Form

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Form

  • abnormal form
  • abstract form
  • abstraction form
  • abundant form
  • acid form
  • acidic form
  • acquired form
  • activated form
  • active form
  • administration form
  • adult form
  • advanced form
  • aggregated form
  • aggressive form
  • allelic form
  • alternative form
  • amorphous form
  • analytic form
  • analytical form
  • anatomic form
  • ancestral form
  • anhydrous form
  • anionic form
  • another form
  • apo form
  • application form
  • appropriate form
  • architectural form
  • art form
  • assessment form
  • atypical form
  • autosomal dominant form
  • autosomal recessive form
  • available form
  • base form
  • basic form
  • benign form
  • bilinear form
  • bloodstream form
  • body form
  • bound form
  • canonical form
  • catalytically active form
  • cationic form
  • cell form
  • cellular form
  • certain form
  • chair form
  • changing form
  • channel form
  • chemical form
  • child form
  • chromosomal form
  • chronic form
  • circular form
  • cis form
  • classical form
  • clinical form
  • closed form
  • collection form
  • collective form
  • colony form
  • common form
  • compact form
  • complex form
  • complexed form
  • conjugated form
  • consent form
  • constitutively active form
  • contemporary form
  • conventional form
  • covert form
  • cranial form
  • crystal form
  • crystalline form
  • cubic crystal form
  • cultural form
  • current form
  • cutaneous form
  • cytosolic form
  • data collection form
  • data extraction form
  • data form
  • democratic form
  • demyelinating form
  • deprotonated form
  • derived form
  • different clinical form
  • different crystal form
  • different form
  • differential form
  • dimensionless form
  • dimer form
  • dimeric form
  • discrete form
  • distinct form
  • distinctive form
  • diverse form
  • dominant form
  • dominant negative form
  • dominant-negative form
  • dosage form
  • e form
  • early form
  • effective form
  • efficient form
  • emergent form
  • emerging form
  • enantiomeric form
  • enantiopure form
  • endogenous form
  • energy form
  • enol form
  • evaluation form
  • exact form
  • explicit form
  • exponential form
  • extant form
  • extensive form
  • extraction form
  • extreme form
  • familial form
  • familiar form
  • family form
  • feedback form
  • ferrous form
  • first form
  • flexible form
  • flexible functional form
  • free form
  • frequent form
  • function form
  • functional form
  • galerkin weak form
  • gdp-bound form
  • gel form
  • general form
  • genetic form
  • growth form
  • helical form
  • hereditary form
  • heterodimeric form
  • heterozygous form
  • hexagonal crystal form
  • hexagonal form
  • high-temperature form
  • human form
  • humus form
  • hybrid form
  • hydrate form
  • hydrated form
  • hyphal form
  • idiopathic form
  • imino form
  • important form
  • inactive form
  • incident report form
  • inducible form
  • infectious form
  • inherited form
  • initial form
  • innovative form
  • institutional form
  • intact form
  • integral form
  • intensive form
  • intermediate form
  • interview form
  • intracellular form
  • intravenous form
  • intrinsic form
  • ionic form
  • irregular form
  • isolated form
  • isomeric form
  • item short form
  • juvenile form
  • kda form
  • keto form
  • late-onset form
  • latent form
  • latter form
  • leaf form
  • legal form
  • lethal form
  • life form
  • limited form
  • linear form
  • linguistic form
  • liquid form
  • literary form
  • local form
  • localized form
  • logical form
  • long form
  • low-temperature form
  • main form
  • major form
  • malignant form
  • many different form
  • many form
  • many other form
  • matrix form
  • mature form
  • medical outcome study short form
  • membrane-bound form
  • metastable form
  • mild form
  • milder form
  • mixed form
  • model form
  • modern form
  • modified form
  • molecular form
  • monoclinic crystal form
  • monoclinic form
  • monogenic form
  • monomeric form
  • morphological form
  • multimeric form
  • multiple form
  • musical form
  • mutant form
  • mutated form
  • n form
  • narrative form
  • native form
  • natural form
  • negative form
  • network form
  • neutral form
  • new crystal form
  • new crystalline form
  • new form
  • nitrogen form
  • non-conservative form
  • normal form
  • novel form
  • of form
  • oligomeric form
  • one crystal form
  • one form
  • only form
  • onset form
  • open form
  • organic form
  • organisational form
  • organization form
  • organizational form
  • original form
  • orthorhombic crystal form
  • orthorhombic form
  • other crystal form
  • other form
  • outcome study short form
  • oxidized form
  • p form
  • parametric form
  • parent form
  • particular form
  • particulate form
  • pathological form
  • peculiar form
  • pharmaceutical dosage form
  • phosphorylated form
  • physical form
  • placental form
  • plant form
  • plant growth form
  • political form
  • polymeric form
  • polymorphic form
  • polynomial form
  • popular form
  • possible form
  • powder form
  • power-law form
  • powerful form
  • precursor form
  • predominant form
  • prefer form
  • present form
  • prevalent form
  • primary form
  • primitive form
  • procyclic form
  • product form
  • progressive form
  • prominent form
  • protein form
  • protonated form
  • pure form
  • quadratic form
  • questionnaire form
  • racemic form
  • radical form
  • rare form
  • reactive form
  • recalcitrant form
  • recessive form
  • recombinant form
  • recording form
  • reduced form
  • regular form
  • relate form
  • release form
  • relevant form
  • report form
  • request form
  • river form
  • salt form
  • same form
  • second crystal form
  • second form
  • secreted form
  • secretory form
  • serious form
  • several form
  • several other form
  • severe form
  • short form
  • simple form
  • simpler form
  • simplest form
  • simplified form
  • social form
  • solid dosage form
  • solid form
  • solid-state form
  • soluble form
  • space form
  • spatial form
  • special form
  • specific form
  • spectral form
  • sperm form
  • splice form
  • sporadic form
  • stable form
  • standard form
  • standardized form
  • state form
  • state space form
  • storage form
  • strong form
  • structural form
  • structured form
  • study short form
  • subtle form
  • suitable form
  • symbolic form
  • systemic form
  • tabular form
  • tautomeric form
  • teacher report form
  • tetragonal crystal form
  • tetragonal form
  • tetrameric form
  • tobacco-adapted form
  • tooth form
  • toxic form
  • traditional form
  • trans form
  • transitional form
  • transmembrane form
  • triclinic form
  • trimeric form
  • truncated form
  • two-dimensional form
  • uncommon form
  • unique form
  • unknown form
  • unusual form
  • urban form
  • useful form
  • variant form
  • variety of form
  • various form
  • virulent form
  • visual form
  • weak form
  • western form
  • wild form
  • wild-type form
  • yeast form
  • z form
  • zwitterionic form

  • Terms modified by Form

  • form biofilm
  • form c
  • form chain
  • form channel
  • form cluster
  • form complex
  • form crystal
  • form dimer
  • form distribution
  • form equation
  • form expression
  • form factor
  • form health survey
  • form hydrogen bond
  • form i
  • form ii
  • form ii crystal
  • form iii
  • form n
  • form only
  • form part
  • form present
  • form solution
  • form suitable
  • form survey
  • form used

  • Selected Abstracts


    UNDERSTANDING PREVENTION RESEARCH AS A FORM OF PSEUDOSCIENCE

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    DENNIS M. GORMAN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE EVOLVABILITY OF GROWTH FORM IN A CLONAL SEAWEED

    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2009
    Keyne Monro
    Although modular construction is considered the key to adaptive growth or growth-form plasticity in sessile taxa (e.g., plants, seaweeds and colonial invertebrates), the serial expression of genes in morphogenesis may compromise its evolutionary potential if growth forms emerge as integrated wholes from module iteration. To explore the evolvability of growth form in the red seaweed, Asparagopsis armata, we estimated genetic variances, covariances, and cross-environment correlations for principal components of growth-form variation in contrasting light environments. We compared variance,covariance matrices across environments to test environmental effects on heritable variation and examined the potential for evolutionary change in the direction of plastic responses to light. Our results suggest that growth form in Asparagopsis may constitute only a single genetic entity whose plasticity affords only limited evolutionary potential. We argue that morphological integration arising from modular construction may constrain the evolvability of growth form in Asparagopsis, emphasizing the critical distinction between genetic and morphological modularity in this and other modular taxa. [source]


    EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE THAT SEXUAL CONFLICT INFLUENCES THE OPPORTUNITY, FORM AND INTENSITY OF SEXUAL SELECTION

    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2008
    Matthew D. Hall
    Sexual interactions are often rife with conflict. Conflict between members of the same sex over opportunities to mate has long been understood to effect evolution via sexual selection. Although conflict between males and females is now understood to be widespread, such conflict is seldom considered in the same light as a general agent of sexual selection. Any interaction between males or females that generates variation in fitness, whether due to conflict, competition or mate choice, can potentially influence sexual selection acting on a range of male traits. Here we seek to address a lack of direct experimental evidence for how sexual conflict influences sexual selection more broadly. We manipulate a major source of sexual conflict in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus, and quantify the resulting changes in the nature of sexual selection using formal selection analysis to statistically compare multivariate fitness surfaces. In T. commodus, sexual conflict occurs over the attachment time of an external spermatophore. By experimentally manipulating the ability of males and females to influence spermatophore attachment, we found that sexual conflict significantly influences the opportunity, form, and intensity of sexual selection on male courtship call and body size. When males were able to harass females, the opportunity for selection was smaller, the form of selection changed, and sexual selection was weaker. We discuss the broader evolutionary implications of these findings, including the contributions of sexual conflict to fluctuating sexual selection and the maintenance of additive genetic variation. [source]


    EVOLUTION ON A LOCAL SCALE: DEVELOPMENTAL, FUNCTIONAL, AND GENETIC BASES OF DIVERGENCE IN BILL FORM AND ASSOCIATED CHANGES IN SONG STRUCTURE BETWEEN ADJACENT HABITATS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2008
    Alexander V. Badyaev
    Divergent selection on traits involved in both local adaptation and the production of mating signals can strongly facilitate population differentiation. Because of its links to foraging morphologies and cultural inheritance song of birds can contribute particularly strongly to maintenance of local adaptations. In two adjacent habitats,native Sonoran desert and urban areas,house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) forage on seeds that are highly distinct in size and shell hardness and require different bite forces and bill morphologies. Here, we first document strong and habitat-specific natural selection on bill traits linked to bite force and find adaptive modifications of bite force and bill morphology and associated divergence in courtship song between the two habitats. Second, we investigate the developmental basis of this divergence and find that early ontogenetic tissue transformation in bill, but not skeletal traits, is accelerated in the urban population and that the mandibular primordia of the large-beaked urban finches express bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) earlier and at higher level than those of the desert finches. Further, we show that despite being geographically adjacent, urban and desert populations are nevertheless genetically distinct corroborating findings of early developmental divergence between them. Taken together, these results suggest that divergent selection on function and development of traits involved in production of mating signals, in combination with localized learning of such signals, can be very effective at maintaining local adaptations, even at small spatial scales and in highly mobile animals. [source]


    POSTCOPULATORY FERTILIZATION BIAS AS A FORM OF CRYPTIC SEXUAL SELECTION

    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2008
    Ryan Calsbeek
    Males and females share most of their genetic material yet often experience very different selection pressures. Some traits that are adaptive when expressed in males may therefore be maladaptive when expressed in females. Recent studies demonstrating negative correlations in fitness between parents and their opposite-sex progeny suggest that natural selection may favor a reduction in trait correlations between the sexes to partially mitigate intralocus sexual conflict. We studied sex-specific forms of selection acting in Anolis lizards in the Greater Antilles, a group for which the importance of natural selection has been well documented in species-level diversification, but for which less is known about sexual selection. Using the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), we measured fitness-related variation in morphology (body size), and variation in two traits reflecting whole animal physiological condition: running endurance and immune function. Correlations between body size and physiological traits were opposite between males and females and the form of natural selection acting on physiological traits significantly differed between the sexes. Moreover, physiological traits in progeny were correlated with the body-size of their sires, but correlations were null or even negative between parents and their opposite-sex progeny. Although results based on phenotypic and genetic correlations, as well as the action of natural selection, suggest the potential for intralocus sexual conflict, females used sire body size as a cue to sort sperm for the production of either sons or daughters. Our results suggest that intralocus sexual conflict may be at least partly resolved through post-copulatory sperm choice in A. sagrei. [source]


    AN EXACT FORM OF THE BREEDER'S EQUATION FOR THE EVOLUTION OF A QUANTITATIVE TRAIT UNDER NATURAL SELECTION

    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2005
    John S. Heywood
    Abstract Starting with the Price equation, I show that the total evolutionary change in mean phenotype that occurs in the presence of fitness variation can be partitioned exactly into five components representing logically distinct processes. One component is the linear response to selection, as represented by the breeder's equation of quantitative genetics, but with heritability defined as the linear regression coefficient of mean offspring phenotype on parent phenotype. The other components are identified as constitutive transmission bias, two types of induced transmission bias, and a spurious response to selection caused by a covariance between parental fitness and offspring phenotype that cannot be predicted from parental phenotypes. The partitioning can be accomplished in two ways, one with heritability measured before (in the absence of) selection, and the other with heritability measured after (in the presence of) selection. Measuring heritability after selection, though unconventional, yields a representation for the linear response to selection that is most consistent with Darwinian evolution by natural selection because the response to selection is determined by the reproductive features of the selected group, not of the parent population as a whole. The analysis of an explicitly Mendelian model shows that the relative contributions of the five terms to the total evolutionary change depends on the level of organization (gene, individual, or mated pair) at which the parent population is divided into phenotypes, with each frame of reference providing unique insight. It is shown that all five components of phenotypic evolution will generally have nonzero values as a result of various combinations of the normal features of Mendelian populations, including biparental sex, allelic dominance, inbreeding, epistasis, linkage disequilibrium, and environmental covariances between traits. Additive genetic variance can be a poor predictor of the adaptive response to selection in these models. The narrow-sense heritability s,2A/s,2P should be viewed as an approximation to the offspring-parent linear regression rather than the other way around. [source]


    1. NARRATIVE FORM AND HISTORICAL SENSATION: ON SAUL FRIEDLÄNDER'S THE YEARS OF EXTERMINATION,

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 3 2009
    ALON CONFINO
    ABSTRACT Saul Friedländer's magnum opus, The Years of Extermination, has been received worldwide as an exemplary work of history. Yet it was written by a historian who in the last two decades has strenuously asserted the limits of Holocaust representation. At the center of this essay is a problem of historical writing: how to write a historical narrative of the Holocaust that both offers explanations of the unfolding events and also suggests that the most powerful sensation about those events, at the time and since, is that they are beyond words. I explore Friedländer's crafting of such a narrative by considering, first, the role of his attempt in The Years of Extermination to explain the Holocaust and, second, the narrative form of the book. The book is best seen, I argue, not primarily as a work of explanation but as a vast narrative that places an explanation of the Holocaust within a specific form of describing that goes beyond the boundaries of the historical discipline as it is usually practiced. This form of describing goes beyond the almost positivist attachment to facts that dominates current Holocaust historiography. By using Jewish individual testimonies that are interspersed in the chronological history of the extermination, Friedländer creates a narrative based on ruptures and breaks, devices we associate with works of fiction, and that historians do not usually use. The result is an arresting narrative, which I interpret by using Johan Huizinga's notion of historical sensation. Friedländer sees this narrative form as specific to the Holocaust. I view this commingling of irreducible reality and the possibility of art as a required sensibility that belongs to all historical understanding. And in this respect, The Years of Extermination only lays bare more clearly in the case of the Holocaust what is an essential element in all historical reconstruction. [source]


    Sensitivity analyses of FORM-based and DRM-based performance measure approach (PMA) for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO)

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2010
    Ikjin Lee
    Abstract In gradient-based design optimization, the sensitivities of the constraint with respect to the design variables are required. In reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), the probabilistic constraint is evaluated at the most probable point (MPP), and thus the sensitivities of the probabilistic constraints at MPP are required. This paper presents the rigorous analytic derivation of the sensitivities of the probabilistic constraint at MPP for both first-order reliability method (FORM)-based performance measure approach (PMA) and dimension reduction method (DRM)-based PMA. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate that the analytic sensitivities agree very well with the sensitivities obtained from the finite difference method (FDM). However, as the sensitivity calculation at the true DRM-based MPP requires the second-order derivatives and additional MPP search, the sensitivity derivation at the approximated DRM-based MPP, which does not require the second-order derivatives and additional MPP search to find the DRM-based MPP, is proposed in this paper. A convergence study illustrates that the sensitivity at the approximated DRM-based MPP converges to the sensitivity at the true DRM-based MPP as the design approaches the optimum design. Hence, the sensitivity at the approximated DRM-based MPP is proposed to be used for the DRM-based RBDO to enhance the efficiency of the optimization. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    WORKPLACE RESTRUCTURING AND URBAN FORM: THE CHANGING NATIONAL SETTLEMENT PATTERNS OF THE CANADIAN WORKFORCE

    JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2010
    MARKUS MOOS
    ABSTRACT:,This article examines the relationship between emerging work arrangements and national settlement patterns. While growth is centralized in large cities, social commentators continue to suggest that workplace restructuring,facilitated by technological progress,encourages more dispersed settlement patterns, evoking concern about the environmental sustainability of the trend. Multivariate analysis using Canadian census data shows that with the exception of self-employed professionals, the home workers, and self-employed in nonmanual occupations have a lower tendency to reside in large cities than otherwise similar wage and salary earning commuters. However, household mobility and temporal trends suggest that workplace restructuring is not dispersing workers away from large cities by inducing mobility, but that take-up is higher in more remote areas. It is argued that workplace restructuring permits more dispersed national settlement patterns than if workers needed to move to large cities for proximity to employment growth. The article reflects on the implications of the findings for urban sustainability policies that promote compact urban forms and the policies that emphasize consumption amenities of cities to attract mobile workers. [source]


    Set theoretic formulation of performance reliability of multiple response time-variant systems due to degradations in system components

    QUALITY AND RELIABILITY ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2007
    Young Kap Son
    Abstract This paper presents a design stage method for assessing performance reliability of systems with multiple time-variant responses due to component degradation. Herein the system component degradation profiles over time are assumed to be known and the degradation of the system is related to component degradation using mechanistic models. Selected performance measures (e.g. responses) are related to their critical levels by time-dependent limit-state functions. System failure is defined as the non-conformance of any response and unions of the multiple failure regions are required. For discrete time, set theory establishes the minimum union size needed to identify a true incremental failure region. A cumulative failure distribution function is built by summing incremental failure probabilities. A practical implementation of the theory can be manifest by approximating the probability of the unions by second-order bounds. Further, for numerical efficiency probabilities are evaluated by first-order reliability methods (FORM). The presented method is quite different from Monte Carlo sampling methods. The proposed method can be used to assess mean and tolerance design through simultaneous evaluation of quality and performance reliability. The work herein sets the foundation for an optimization method to control both quality and performance reliability and thus, for example, estimate warranty costs and product recall. An example from power engineering shows the details of the proposed method and the potential of the approach. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    FICTIONAL FORM AND SYMPHONIC STRUCTURE: AN ESSAY IN COMPARATIVE AESTHETICS

    RATIO, Issue 4 2009
    Peter Kivy
    It is agreed on all hands that both fictional narratives and the familiar genres of classical music possess an inner structure that both can be perceived and be appreciated aesthetically. It is my argument here that this inner structure plays a crucially different role in fictional narrative than it does in classical music, confining myself here to ,absolute music' (which is to say, pure instrumental music without text, programme, dramatic setting, or other ,extra-musical' content). The argument, basically, is that whereas the sophisticated listener to the absolute music repertory is keenly, consciously aware of the inner structure, the sophisticated reader of fictional narrative, the principal exemplar being the novel, is not so aware. Therefore, whereas musical structure directly contributes to aesthetic satisfaction, narrative structure contributes only indirectly (which is not to deny that, at times, the reader is consciously aware of narrative structure, and that, at such times, it does contribute directly to aesthetic satisfaction). [source]


    THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL FORM IN THE MIXED MARKET FOR FOSTER CARE

    ANNALS OF PUBLIC AND COOPERATIVE ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2010
    Jeremy Thornton
    ABSTRACT,:,This paper uses proprietary quality of care data to examine the consequences of organizational form in privatized US foster care services. The contract failure hypothesis generically proposes that nonprofits should provide higher quality services, relative to for-profits, when output is costly to observe. Advocates argue that the nonprofits offer important consumer protections when public services are contracted to private agencies. Contrary to expectations, we find that nonprofit firms do not offer higher quality services. We explore the possibility that monitoring efforts by state regulators or competition among foster care agencies effectively mitigate the influence of organizational form in this particular mixed market. [source]


    SUNK COSTS OF CAPITAL AND THE FORM OF ENTERPRISE: INVESTOR-OWNED FIRMS AND WORKER-OWNED FIRMS,

    ANNALS OF PUBLIC AND COOPERATIVE ECONOMICS, Issue 1 2010
    Kazuhiko Mikami
    ABSTRACT,:,This paper examines implications of sunk costs of capital for efficient forms of enterprise. It is assumed that firm owners and outside traders are asymmetrically informed of venture risks, and that there are sunk costs associated with investment in physical and human capital. We then make an efficiency comparison between investor-owned and worker-owned firms. We find that the firm is efficient when it is owned by the input supplier (the investor or worker) who incurs large sunk costs. This is because such an input supplier can credibly signal to the other input supplier that he in fact has a safe project. An empirical study based on the Japanese manufacturing industry seems to support the theoretical result. [source]


    INJECTABLE FORM OF CALCIUM SULPHATE AS TREATMENT OF ANEURYSMAL BONE CYSTS

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2008
    Mark Clayer
    Background: Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are a rare condition in adolescents and teenagers but may result in pain, fracture and growth abnormalities. The gold standard of open curettage carries the risk of surgical complications and still a local recurrence rate of 20,30%. Percutaneous treatment of ABC have rarely been reported and a poor response the usual outcome. This study investigated a new technique of percutaneous aspiration and injection of ABC using an aqueous solution of calcium sulphate. Methods: A radiological diagnosis of a bone cyst was made in 15 consecutive patients and pathologically confirmed as ABC. Most had already sustained a fracture and/or had been previously unsuccessfully treated by minimally invasive techniques including embolization or methylprednisolone injection. The procedure of aspiration and injection with calcium sulphate was undertaken, and the patients were reviewed regularly both clinically and radiologically for a minimum of 2 years. Results: The calcium sulphate cement was reabsorbed completely within 8 weeks. The first osseous response was periosteal new bone formation circumferentially followed by gradual opacification of the cystic cavity. All except one patient that described pain before the procedure reported complete relief of symptoms by 4 weeks. Two patients developed a local recurrence of the cyst, and one subsequently developed a pathological fracture. Two patients sustained pathological fractures through healed cysts, 12 and 22 months after the procedure, respectively. Conclusions: This new technique has shown good early clinical and radiological responses and a low complication rate in a consecutive group of patients with ABC. [source]


    THE SACRISTY OF SAN MARCO, VENICE: FORM AND FUNCTION ILLUMINATED

    ART HISTORY, Issue 3 2009
    LYDIA HAMLETT
    The sacristy at San Marco in Venice had a crucial functional role, both within the daily liturgical life of the basilica and especially during the ritual activity of Holy Week, which is reflected through its artistic programmes. This article focuses solely on the sacristy as a key site within the church, and its renaissance rebuilding and decoration c. 1491,1546. It examines the major elements of the programme in turn, including the mosaics, door, tarsie and tapestries. For the first time, each of these developments is viewed as complementary to a deliberate and coherent programme revolving around liturgical requirements, iconography of the Passion and overarching themes of triumph and redemption. Without surviving documentary evidence for the instigation of such a monolithic project, this article argues that the sacristy be looked at anew in light of contemporary understanding of the sacristy as a space. The practical and symbolic associations of the sacristy at San Marco are thus considered in this wider typological context in order to illuminate our own appreciation of the development of the sacristy's artistic programme. [source]


    BETWEEN FORM AND REPRESENTATION: THE FRICK ST FRANCIS

    ART HISTORY, Issue 1 2009
    EMANUELE LUGLI
    The subject of Giovanni Bellini's St Francis, currently housed at the Frick Collection in New York, has perplexed viewers for more than five centuries. Scholars have suggested several possible texts, but none of these has been proven unequivocally to be Bellini's reference. Instead of proposing a new written source, this paper focuses on the formal aspects of the painting. It will thus appear that Bellini bent the representational conventions of his time to produce a work of pictorial intelligence. The formal quality of the Frick St Francis is assessed through an analysis of the laurel tree in the left of the painting. Overlooked by many, the tree is the key element of the Frick panel. It is the tree that justifies the variety of exegetical readings, exemplifying as it does a conflation of forms and an experienced handling of visual effects. [source]


    CONCEPTUAL CLUSTERING AND CASE GENERALIZATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL FORMS

    COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, Issue 3-4 2006
    Silke Jänichen
    Case-based object recognition requires a general case of the object that should be detected. Real-world applications such as the recognition of biological objects in images cannot be solved by one general case. A case base is necessary to handle the great natural variations in the appearance of these objects. In this paper, we will present how to learn a hierarchical case base of general cases. We present our conceptual clustering algorithm to learn groups of similar cases from a set of acquired structural cases of fungal spores. Due to its concept description, it explicitly supplies for each cluster a generalized case and a measure for the degree of its generalization. The resulting hierarchical case base is used for applications in the field of case-based object recognition. We present results based on our application for health monitoring of biologically hazardous material. [source]


    THE NON-PENNSYLVANIA TOWN: DIFFUSION OF URBAN PLAN FORMS IN THE AMERICAN WEST,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
    MICHAEL P. CONZEN
    ABSTRACT. Wilbur Zelinsky's classic 1977 account of the Pennsylvania town as a cultural place type,the urban component of the nationally influential Pennsylvanian culture region,acknowledged that it was not exported intact across the successive western frontiers of the United States. But, aside from Edward Price's specialized study of courthouse squares, we know little that is systematic about how town-planning ideas diffused across the continent. This investigation offers evidence from the Willamette Valley in Oregon of the eventual variety and geographical distribution of town-platting conventions that developed in this Pacific Coast "destination' setting and the possible provenance in the Ohio Valley of certain early Oregonian town-plan features. The evidence raises questions about the resilience of town-planning conventions in light of the distance carried, cultural time lags, and changing ideas about best practice and local suitability. [source]


    BRONZE AGE BARROWS ON THE HEATHLANDS OF SOUTHERN ENGLAND: CONSTRUCTION, FORMS AND INTERPRETATIONS

    OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    RICHARD BRADLEY
    Summary The Bronze Age barrows on the downs of southern England have been investigated and discussed for nearly 200 years, but much less attention has been paid to similar structures in the areas of heathland beyond the chalk and river gravels. They were built in a phase of expansion towards the end of the Early Bronze Age, and more were constructed during the Middle Bronze Age. They have a number of distinctive characteristics. This paper considers the interpretation of these monuments and their wider significance in relation to the pattern of settlement. It also discusses the origins of field systems in lowland England. [source]


    FORMS OF PLASTICITY IN THE MAMMALIAN NERVOUS SYSTEM

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue S1 2005
    Article first published online: 15 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    APPROXIMATION PROPERTIES OF TP MODEL FORMS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES TO TPDC DESIGN FRAMEWORK

    ASIAN JOURNAL OF CONTROL, Issue 3 2007
    Domonkos Tikk
    ABSTRACT Tensor Product Distributed Compensation (TPDC) is a recently established controller design framework, that links TP model transformation and Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC) framework. TP model transformation converts different models to a common representational form: the TP model form. The primary aim of this paper is to investigate the approximation capabilities of TP model forms, because the universal applicability of TPDC framework strongly relies on it. We point out that the set of functions that can be approximated arbitrarily well by TP forms with bounded number of components lies no-where dense in the set of continuous functions. Consequently, in a class of control problems this property necessitates the usage of tradeoff techniques between the accuracy and the complexity of the TP form, which is easily feasible within the TPDC framework unlike in analytic models. [source]


    Why Games Will Be the Preeminent Art Form of the 21stCentury

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2001
    Chris Hecker
    Computer games share many artistic and technical characteristics with films of the early 1900s. Games' artistic evolution is hampered by the lack of artistic respect from society at large, and the lack of technical standards that would allow artistic innovation. The same problems affected cinema during its birth. During the early 20th century, film managed to find its way from popular diversion to highly respected art form. Will games follow the same course, or will they be stuck forever in the ghetto of pop culture? What technological and artistic changes need to occur in the medium for games to evolve beyond merely shooting aliens and into an art form worthy of association with painting, music, writing, and film? This talk will pose some of those questions, if not attempt to answer them. [source]


    Grammatical Inference Techniques and Their Application in Ground Investigation

    COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2008
    Ian Morrey
    The data obtained from trial pits can be coded into a form that can be used as sample observations for input to a grammatical inference machine. A grammatical inference machine is a black box, which when presented with a sample of observations of some unknown source language, produces a grammar which is compatible with the sample. This article presents a heuristic model for a grammatical inference machine, which takes as data sentences and non-sentences identified as such, and is capable of inferring grammars in the class of context-free grammars expressed in Chomsky Normal Form. An algorithm and its corresponding software implementation have been developed based on this model. The software takes, as input, coded representations of ground investigation data, and produces as output a grammar which describes and classifies the geotechnical data observed in the area, and also promises the possibility of being able to predict the likely configuration of strata across the site. [source]


    A Physiognomy of the Capitalist Form of Life: A Sketch of Adorno's Social Theory

    CONSTELLATIONS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRITICAL AND DEMOCRATIC THEORY, Issue 1 2005
    Axel Honneth
    First page of article [source]


    Validation of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale by comparison with the Short Form 36 scale among psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 6 2009
    Ching-I Hung M.D.
    Abstract Background: The Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS) is a self-administered scale developed for monitoring both depression and somatic symptoms. The aims of this study were to establish the criterion-related validity of the DSSS by testing the correlation between the DSSS and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale and to compare the ability of the DSSS and two other scales in predicting the outcome of the SF-36. Methods: The study enrolled 135 outpatients with a major depressive episode, 95 of whom received treatment for 1 month. Four scales were administered and evaluated: the DSSS, the SF-36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Pearson correlation was used to test correlations among scales. Multiple linear regressions were used to find the scales most effective in predicting the SF-36. Results: The three scales were significantly correlated with most of the SF-36 subscales. The depression and somatic subscales of the DSSS significantly correlated with the mental and physical subscales of the SF-36, respectively. The DSSS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were better able to predict physical and mental subscales of the SF-36, respectively. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale had a good ability to predict functional impairment. Conclusions: Psychometric scales with appropriate somatic symptoms might be more compatible with both physical and mental dimensions of the SF-36. DSSS proved to be a valid scale for monitoring both depression and somatic symptoms in patients with depression. Future studies should test whether the DSSS is better at predicting the treatment and prognosis of depression than conventional scales for depression. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Evaluation of the Efficacy of Polidocanol in the Form of Foam Compared With Liquid Form in Sclerotherapy of the Greater Saphenous Vein: Initial Results

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 12 2003
    Claudine Hamel-Desnos MD
    Background. Foamed sclerosing agents have been used with enthusiasm by phlebologists for more than 5 decades. Any type of varicose veins can and has been treated with this technique. Numerous publications have stressed the advantages of foamed sclerosing agents on the basis of empiric and experimental criteria and have described various individual techniques to prepare foams. Until now, however, no comparative study for the treatment of large varicose veins with foam or liquid exists. Objective. The purpose of this first randomized, prospective, multicenter trial was to study the elimination of reflux, the rate of recanalization, and possible side effects of foam sclerotherapy (FS) compared with conventional liquid sclerotherapy for the greater saphenous vein (GSV). Methods. Eighty-eight patients were randomized into two groups: One group was treated with sclerosing foam (45 patients) and the other with sclerosing liquid (43 cases). Sclerotherapy was performed with direct puncture of the vessel under duplex guidance. The reference sclerosing agent was polidocanol in a 3% solution. The foam was prepared using the Double Syringe System (DSS) method. Only one injection of 2.0 or 2.5 mL liquid or foam was allowed, depending on the diameter of the GSV. Results were assessed according to the protocol. Results. Follow-up after 3 weeks showed 84% elimination of reflux in the GSV with DSS foam versus 40% with liquid sclerosant (P < 0.01). At 6 months, six recanalizations were found in the liquid group versus two in the foam group. After 1 year, no additional recanalization was observed with either foam or liquid. Longer term studies are underway. Side effects did not differ between both groups. Conclusion. The efficacy of sclerosing foam (DSS) compared with sclerosing liquid in therapy of the GSV is superior, a finding that had already gained empirical recognition but for which there has not been any clinical evidence to date. [source]


    Managing Design for Market Advantage: Protecting Both Form and Function of Innovative Designs

    DESIGN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, Issue 1 2004
    Joshua Cohen
    To reap the rewards of creative designs, it is critical to maintain ownership and control of those designs. Joshua Cohen summarizes the spectrum of legal options for protecting products, packaging, and related intellectual property. He highlights potential conflicts among these options, suggests how they can be used to complement one another, and proposes strategies to make design protection an integral aspect of designing and marketing. [source]


    Use of the Bruininks,Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency for identifying children with motor impairment

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 11 2007
    Fotini Venetsanou MSc
    This study compared the consistency of the Short Form (SF) and the Long Form (LF) of the Bruininks,Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) in identifying preschool children with motor impairment (MI). One hundred and forty-four Greek preschool children participated (74 males, 70 females; mean age 5y 2mo [SD 5mo], range 4y 6mo-5y 6mo). Although total SF and LF scores were highly correlated (r=0.85), paired t -tests indicated significant differences (t=-27.466, p=0.001). SF total scores (mean 58.72 [SD 7.28]) were higher than LF total scores (mean 47.38 [SD 9.43]). SF had low sensitivity (13.6%) and negative predictive value (72.5%) for identifying MI. The BOTMP-SF does not appear to be a valid test for the identification of MI in 5-year-old children. [source]


    Diabetes Care Protocol: effects on patient-important outcomes.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2010
    A cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial in primary care
    Diabet. Med. 27, 442,450 (2010) Abstract Aims, The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP) combines task delegation, intensification of diabetes treatment and feedback. It reduces cardiovascular risk in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. This study determines the effects of DCP on patient-important outcomes. Methods, A cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial, by self-administered questionnaires in 55 Dutch primary care practices: 26 practices DCP (1699 patients), 26 usual care (1692 patients). T2DM patients treated by their general practitioner were included. Main outcome was the 1-year between-group difference in Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) total score. Secondary outcomes: DHP-18 subscales, general perceived health [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Items Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Euroqol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and Euroqol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS)], treatment satisfaction (Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire; DTSQ status) and psychosocial self-efficacy (Diabetes Empowerment Scale Short Form; DES-SF). Per protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed: non-inferiority margin , = ,2%. At baseline 2333 questionnaires were returned and 1437 1 year thereafter. Results, Comparing DCP with usual care, DHP-18 total score was non-inferior: PP ,0.88 (95% CI ,1.94 to 0.12), ITT ,0.439 (95% CI ,1.01 to 0.08), SF-36 ,health change' improved: PP 3.51 (95% CI 1.23 to 5.82), ITT 1.91 (95% CI 0.62 to 3.23), SF-36 ,social functioning' was inconclusive: PP ,1.57 (95% CI ,4.3 to 0.72), ITT ,1.031 (95% CI ,2.52 to ,0.25). Other DHP and SF-36 scores were inconsistent or non-inferior. DHP-18 ,disinhibited eating' was significantly worse in PP analyses. For EQ-5D/EQ-VAS, DTSQ and DES-SF, no significant between-group differences were found. Conclusion, DCP does not seem to influence health status negatively, therefore diabetes care providers should not shrink from intensified treatment. However, they should take possible detrimental effects on ,social functioning' and ,disinhibited eating' into account. [source]


    Form before Substance: Eisenhower's Commitment to Psychological Warfare and Negotiations with the Enemy

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 3 2000
    Kenneth A. Osgood
    [source]