been moulted. These specimens confirm the process of ecdysis in the lobopodians and contribute to a fuller understanding of the ontogeny of these organisms. A functional hypothesis that suggests that the plates were complex visual structures is refuted; it is possible that they were sites of muscle attachment, but a protective role is regarded as more plausible. [source]

From the Bottom Up: The Ramifications of the History of the New Jersey Committee for a SANE Nuclear Policy

PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 1 2003
Allen Smith
Local SANE activists, like the rest of the peace movement of the late fifties and early sixties, were more left and more female than heretofore understood. By contrast, national SANE's largely male, social,democratic leadership was more isolated and more autocratic than earlier portraits have acknowledged. The divisions of May 1960 arose with the group's founding and lasted into the new decade. However, one cannot understand the divisions, and thus understand the actual history of SANE, without studying the local level. New Jersey SANE, which was always SANE's most vibrant chapter, provides the lens through which this paper contributes to that fuller understanding. [source]

How much can cladistics tell us about early hominid relationships?

John Hawks
Abstract Although cladistic analysis has been used to compare hypotheses of relationships among early hominids, the outcomes of different studies have depended entirely on the assumptions made by different investigators. Problems include the close genetic relationship of early hominid taxa, small fossil sample sizes, possible correlations among characters, and a lack of understanding about the evolutionary factors affecting characters. This study investigates the interaction of some of these problems affecting early hominid phylogenetics. Monte Carlo simulations of character state evolution in closely related taxa demonstrate that the sample sizes and close genetic relationships of early hominids do not permit cladistic analyses to obtain unequivocal results. Even with unrealistically good assumptions about the evolutionary dynamics affecting characters, the probability of the most parsimonious hypothesis being true is unacceptably small. In the face of these problems, even phylogenetic statements that are supported by a strong consensus of cladistic studies may nevertheless be in error, and such errors are likely to confound the placement of new specimens and taxa. Advancement in our knowledge of hominid phylogeny can depend only on a fuller understanding of the natural history and evolutionary dynamics of traits. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

On the Use of Allelic Transmission Rates for Assessing Gene-by-Environment Interaction in Case-Parent Trios

Ji-Hyung Shin
Summary Allelic transmission rates from parents to cases are frequently stratified by an environmental risk factor E and compared, with heterogeneity interpreted as gene-environment interaction or G×E. Though generally invalid, such analyses continue to appear. We revisit why heterogeneity is not equivalent to G×E in a range of settings not considered previously. The objective is a fuller understanding of the bias in transmission rates and what is driving it. Extending previously published findings, we derive parental mating-type probabilities in cases and use them to obtain transmission rates, which we then compare to G×E. Through simulation, we investigate the practical implications of the bias for a transmission-based test of G×E. We find that general population characteristics distort the picture of G×E obtained from transmission rates: the stratum-specific mating-type probabilities under G , E dependence and the allele frequency under independence. Furthermore, the transmission-based test has inflated error rates relative to a likelihood-based test. Our investigation provides further insight into how and why transmission-based tests and descriptive summaries can mislead about G×E. For exploring G×E, we suggest graphical displays of the transmission rates within parental mating types, as they are robust to population stratification and the penetrance model. [source]

Roche tomography of the secondary stars in CVs

C. A. Watson
Abstract The secondary stars in cataclysmic variables (CVs) are key to our understanding of the origin, evolution and behaviour of this class of interacting binary. In seeking a fuller understanding of these objects, the challenge for observers is to obtain images of the secondary star. This goal can be achieved through Roche tomography, an indirect imaging technique that can be used to map the Roche-lobe-filling secondary. The review begins with a description of the basic principles that underpin Roche tomography, including methods for determining the system parameters. Finally, we conclude with a look at the main scientific highlights to date, including the first unambiguous detection of starspots on AE Aqr B, and consider the future prospects of this technique. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Sexual selection: an evolutionary force in plants?

ABSTRACT Sexual selection has traditionally been used to explain exaggerated sexual traits in male animals. Today the concept has been developed and various other sexually related traits have been suggested to evolve in the same manner. In nearly all new areas where the theory of sexual selection has been applied, there has been an intense debate as to whether the application is justified. Is it the case that some scientists are all too ready to employ fashionable ideas? Or are there too many dogmatic researchers refusing to accept that science develops and old ideas are transformed? Maybe the controversies are simply a reflection of the difficulty of defining a theory under constant re-evaluation. Thus, we begin by summarizing the theory of sexual selection in order to assess the influence of sexual selection on the evolution of plant morphology. We discuss empirical findings concerning potentially affected traits. Although we have tried to address criticisms fairly, we still conclude that sexual selection can be a useful tool when studying the evolution of reproductive traits in plants. Furthermore, by including the evidence from an additional kingdom, a fuller understanding of the processes involved in sexual selection can be gained. [source]

Explaining differences in birthweight between ethnic populations.

The Generation R Study
Objective, To examine whether differences in birthweight of various ethnic groups residing in the Netherlands can be explained by determinants of birthweight. Design, Population-based birth cohort study. Setting, Data of pregnant women and their partners in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Population, We examined data of 6044 pregnant women with a Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, Capeverdean, Antillean, Surinamese-Creole, Surinamese-Hindustani and Surinamese-other ethnic background. Methods, Regression analyses were used to assess the impact of biomedical, socio-demographic and lifestyle-related determinants on birthweight differences. Main outcome measure, Birthweight was established immediately after delivery in grams. Results, Compared with mean birthweight of offspring of Dutch women (3485 g, SD 555), the mean birthweight was lower in all non-Dutch populations, except in Moroccans. Differences ranged from an 88-g lower birthweight in offspring of the Turkish women to a 424-g lower birthweight in offspring of Surinamese-Hindustani women. Differences in gestational age, maternal and paternal height largely explained the lower birthweight in the Turkish, Antillean, Surinamese-Creole and Surinamese-other populations. Differences in birthweight between the Dutch and the Capeverdean and Surinamese-Hindustani populations could only partly be explained by the studied determinants. Conclusions, These results confirm significant differences in birthweight between ethnic populations that can only partly be understood from established determinants of birthweight. The part that is understood points to the importance of determinants that cannot easily be modified, such as parental height. Further study is necessary to obtain a fuller understanding. [source]