Friendships

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Friendships

  • close friendship
  • male friendship
  • same-gender friendship

  • Terms modified by Friendships

  • friendship groups
  • friendship network
  • friendship quality

  • Selected Abstracts


    SACRAMENTAL SUFFERING: THE FRIENDSHIP OF FLANNERY O'CONNOR AND ELIZABETH HESTER1

    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    RALPH C. WOOD
    As the only orthodox Christian writer the American nation has yet produced, Flannery O'Connor created a remarkable body of fiction rooted in a profoundly sacramental theology. The depth of O'Connor's sacramentalism has recently been revealed with the opening of her remarkable letters to Elizabeth Hester, her most important epistolary friend. Their eleven-year correspondence centers upon two inseparable matters: conversion and suffering. The aim of this essay is to explore how the gift (or refusal) of faith comes through the embrace (or rejection) of a participation in God's own life through a life of sacramental suffering. [source]


    RESTRICTIVE CONSEQUENTIALISM AND REAL FRIENDSHIP

    RATIO, Issue 2 2007
    Edmund Henden
    A familiar objection to restrictive consequentialism is that a restrictive consequentialist is incapable of having true friendships. In this paper I distinguish between an instrumentalist and a non-instrumentalist version of this objection and argue that while the restrictive consequentialist can answer the non-instrumentalist version, restrictive consequentialism may still seem vulnerable to the instrumentalist version. I then suggest a consequentialist reply that I argue also works against this version of the objection. Central to this reply is the claim that a restrictive consequentialist is capable of true friendship if the value she aims for is not merely seen as a function of her self-regarding desires, but includes as a central constituent a form of objective value often referred to as ,flourishing' or ,self-realization'.1 [source]


    FRIENDSHIP, THE KISS OF DEATH, AND GOD: H. RICHARD NIEBUHR AND JACQUES DERRIDA ON THE OTHER

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    ZACHARY SIMPSON
    First page of article [source]


    A Pride of Museums in the Desert: Saudi Arabia and the "Gift of Friendship" Exhibition

    CURATOR THE MUSEUM JOURNAL, Issue 1 2005
    John Coppola
    ABSTRACT The task of developing and presenting an exhibition at the King Abdul Aziz Historical Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia illustrates the challenges of museum work in a global environment filled with widely differing social, cultural, political, and professional norms. The exhibition, The Gift of Friendship, was largely drawn from the collections of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, in New York State. Saudi Arabia and its neighboring countries view museums as a source of national pride and public engagement, and frequently draw on Western expertise in building them. There are implications for exhibition development and interpretation in a society undergoing rapid modernization, but also one noted for an aversion to social science research. A postscript looks at museum trends in Oman, after 9/11 and the Iraq war. [source]


    An Economic Model of Friendship: Homophily, Minorities, and Segregation

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 4 2009
    Sergio Currarini
    We develop a model of friendship formation that sheds light on segregation patterns observed in social and economic networks. Individuals have types and see type-dependent benefits from friendships. We examine the properties of a steady-state equilibrium of a matching process of friendship formation. We use the model to understand three empirical patterns of friendship formation: (i) larger groups tend to form more same-type ties and fewer other-type ties than small groups, (ii) larger groups form more ties per capita, and (iii) all groups are biased towards same-type relative to demographics, with the most extreme bias coming from middle-sized groups. We show how these empirical observations can be generated by biases in preferences and biases in meetings. We also illustrate some welfare implications of the model. [source]


    Fantasies of Friendship in The Faerie Queene, Book IV

    ENGLISH LITERARY RENAISSANCE, Issue 2 2007
    Melissa E. Sanchez
    For such members of the Sidney-Essex circle as Spenser, who supported monarchy as such but were uneasy about a number of specific policies, what historians have described as a move in the 1590s away from mid-century conciliar theories generated anxiety about the status of the nobility and the future of Protestantism. The erotic relations of the 1596 edition of The Faerie Queene register such concerns about the absolutist rhetoric of the last fifteen years of Elizabeth's reign, most noticeably in the revised ending of Book III. Whereas the 1590 Book of Chastity concludes with Scudamour and Amoret merging into a hermaphroditic figure of mutual devotion, the 1596 version replaces this scene of conjugal bliss with a protracted narrative of Scudamour's despairing suspicion and Amoret's continued affliction. The nature of Amoret's loyalty, moreover, is itself complicated by the concluding cantos of Book IV, which reveal that the husband for whom she has willingly suffered was in fact the first of her assailants. The disproportion between Amoret's fidelity and Scudamour's desert in the 1596 versions of Books III and IV suggests that idealized equations of love, virtue, and suffering may have lulled Amoret into complicity in her own abuse. This revision is thus crucial to Spenser's project of fashioning a virtuous subject, for in apprehending the discrepancy between idealized narratives of mutual devotion and actual structures of unilateral sacrifice, the reader of The Faerie Queene may likewise come to recognize and resist the contradictions and inequities of late sixteenth-century political practice. [source]


    Between Medieval Men: Male Friendship and Desire in Early Medieval English Literature by David Clark

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2010
    CLARE A. LEES
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Civility, Male Friendship, and Masonic Sociability in Nineteenth-Century Germany

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2001
    Stefan-Ludwig Hoffmann
    Largely neglected by historians who assume that its heyday passed in Europe with the demise of the Old Regime, Freemasonry in fact became a mass phenomenon among German (and French as well as American) middle-class men in the nineteenth century. Masonic secrecy made possible a form of sociability which allowed men to experience intimate relations with each other. Within the lodge, men could experience the emotional drama of the rituals while, both in public and in the family, men increasingly sought to comply with the ideal of a man ruled by reason. Masonic rituals entailed the implicit message that the most important presupposition for civility, moral improvement and a ,brotherhood of all men' was male friendship. [source]


    My Scientific Collaboration and Fraternal Friendship with Giambattista Consiglio

    HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 8 2006
    Franco Morandini
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Friendship as a moderator of the relationship between social skills problems and peer victimisation

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 2 2006
    Claire L. Fox
    Abstract Previous research, primarily in North America, has found that individual factors (e.g., ,internalising problems') and social factors (e.g., friendship) interact to influence children's levels of peer victimisation. Some research has found that the identity of children's friends and friendship quality (as ,protective factors') are more important than the sheer number of friends. However, studies have produced conflicting findings. A peer nomination inventory was used to assess social skills problems, peer victimisation, peer acceptance, and several different aspects of friendship. Four hundred and forty-nine children aged 9 to 11 years completed the inventory at two time points over the course of an academic year. Social skills problems were found to predict an increase in peer victimisation over time. Two friendship variables were found to moderate this relationship: a) number of friends, and b) the peer acceptance of the very best-friend. The relationship was found to be weaker for those children with lots of friends and for those children with a ,popular' best-friend. The findings advance understanding of the factors that promote peer victimisation. Aggr. Behav. 32:110,121, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    In vitro Selection for Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Gladiolus

    JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Idrees Ahmad Nasir
    Abstract Cormels pieces of four Fusarium susceptible Gladiolus cultivars (Friendship, Peter Pears, Victor Borge and Novalux) formed friable calli when cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing various concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. The friable calli established cell suspensions. Plantlet regeneration was obtained from the control callus, control cell suspension derived callus and in vitro selected Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. resistant cell-lines of Friendship. The in vitro cormlets showed 85,95% germination after breaking dormancy of 8 weeks at 4 C. Cell suspensions of all four Gladiolus cultivars were found to be highly sensitive to fusaric acid. Gradual increase in fusaric acid concentrations to the cell-suspension cultures decreased cell growth considerably. One albino plant was found from the second generation of the in vitro selected cell line of Friendship. The albino plant was found to be highly susceptible to F. oxysporum. The cormlets of all in vitro selected cell lines of Friendship were inoculated with a conidial suspension of the F. oxysporum before planting and were also sprayed with the same spore suspension for further characterization when the height of plants was about 6 cm. The four selected cell lines showed the same response whether or not they were inoculated with conidia of the F. oxysporum. Plantlets of all of the selected cell lines exhibited significant growth as compared with the control after application of conidia of the F. oxysporum. [source]


    Friendship in practice: Girls' work in the Indian Himalayas

    AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Issue 3 2010
    JANE DYSON
    ABSTRACT In this article, I examine the relationship between friendship, cultural production, and social reproduction through reference to the everyday practices of girls working in the Indian Himalayas. I build on 15 months of ethnographic research in the village of Bemni, Uttarakhand. Focusing especially on girls' work collecting leaves, I stress the importance of contextualizing friendship with reference to lived everyday actions and environments. Friendship among girls in Bemni is a contradictory resource: a medium through which girls reproduce gendered norms and a basis for improvised cultural practice and effective cooperation. [source]


    Friendship with God and the Transformation of Patronage in the Thought of John Chrysostom

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 998 2004
    Michael Sherwin OP
    [source]


    The Value in Friendship

    PHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATIONS, Issue 1 2003
    Roderick T. Long
    Why do we value friendship? No explanation that appeals to values external to friendship will be a satisfactory answer to this question. [source]


    Friendship and Reasons of Intimacy

    PHILOSOPHY AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2001
    DIANE JESKE
    Reasons of intimacy, i.e. reasons to care for friends and other intimates, resist categorization as either subjective Humean reasons or as objective consequentialist reasons. Reasons of intimacy are grounded in the friendship relation itself. not in the psychological attitudes of the agent or in the objective intrinsic value of the friend or the friendship. So reasons of intimacy are objective and agent-relative and can be understood by analogy with reasons of fidelity and reasons of prudence. Such an analogy can help us to understand which objective agent-relative reasons we have and which, such as deontological constraints, we do not have. [source]


    Friendship, Identity, and Solidarity.

    RATIO JURIS, Issue 3 2003
    An Approach to Rights in Plant Closing Cases
    My focus is on the problem of plant closings, which have become increasingly common as the deindustrialization of America has proceeded since the early 1980s. In a well-known article, Joseph William Singer proposed that workers who sued to keep a plant open in the face of a planned closure might appropriately be regarded as possessing a reliance-based interest in the plant that merited some protection. I seek to extend this sort of argument in two ways. In the first half of the paper, I point to the way in which "tacit obligation" emerges in friendship between persons in the absence of explicit commitments. Employers and employees are of course not as such friends. But I argue that the development of tacit obligations binding friends provides a useful analogy for understanding the growth of similar tacit obligations binding plant owners to workers and local communities. In the second half, I draw on Margaret Radin's work on property and identity to ground a related argument. I suggest that the potential contribution of plants,and the traditions and networks of relationships they help to create and sustain,to the identities of workers and communities provides reason for at least some legal protection of employee and community interests. [source]


    Friendship and immortality: Holbein's Ambassadors revisited

    RENAISSANCE STUDIES, Issue 4 2004
    Kate Bomford
    First page of article [source]


    James Monroeand John Adams: An Unlikely"Friendship"

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 3 2005
    Arthur Scherr
    First page of article [source]


    Dyadic Analyses of Friendship in a Sample of Preschool-Age Children Attending Head Start: Correspondence between Measures and Implications for Social Competence

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2001
    Brian E. Vaughn
    Friendships among a large sample of preschool-age children (N= 471) attending Head Start were assessed. Based on sociometric data, friendship dyads were identified as reciprocated (mutual choice) or nonreciprocated (unilateral choice). Dyads were further classified with respect to gender composition as either same- or mixed-gender dyads. Older children were more likely to participate in a reciprocated friendship than were younger children and reciprocated dyads were more likely to be same-gender than were nonreciprocated dyads. Analyses of interaction between dyad partners revealed that reciprocated friends interacted more frequently across all categories of interaction coded and looked at each other more frequently than did members of nonreciprocated dyads. For the positive interaction subscore, the friendship status effect was modified by a significant interaction with gender composition such that significant effects of friendship status were obtained only for same-gender dyads. Additional analyses indicated that the average social competence level was greater for reciprocated dyads than for nonreciprocated dyads. The findings suggest that reciprocated friendships are meaningful for preschool-age children and may serve as special socialization contexts in which the repertoire of behavior can be exercised and perhaps improved. They also highlight the salience of same-gender friendships in the preschool classroom. [source]


    Building Walls Instead of Building Friendships

    DIALOG, Issue 3 2008
    Else Marie Wiberg Pedersen
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Temperament and the Quality of Best Friendships: Effect of Same-Sex Sibling Relationships,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2002
    J. Kelly McCoy
    The authors examined whether early adolescents' sibling relationships ameliorate the effects of a difficult temperament on best friendships, exploring whether qualities of early adolescents' sibling relationships would moderate the link between temperamental difficulties and best friendship quality. Data were collected at two points. At first collection, parents provided temperament ratings for 73 later-born siblings (M= 7 years). Five years later, adolescents provided information about support and discord present in their best friendships and older siblings provided information about the warmth and conflict in their same-sex sibling dyads. The hypothesized moderating effect of the sibling relationship was found only for early adolescent girls. Support and discord in girls' best friendships was negatively and positively predicted, respectively, by level of temperamental difficulty only when relationships with their older sisters were lower in warmth or higher in conflict. Implications for understanding and improving early adolescents' closest friendships are discussed. [source]


    Working at Intimacy: Gay Men's Workplace Friendships

    GENDER, WORK & ORGANISATION, Issue 1 2008
    Nick Rumens
    Despite scholarly efforts to challenge the dualistic stereotype of men as rational and women as emotion experts, academics have paid little attention to the issues that arise when gay and lesbian sexualities are introduced into such debates. This article highlights the heterosexist content of much of the research on gender, emotion and organization, and argues the relevancy of investigating the largely neglected topic of intimacy and friendship in the work lives of gay men. Engaging with feminist, queer and sociological research that examines friendship in the lives of individuals who belong to sexual minority groups, I explore in this study the diversity in the way gay men find and work out intimacy in the context of workplace friendships with other gay men and with heterosexual men and women. The data for this article are drawn from in-depth interviews with ten gay men employed in one UK National Health Service Trust. Study findings problematize conceptualizations of friendships at work as being bereft of intimacy, of little value and clearly distinguishable from business relationships. Dichotomous modes of thinking about the impact of gender and sexuality on intimacy and friendship are also challenged. [source]


    Parental Behavior and the Quality of Adolescent Friendships: A Social-Contextual Perspective

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 3 2002
    Ming Cui
    On the basis of an evolving social-contextual perspective, the authors predicted and found that socioeconomic advantage in terms of income and parental education promotes supportive and inhibits hostile parental behaviors toward an adolescent child (N= 221). These parental behaviors predicted similar actions by the child toward a close friend 4 years later. In turn adolescent supportiveness promoted close friendship ties, whereas hostility diminished the quality of friendships. The results support the notion that, to a significant degree, the quality of family interactions: (a) arises from the social context surrounding the family, (b) is transmitted across generations, and (c) has a demonstrable impact on the quality of adolescents' social ties outside the family. [source]


    Adolescent Perceptions of Conflict in Interdependent and Disengaged Friendships

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 3 2002
    Shmuel Shulman
    Interdependent and disengaged friendships in a middle-class sample of suburban Israeli adolescents were examined for differences in reports of conflict behavior. A total of 194 (100 females, and 94 males) close, reciprocal friends participated in a joint problem-solving task used to categorize friendships. Interdependent friends balanced closeness and individuality by cooperating on the task, whereas disengaged friends emphasized individuality by working independently on the task. In separate interviews, these friends recounted their most important conflict from the previous week. Older adolescents (M= 17.4 years) reported more conflicts over private disrespect than did younger adolescents (M= 12.7 years), whereas younger adolescents reported more conflicts over public disrespect and undependability than did older adolescents. Differences between friendship types in conflict initiation, negative affect, and relationship impact were found among older adolescents but not younger adolescents; differences in conflict resolutions were found in both age groups. In contrast to disengaged friends, interdependent friends were better able to manage conflicts in a manner that emphasized relationship harmony over individual gain. [source]


    The role of friendship in adolescents' sense of school belonging

    NEW DIRECTIONS FOR CHILD & ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT, Issue 107 2005
    Jill V. Hamm
    Friendships serve as a secure base and buffer that help adolescents to cope with the psychological challenges of the social ecology of high school. Through these relationships, adolescents develop a stronger sense of belonging to their schools. [source]


    Language, Social Behavior, and the Quality of Friendships in Adolescents With and Without a History of Specific Language Impairment

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2007
    Kevin Durkin
    Language is drawn on extensively in friendships but has received scant attention in the developmental literature. This study compared friendship quality in 16-year-old adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI), testing the extent it is predicted by individual differences in social behaviors and language ability. Participants were 120 adolescents with SLI and 118 typically developing (TD) adolescents. After considering the effects of nonverbal IQ and prosocial and difficult behavior, language measures were found to be associated with friendship quality. The TD participants enjoyed normal friendships, whereas the participants with SLI were more likely to exhibit poorer quality (although 60% experienced good quality of friendships). Longitudinal analyses identified early language difficulties as predictive of poorer friendship quality in adolescence. [source]


    Interpersonal Dynamics Within Adolescent Friendships: Dyadic Mutuality, Deviant Talk, and Patterns of Antisocial Behavior

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2007
    Timothy F. Piehler
    Interpersonal dynamics within friendships were observed in a sample of 120 (60 male, 60 female) ethnically diverse 16- and 17-year-old adolescents characterized as persistently antisocial, adolescent-onset, and normative. Dyadic mutuality and deviant talk were coded from videotaped friendship interactions. Persistently antisocial adolescents demonstrated lower levels of dyadic mutuality compared with adolescent-onset and normative adolescents. Persistently antisocial and adolescent-onset adolescents spent more time in deviant talk than did normative adolescents. Across groups, girls were rated as more mutual and coded less in deviant talk than boys. Furthermore, friendship dyads who engaged in high levels of deviant talk and were mutual in their interactions reported the highest rates of antisocial behavior. [source]


    Co,Rumination in the Friendships of Girls and Boys

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2002
    Amanda J. Rose
    This research addresses a new construct, co,rumination. Co,rumination refers to extensively discussing and revisiting problems, speculating about problems, and focusing on negative feelings. Friendship research indicates that self,disclosure leads to close relationships; however, coping research indicates that dwelling on negative topics leads to emotional difficulties. Co,rumination is a single construct that integrates both perspectives and is proposed to be related both to positive friendship adjustment and problematic emotional adjustment. Third,, fifth,, seventh,, and ninth,grade participants (N= 608) responded to questionnaires, including a new measure of co,rumination. Co,rumination was related to high,quality, close friendships and aspects of depression and anxiety. Girls reported co,ruminating more than did boys, which helped to account for girls' more positive friendship adjustment and greater internalizing symptoms. Other analyses addressed whether co,rumination and the related constructs of self,disclosure and rumination had different relations with friendship and emotional adjustment. [source]


    Dyadic Analyses of Friendship in a Sample of Preschool-Age Children Attending Head Start: Correspondence between Measures and Implications for Social Competence

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2001
    Brian E. Vaughn
    Friendships among a large sample of preschool-age children (N= 471) attending Head Start were assessed. Based on sociometric data, friendship dyads were identified as reciprocated (mutual choice) or nonreciprocated (unilateral choice). Dyads were further classified with respect to gender composition as either same- or mixed-gender dyads. Older children were more likely to participate in a reciprocated friendship than were younger children and reciprocated dyads were more likely to be same-gender than were nonreciprocated dyads. Analyses of interaction between dyad partners revealed that reciprocated friends interacted more frequently across all categories of interaction coded and looked at each other more frequently than did members of nonreciprocated dyads. For the positive interaction subscore, the friendship status effect was modified by a significant interaction with gender composition such that significant effects of friendship status were obtained only for same-gender dyads. Additional analyses indicated that the average social competence level was greater for reciprocated dyads than for nonreciprocated dyads. The findings suggest that reciprocated friendships are meaningful for preschool-age children and may serve as special socialization contexts in which the repertoire of behavior can be exercised and perhaps improved. They also highlight the salience of same-gender friendships in the preschool classroom. [source]


    TRIBLER: a social-based peer-to-peer system

    CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    J. A. Pouwelse
    Abstract Most current peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing systems treat their users as anonymous, unrelated entities, and completely disregard any social relationships between them. However, social phenomena such as friendship and the existence of communities of users with similar tastes or interests may well be exploited in such systems in order to increase their usability and performance. In this paper we present a novel social-based P2P file-sharing paradigm that exploits social phenomena by maintaining social networks and using these in content discovery, content recommendation, and downloading. Based on this paradigm's main concepts such as taste buddies and friends, we have designed and implemented the TRIBLER P2P file-sharing system as a set of extensions to BitTorrent. We present and discuss the design of TRIBLER, and we show evidence that TRIBLER enables fast content discovery and recommendation at a low additional overhead, and a significant improvement in download performance. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]