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## Formula
Kinds of Formula Terms modified by Formula
## Selected Abstracts## THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF THE COCKCROFT-GAULT FORMULA AND THE MODIFICATION OF DIET IN RENAL DISEASE FORMULA FOR MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PEOPLE JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 5 2009Joris I. Rotmans MDNo abstract is available for this article. [source] ## COCKCROFT-GAULT FORMULA FOR DIAGNOSING MODERATE KIDNEY FAILURE JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 4 2008Michael Nevins MDNo abstract is available for this article. [source] ## OPTIMIZATION OF NEW FLOUR IMPROVER MIXING FORMULA BY SURFACE RESPONSE METHODOLOGY JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2010RAOUDHA ELLOUZE GHORBELABSTRACT In the present study, we search to improve the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour characterized by a low bread-making quality. Six regulators were tested: broad bean flour, gluten, monodiglyceride (MDG), ascorbic acid, sodium alginate and a mixture of amylase and xylanase. A hybrid design was carried out in order to study the effect of these regulators on the alveographic properties of wheat flour dough. Two alveographic responses (W: deformation energy and P/L: elasticity-to-extensibility ratio) were studied and simultaneously optimized via the desirability functions. An optimal mixture, containing 13.17 g/kg of broad bean flour, 15.13 g/kg of gluten, 0.155 g/kg of ascorbic acid, 3.875 g/kg of MDG, 2.75 g/kg of sodium alginate and 0.3 g/kg of enzyme mixture, was obtained and tested in a Tunisian flour. It led to a dough characterized by a W = 274 × 10,4 J and P/L = 0.74 versus 191 × 10,4 J and 0.40, respectively, for the Tunisian flour without improvers. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS In this work, we developed a new flour improver mixing formula intended to be used with wheat flour characterized by a low bread-making quality. This improver mixture is in powder form and contains 13.17 g of broad bean flour, 15.13 g of gluten, 0.155 g of ascorbic acid, 3.875 g of monodiglyceride, 2.75 g of sodium alginate and 0.3 g of enzyme mixture per kilogram of wheat flour. The incorporation of this improver mixture in low bread-making quality wheatflour leads to an increase of its deformation energy (W) of about 43% and produces large volume bread. [source] ## EFFECT OF BIFIDOBACTERIUM BREVE ON THE GROWTH OF ENTEROBACTER SAKAZAKII IN REHYDRATED INFANT MILK FORMULA JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2008T.M. OSAILIABSTRACT The effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in rehydrated infant milk formula stored at 4,45C was studied. A commercial culture of B. breve and a five-strain cocktail E. sakazakii were mixed with rehydrated formula and stored up to 8 h. The populations of B. breve and E. sakazakii at each storage time/temperature were determined. There was a two-way interactive effect between B. breve numbers and temperature on the number of E. sakazakii in the rehydrated formula at 3,8 h of storage. E. sakazakii did not grow in the rehydrated formula at 4C. At 12 and 20C, the numbers of E. sakazakii in the presence of B. breve were lower than those in the formula without B. breve at 8 h of storage, and at 45C, when the bacteria were combined, a similar result was obtained at 6- and 8-h storage. The presence of B. breve in the formula appeared to enhance the growth of E. sakazakii at 37C in the rehydrated formula stored at 2,8 h. Other more competitive inhibitory probiotic cultures would be more appropriate to control E. sakazakii growth in unrefrigerated rehydrated milk-based formula. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Results obtained showed that the probiotic organisms Bifidobacterium breve did not reduce Enterobacter sakazakii levels in rehydrated infant formula if held >2 h at >30C. At 37C, B. breve stimulated the growth of the pathogen after 2 h. Choice of probiotic bacteria for inclusion in these products to improve infant gut microflora should be based on their neutral or negative influence on E. sakazakii survival/growth to reduce the risk to health associated with the contamination of these products during manufacture. [source] ## DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER-ENRICHED BISCUITS FORMULA BY A MIXTURE DESIGN JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 4 2010RAOUDHA ELLOUZE-GHORBELABSTRACT The present research studies the optimization of the textural properties of new fiber-enriched biscuit formulae. A mixture design was carried out in order to model the textural properties of dough and biscuit supplemented with Aestivum wheat bran (AWB) and durum wheat bran (DWB). The desirability function was used to determine the coordinates of fiber-enriched biscuit formulae characterized presenting textural properties of dough (hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness) and biscuit (maximum peak force) close to those of the commercial product without fiber. Two optimal biscuit formulae (Optimal formula 1 (OM1): 86.66% of wheat flour, 6.67% of DWB and 6.67% of AWB and Optimal formula 2 (OM2): 73.30% of wheat flour, 13.35% of DWB and 13.35% of AWB) were tested at the industrial scale and provided highly acceptable scores from the taste panelists. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Consumption of dietary fiber provides health benefits including protection against cardiovascular diseases, cancer and other degenerative diseases. Wheat bran is a readily available and inexpensive source of dietary fiber. In this work, we developed new biscuit formulae enriched with both Aestivum and durum wheat brans. The substitution of wheat flour by wheat brans at their optimum levels led to dietary fiber-enriched biscuits with improved functional and nutritional properties and without undesirable changes in their sensory properties. [source] ## A MODIFIED RATIONAL FORMULA FOR FLOOD DESIGN IN SMALL BASINS, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 5 2003Jiapeng HuaABSTRACT: New formulas and procedures under the framework of the Rational Formula are presented that are applicable to flood design problems for a small basin if the geometry of the basin can be approximated as an ellipse or a rhombus. Instead of making the assumption in the traditional rational formula that the rainfall is uniformly distributed in the whole duration (Dw) of a design storm, the new method modifies that assumption as: the rainfall is uniformly distributed only in each time interval CD) of the design storm hyetograph, thus extending the rational formula applicable to the case that the rainfall duration is less than the basin concentration time (Tc). The new method can be applied to estimate the flood design peak discharge, and to generate the flood hydrograph simultaneously. The derivation of the formulas is provided in detail in this paper, and an example is also included to illustrate how to apply the new formulas to the flood design problems in small basins. [source] ## AN EXACT FORMULA FOR DEFAULT SWAPTIONS' PRICING IN THE SSRJD STOCHASTIC INTENSITY MODEL MATHEMATICAL FINANCE, Issue 3 2010Damiano BrigoWe develop and test a fast and accurate semi-analytical formula for single-name default swaptions in the context of a shifted square root jump diffusion (SSRJD) default intensity model. The model can be calibrated to the CDS term structure and a few default swaptions, to price and hedge other credit derivatives consistently. We show with numerical experiments that the model implies plausible volatility smiles. [source] ## VALUE CONTENT AND PRODUCTION NETWORKS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: APPLICATION OF AFTA AND ASEAN-PLUS-ONE FTA FORMULAS THE DEVELOPING ECONOMIES, Issue 2 2009Ikuo KUROIWAC67; F15; L60 Rules of origin are an integral part of all trade rules. To be eligible for Common Effective Preferential Tariffs under the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) agreement, a product must satisfy the conditions relative to value content. The present paper seeks to calculate value content of industries in Southeast Asia, using the formula specified by the rules of origin in AFTA, the ASEAN,China FTA, the ASEAN,Korea FTA, and the ASEAN,Japan FTA. Moreover, the paper attempts to calculate true value content of industries by applying a simple technique of input,output analysis, and to estimate error margins (i.e., overestimates) in calculating value content. The paper also examines the relationship between value content and production networks. The paper finds that many industries exhibited declines in local content during the period 1990,2000, but that the geographical spread of production networks raised the proportion of inputs supplied by the neighboring ASEAN countries, so that the contribution of the cumulative rule of origin increased. [source] ## Phenol-Castor Oil: Modified Peel for Dermal Melasma DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 5 2006THADA PIAMPHONGSANT MDBACKGROUND Deep type of melasma is difficult to treat. Various compositions for peeling have been formulated to accomplish this. OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to determine the safe use of the new formula, which was composed of phenol and castor oil. METHODS Different concentrations of phenol and castor oil were mixed in five formulations, and the solutions were tested on the forearms of 10 volunteers. The application time was 1 minute, different from that of the original phenol-croton oil. Formula 4 was found to cause a high effect of peeling with least side effects and was used to treat deep facial melasma in 30 patients. RESULTS Higher concentrations of castor oil produced more inflammation when mixed with phenol. Formula 4 was used to clear two cases of melasma in 1 week despite no effect from prior use of a modified antimelasma cream, while some degree of fading was noted in other cases. The total number of different melasma indices was reduced from 206.4 to 91.2 in 30 patients. Hyperpigmentation was noted in five cases and hypopigmentation in one case. Neither scar formation nor cardiac arrhythmia was observed. CONCLUSION A phenol-castor oil peel with an application time of 1 minute reduces pigments in the deep type of melasma with least side effects and a high efficiency when combined with an antimelasma cream. The safe formula and the technique of application are introduced. [source] ## Interactive effect of retinopathy and macroalbuminuria on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and renal end points in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2007P. C. Y. TongAbstract Aims To examine the effect of albuminuria and retinopathy on the risk of cardiovascular and renal events, and all-cause mortality in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A post-hoc analysis of 4416 Chinese patients without macrovascular complications at baseline (age 57.6 ± 13.3 years). Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group Formula, further adjusted for Chinese ethnicity. Clinical end points were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events (heart failure or angina, myocardial infarction, lower limb amputation, re-vascularization procedures and stroke) and renal end points (reduction in eGFR by more than 50% or eGFR < 15 ml/min/1.73 m2 or death as a result of renal causes or need for dialysis). Results Compared with individuals without complications, subjects with retinopathy and macroalbuminuria had higher rates of cardiovascular events (14.1 vs. 2.4%), renal events (40.0 vs. 0.8%) and death (9.3 vs. 1.7%, P < 0.001). For composite event of death, cardiovascular and renal events, the presence of retinopathy, microalbuminuria alone, macroalbuminuria alone, retinopathy with microalbuminuria or retinopathy with macroalbuminuria increased the risk [hazard ratio (95% CI)] by 1.61 (1.05 to 2.47; P = 0.04), 1.93 (1.38 to 2.69; P < 0.001), 4.34 (3.02 to 6.22; P < 0.001), 2.59 [1.76 to 3.81; P < 0.001) and 6.83 (4.89 to 9.55; P < 0.001) fold, respectively. The relative excess risk as a result of interaction between retinopathy and macroalbuminuria was 15.31, implying biological interaction in the development of renal events. Conclusions In Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes, retinopathy interacts with macroalbuminuria to increase the risk of composite cardio-renal events. [source] ## Validation of the Peak to Mean Pressure Decrease Ratio as a New Method of Assessing Aortic Stenosis Using the Gorlin Formula and the Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance-Based Hybrid Method ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2007Dariusch Haghi M.D.Background: We sought to validate the recently introduced peak to mean pressure decrease ratio (PMPDR), using the Gorlin formula and a hybrid method which combines cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived stroke volume with transaortic Doppler measurements to calculate aortic valve area (AVA). Methods: Data analysis in 32 patients with severe (AVA <= 0.75 cm2) or moderate aortic stenosis who had prospectively been entered into our aortic stenosis database. Results: Gorlin-derived AVA was 0.61 ± 0.10 cm2 in severe and 0.92 ± 0.14 cm2 in moderate aortic stenosis (P < 0.01). Corresponding values for PMPRD were 1.61 ± 0.10 and 1.73 ± 0.18, respectively (P < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for PMPDR <1.5 to predict severe aortic stenosis were 0.12, 0.92, 0.67, and 0.44 as assessed by the Gorlin formula. Conclusions: Using the Gorlin formula as the reference standard, our study confirms results of a previously reported study on the performance of PMPDR for assessment of aortic stenosis. [source] ## A General Formula for Valuing Defaultable Securities ECONOMETRICA, Issue 5 2004P. Collin-DufresnePrevious research has shown that under a suitable no-jump condition, the price of a defaultable security is equal to its risk-neutral expected discounted cash flows if a modified discount rate is introduced to account for the possibility of default. Below, we generalize this result by demonstrating that one can always value defaultable claims using expected risk-adjusted discounting provided that the expectation is taken under a slightly modified probability measure. This new probability measure puts zero probability on paths where default occurs prior to the maturity, and is thus only absolutely continuous with respect to the risk-neutral probability measure. After establishing the general result and discussing its relation with the existing literature, we investigate several examples for which the no-jump condition fails. Each example illustrates the power of our general formula by providing simple analytic solutions for the prices of defaultable securities. [source] ## Synthesis, Structure and Reactivity of Homo- and Heterobimetallic Complexes of the General Formula [Cp*Ru(,-Cl)3ML] [LM = (arene)Ru, Cp*Rh, Cp*Ir] EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2006Laurent QuebatteAbstract The homo- and heterobimetallic complexes [Cp*Ru(,-Cl)3ML] [LM = (C6H6)Ru, (cymene)Ru, (1,3,5-C6H3iPr3)Ru, Cp*Rh, Cp*Ir] were prepared by reaction of [Cp*Ru(,-OMe)]2 with Me3SiCl and subsequent addition of [LMCl2]2. The complexes [Cp*Ru(,-Cl)3Ru(cymene)] and [Cp*Ru(,-Cl)3IrCp*] were characterized by single-crystal X-ray analyses. In crossover experiments with [Cp*Rh(,-Cl)3RuCl(PPh3)2] and [Cp*Ru(,-Cl)3Ru(1,3,5-C6H3iPr3)] in CD2Cl2, a dynamic equilibrium with the complexes [Cp*Rh(,-Cl)3RuCp*] and [(1,3,5-C6H3iPr3)Ru(,-Cl)3RuCl(PPh3)2] was rapidly established, demonstrating the kinetic lability of the triple chloro bridge. Upon reaction of [Cp*Rh(,-Cl)3RuCp*] with benzene, the ionic complex [Cp*Ru(C6H6)][Cp*RhCl3] was formed, which was characterized by X-ray crystallography. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source] ## Age-Dependent Taxation and the Optimal Retirement Benefit Formula GERMAN ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 1 2008Mathias KifmannOptimal taxation; pay-as-you-go pension systems; implicit taxation; intra- and intergenerational equity; financial stability Abstract. This paper presents a comprehensive view of lifetime taxation including both explicit taxation through the general tax system and implicit taxation via the retirement benefit formula. Differences in productivity between individuals are unobservable, which provides a rationale for the use of distortionary taxes. It is shown that the optimal structure of age-dependent taxation can be characterized by a generalized Ramsey formula. Furthermore, the paper derives the optimal retirement benefit formula in the presence of the general tax system and examines the compatibility with the financial stability of the pension system. [source] ## Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella in Powdered Infant Formula: meeting report INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2010Ioannis S. ArvanitoyannisNo abstract is available for this article. [source] ## Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Older Patients with Chronic Renal Insufficiency: Is the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Formula an Improvement? JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 7 2003Edmund J. Lamb PhDOBJECTIVES: To evaluate a new formula for glomerular filtration rate (GFR), derived from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study in older people. DESIGN: An observational study of the performance of the MDRD formula compared with other formulae and creatinine clearance (ClCr) as measures of the GFR. SETTING: Volunteers were recruited via outpatient clinics. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two patients (27 men, 25 women: mean age 80, range 69,92) with a variety of medical diagnoses. Mean GFR was 53.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 (range 15.9,100.2). Exclusion criteria included renal replacement therapy/renal transplantation and cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS:51Chromium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr EDTA) was used as the reference method against which the formulaic estimates of GFR were compared using bias plot and regression analyses. RESULTS: The MDRD and Cockcroft and Gault formulae (both coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.84) gave the best fit with GFR, followed by the Jelliffe formula (R2 = 0.81), ClCr (R2 = 0.73) and the Baracskay formula (R2 = 0.56). ClCr (,1.2%) demonstrated minimal bias compared with the MDRD (8.0%) and Cockcroft and Gault (,10.4%) formulae. However, imprecision compared with 51Cr EDTA was lowest for the Cockcroft and Gault formula, with 50% of estimates lying between ,9.5 and ,0.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 of measured 51Cr EDTA clearance. This compares with ,6.7 and 10.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ClCr and 0.0 and 12.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 for the MDRD formula. CONCLUSION: Calculated estimates of GFR are an improvement over ClCr estimation. On balance, the MDRD formula does not improve the estimate of GFR compared with the Cockcroft and Gault formula in older Caucasian patients with chronic renal insufficiency. [source] ## Composition and Oxidative Stability of a Structured Lipid from Amaranth Oil in a Milk-Based Infant Formula JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010Ashanty M. Pina-RodriguezABSTRACT:, Amaranth oil can be enzymatically modified to match breast milk fat analog requirements. We have developed a structured lipid (SL) from amaranth oil that, in combination with milk fat, delivers recommended amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with palmitic acid specifically esterified at the,sn- 2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone. The aim of this study was to study the final fatty acid (FA) contribution and oxidation stability of an infant formula prepared using the structured lipid DCAO (DHA-containing customized amaranth oil). DCAO was included as complementary fat in a "prototype" infant formula, and prepared in parallel with a "control" infant formula under the same processing conditions. The same ingredients but different complementary fat sources were used. A blend of the most commonly used vegetable oils (palm olein, soybean, coconut, and high-oleic sunflower oils) for infant formula was used instead of DCAO in the "control" formula. Additionally, "prototype" and "control" infant formulas were compared to a "commercial" product in terms of FA composition. The oxidative stability index (OSI) of the extracted fats from "prototype,""control," and "commercial" infant formulas were evaluated and compared to the OSI of the substrate fat replacers used. DCAO was the least stable compared to other fat analogs. The use of commercial antioxidants in DCAO containing products should prevent oxidation and therefore increase their stability. [source] ## Detergent and Sanitizer Stresses Decrease the Thermal Resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii in Infant Milk Formula JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008T.M. OsailiABSTRACT:, This study determined the effect of acid, alkaline, chlorine, and ethanol stresses on the thermal inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant milk formula. Unstressed or stressed cells were mixed with reconstituted powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) at temperatures between 52 and 58 °C for various time periods or mixed with PIMF prior to reconstitution with hot water between 50 and 100 °C. D - and z -values were determined using liner regression analysis. In general, detergent and sanitizer stresses decreased the thermal resistance of E. sakazakii in infant milk formula. The results of this study may be of use to regulatory agencies, manufacturers, and infant caregivers to design heating processes to eliminate E. sakazakii. [source] ## Fermentation Capabilities of Bifidobacteria Using Nondigestible Oligosaccharides, and Their Viability as Probiotics in Commercial Powder Infant Formula JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 6 2005Darío Pérez-ConesaABSTRACT The species Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum biotype infantis (Spanish type culture collection), and Bifidobacterium longum (Morinaga nutritional foods) were evaluated in vitro in the presence of 4 commercial nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) (short-chain fructooligosaccharides [SCFOS] [degree of polymerization, DP: 2,3], inulin [DP: 10,0], oligofructose [DP: 2,0] and 4,-galactosyllactose [4,-GOS] [DP: 3,]). Each species was incubated anaerobically in tryptone phytone yeast (TPY) broth for 7 d with NDO. Every 24 h, bifidobacteria growth was evaluated by means of broth turbidity as optical density at 600 nm. Moreover, another sample was collected for pH culture measurement. Results showed that inulin was the substrate with the least effect on the stimulation of bifidobacteria growth and pH decrease. On the last day of incubation, the substrate 4,-GOS stimulated bacterial growth more strongly and produced a larger decrease in culture broth pH than the other substrates. On the other hand, B. bifidum and B. longum showed a greater growth with 4,-GOS. In a 2nd study, these 2 bifidobacteria species were added to a powder follow-on probiotic infant formula. The viability of the bifidobacteria during the formula's period of consumption was evaluated in 2 studies of 6 and 14 d. Both corresponded to the minimum and maximum time of consumption of the formula according to the manufacturer's directions. It was found that, although in both studies bifidobacteria counts decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with time, they were always above the recommended addition level (106 colony-forming units [CFU]/g) at the time of sale for dairy products by the Intl. Standard of Fédération Internationale de Laiterie/International Dairy Federation (FIL/IDF). Moreover, because the pH of the reconstituted formula was always close to neutrality (from 6.74 to 7.06), the number of bacteria did not drop below the recommended level. [source] ## Stature Estimation from Foot Length Using Universal Regression Formula in a North Indian Population JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2010D.F.M., Tanuj Kanchan M.D.Abstract:, Stature is a significant parameter in establishing identity of an unknown. Conventionally, researchers derive regression formula separately for males and females. Sex, however, may not always be determined accurately, particularly in dismembered remains and thus the need for a universal regression formula for stature estimation irrespective of sex of an individual. The study was carried out in an endogamous group of North India to compare the accuracy of sex-specific regression models for stature estimation from foot length with the models derived when the sex was presumed as unknown. The study reveals that regression equation derived for the latter can estimate stature with reasonable accuracy. Thus, stature can be estimated accurately from foot length by regression analysis even when sex remains unknown. [source] ## Measuring Nursing Power Within Organizations JOURNAL OF NURSING SCHOLARSHIP, Issue 2 2003Christina L. SieloffPurpose: To describe the Sieloff-King Assessment of Departmental Power (SKADP) instrument and the psychometric evaluation of both the SKADP and its revision: the Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations (SKAGPO) instrument. Design: A survey of 357 chief nurse executives in the United States to psychometrically evaluate the SKAGPO. Methods: Psychometric evaluation of the SKAGPO included: (a) internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, split-half with the equal-length Spearman Brown Correction Formula, and item analysis; (b) concurrent criterion-related validity; and (c) factor analysis. Findings: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the SKAGPO was.92. Subscales' alphas ranged from.63 to.88. Item-total correlations ranged from.24 to.68, with an average item-total correlation of.48 (n = 334). Concurrent criterion-related validity was supported. Conclusions: The SKAGPO and the related subscales showed initial reliability and validity. [source] ## A MODIFIED RATIONAL FORMULA FOR FLOOD DESIGN IN SMALL BASINS, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 5 2003Jiapeng HuaABSTRACT: New formulas and procedures under the framework of the Rational Formula are presented that are applicable to flood design problems for a small basin if the geometry of the basin can be approximated as an ellipse or a rhombus. Instead of making the assumption in the traditional rational formula that the rainfall is uniformly distributed in the whole duration (Dw) of a design storm, the new method modifies that assumption as: the rainfall is uniformly distributed only in each time interval CD) of the design storm hyetograph, thus extending the rational formula applicable to the case that the rainfall duration is less than the basin concentration time (Tc). The new method can be applied to estimate the flood design peak discharge, and to generate the flood hydrograph simultaneously. The derivation of the formulas is provided in detail in this paper, and an example is also included to illustrate how to apply the new formulas to the flood design problems in small basins. [source] ## Approximate Formula for the Contact between Truncated Surfaces and Frictional Characteristics of a Journal Bearing in Mixed Lubrication LUBRICATION SCIENCE, Issue 3 2004M. NonogakiAbstract This paper presents an approximate formula for the contact of a non-Gaussian distribution of truncated surfaces, which is useful for mixed lubrication theory, and gives a method for the determination of the truncation parameters in this formula from a measured roughness profile. Using this approximate formula for a contact, the approximate formula for the friction coefficient of a journal bearing in mixed lubrication, which was previously proposed by the authors, is modified for truncated surfaces, and the frictional characteristics are demonstrated for various parameters of truncated roughness using the modified formula. [source] ## A Simple Approximate Formula for the Aspect Ratio of Oblate Particles PARTICLE & PARTICLE SYSTEMS CHARACTERIZATION, Issue 6 2007Willi PabstAbstract A simple approximative formula is derived, which can be used to quantify the shape of oblate particles or an average shape of the corresponding particle system, when the results of sedimentation analysis (Stokes equivalent diameters) are known and results from either microscopic image analysis (assuming stable orientation, i.e., with the plane perpendicular to the direction of observation) or laser diffraction (assuming random orientation) are available for the same sample. In the latter case Cauchy's stereological theorem is applied to account for random orientation. Furthermore, it is shown that for sufficiently large aspect ratios, this formula is very close to the well-known Jennings-Parslow relation and can replace this more complicated expression in many practical cases, e.g., in the routine characterization of ceramic raw materials (kaolins and oxide or non-oxide platelet powders). [source] ## Patient handover from surgery to intensive care: using Formula 1 pit-stop and aviation models to improve safety and quality PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 5 2007KEN R. CATCHPOLE PhDSummary Background:, We aimed to improve the quality and safety of handover of patients from surgery to intensive care using the analogy of a Formula 1 pit stop and expertise from aviation. Methods:, A prospective intervention study measured the change in performance before and after the implementation of a new handover protocol that was developed through detailed discussions with a Formula 1 racing team and aviation training captains. Fifty (23 before and 27 after) postsurgery patient handovers were observed. Technical errors and information omissions were measured using checklists, and teamwork was scored using a Likert scale. Duration of the handover was also measured. Results:, The mean number of technical errors was reduced from 5.42 (95% CI ±1.24) to 3.15 (95% CI ±0.71), the mean number of information handover omissions was reduced from 2.09 (95% CI ±1.14) to 1.07 (95% CI ±0.55), and duration of handover was reduced from 10.8 min (95% CI ±1.6) to 9.4 min (95% CI ±1.29). Nine out of twenty-three (39%) precondition patients had more than one error in both technical and information handover prior to the new protocol, compared with three out of twnety-seven (11.5%) with the new handover. Regression analysis showed that the number of technical errors were significantly reduced with the new handover (t = ,3.63, P < 0.001), and an interaction suggested that teamwork (t = 3.04, P = 0.004) had a different effect with the new handover protocol. Conclusions:, The introduction of the new handover protocol lead to improvements in all aspects of the handover. Expertise from other industries can be extrapolated to improve patient safety, and in particular, areas of medicine involving the handover of patients or information. [source] ## From the Good Will to the Formula of Universal Law, PHILOSOPHY AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2004SAMUEL C. RICKLESSIn the First Section of the Groundwork, Kant argues that a good-willed person "under subjective limitations and hindrances" is required "never to act except in such a way that [she] could also will that [her] maxim should become a universal law." Call this argument "K". Although recent commentators (including Barbara Herman, Christine Korsgaard, Nelson Potter, and Allen Wood) have done much to clarify and defend many of the important claims Kant makes in the First Section, they have accurately identified neither K's premises nor the reasoning by means of which K's conclusion is derived. The result of this is that K's strengths are underappreciated. My aim is to rectify this state of affairs, by providing a detailed reconstruction of K, and thereby bring out the various ways in which the argument deserves our recognition and praise. [source] ## Analytic Formula for the Clear-sky UV Index PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2007Sasha MadronichAn approximate formula for the UV Index (UVI) under cloud-free, unpolluted, low surface albedo conditions is: where ,o is the cosine of the solar zenith angle and , is the total vertical ozone column (in Dobson Units, DU). The dependence on ,o and , is based on a simple physical model of biologically weighted atmospheric transmission in the UV-B and UV-A spectral bands, with coefficients tuned to a detailed radiative transfer model, and is accurate to 10% or better over 0,60° and 200,400 DU. Other factors (clouds, haze, ground, etc.) mostly conserve this dependence and scale simply. [source] ## A Discussion of the Kamlet-Jacobs Formula for the Detonation Pressure PROPELLANTS, EXPLOSIVES, PYROTECHNICS, Issue 1 2006Luc KazandjianAbstract The main features of the Kamlet-Jacobs formula for the detonation pressure of CHNO explosives are analytically derived from a BKW (Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson) equation of state of the detonation products. In the derivation, well-known typical values at the Chapman-Jouguet state, in particular the nearly constant value of the relative volume of the detonation products, are used. [source] ## Legality Policies and Theories of Legality: From Bananas to Radbruch's Formula* RATIO JURIS, Issue 2 2009GIOVANNI SARTORIn particular, I shall analyse legality policies, namely, conditionals conferring the quality of legality upon norms having certain properties, and I shall examine to what extent such conditionals need to be positivistic, so that legality is only dependant on social facts. Finally, I shall consider how legality is transmitted from norm to norm and whether the ultimate legality policies (the rules of recognition) of a legal system need to be constituted by social facts. [source] ## Luther's and Melanchthon's Students: The Wittenberg Circle and the Development of its Theology to 1600 RELIGION COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2009Robert KolbThe students of Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon carried on the process of refining and institutionalizing their thought throughout the second half of the sixteenth century in the midst of controversies over selected issues that arose out of specific historical contexts. This article traces the development and course of these controversies and the solutions reached in the Formula of Concord of 1577. [source] |