Forest Exploitation (forest + exploitation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The Political Ecology of Transition in Cambodia 1989,1999: War, Peace and Forest Exploitation

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 4 2000
Philippe Le Billon
Over the last decade, forests have played an important role in the transition from war to peace in Cambodia. Forest exploitation financed the continuation of war beyond the Cold War and regional dynamics, yet it also stimulated co-operation between conflicting parties. Timber represented a key stake in the rapacious transition from the (benign) socialism of the post-Khmer Rouge period to (exclusionary) capitalism, thereby becoming the most politicized resource of a reconstruction process that has failed to be either as green or as democratic as the international community had hoped. This article explores the social networks and power politics shaping forest exploitation, with the aim of casting light on the politics of transition. It also scrutinizes the unintended consequences of the international community's discourse of democracy, good governance, and sustainable development on forest access rights. The commodification of Cambodian forests is interpreted as a process of transforming nature into money through a political ecology of transition that legitimates an exclusionary form of capitalism. [source]


Empowering Pyromaniacs in Madagascar: Ideology and Legitimacy in Community-Based Natural Resource Management

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2002
Christian A. Kull
Development practitioners frequently rely on community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) as an approach to encourage equitable and sustainable environmental resource use. Based on an analysis of the case of grassland and woodland burning in highland Madagascar, this article argues that the success of CBNRM depends upon the real empowerment of local resource users and attention to legitimacy in local institutions. Two key factors , obstructive environmental ideologies (,received wisdoms') and the complex political and social arena of ,community' governance , challenge empowerment and legitimacy and can transform outcomes. In Madagascar, persistent hesitancy among leaders over the legitimate role of fire has sidetracked a new CBNRM policy called GELOSE away from one of its original purposes , community fire management , towards other applications, such as community management of forest exploitation. In addition, complications with local governance frustrate implementation efforts. As a result, a century-long political stalemate over fire continues. [source]


The Political Ecology of Transition in Cambodia 1989,1999: War, Peace and Forest Exploitation

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 4 2000
Philippe Le Billon
Over the last decade, forests have played an important role in the transition from war to peace in Cambodia. Forest exploitation financed the continuation of war beyond the Cold War and regional dynamics, yet it also stimulated co-operation between conflicting parties. Timber represented a key stake in the rapacious transition from the (benign) socialism of the post-Khmer Rouge period to (exclusionary) capitalism, thereby becoming the most politicized resource of a reconstruction process that has failed to be either as green or as democratic as the international community had hoped. This article explores the social networks and power politics shaping forest exploitation, with the aim of casting light on the politics of transition. It also scrutinizes the unintended consequences of the international community's discourse of democracy, good governance, and sustainable development on forest access rights. The commodification of Cambodian forests is interpreted as a process of transforming nature into money through a political ecology of transition that legitimates an exclusionary form of capitalism. [source]


The structure and status of forest fragments outside protected areas in central Uganda

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Deborah Baranga
Abstract Given the extent of tropical forest deforestation and as a number of conservation programmes and local communities rely on forest fragments, it has become important to understand how fragment exploitation by local communities affects forest structure and function. The effects of forest exploitation on forest structure and status of forest fragments were investigated in 20 nonreserved forest fragments in central Uganda. Enumeration of plots showed that tree species composition of the forest fragments was 60.0%, 23.7% and 6.3% for under-storey, middle and top canopy trees respectively. The major activity was fuel wood extraction (65%), followed by brick making (10%), cultivation and livestock paddocks (10%), charcoal burning (5%), local brew distillation and others (5%). These extractive processes caused drastic structural changes, habitat degradation and destruction. Tree stumps enumeration indicated that under storey trees formed the highest proportion for wood extraction. There was no significant difference in the level of forest exploitation (basal area loss) among forest patches of varying sizes. Résumé Etant donné l'étendue de la déforestation tropicale et vu qu'un certain nombre de programmes de conservation et de communautés locales dépendent de fragments forestiers, il devient vraiment important de comprendre comment l'exploitation de ces parcelles par les communautés locales affecte la structure et les fonctions forestières. Les effets de l'exploitation forestière sur la structure et le statut des fragments forestiers ont étéétudiés dans 20 fragments forestiers non préservés du centre de l'Ouganda. Le dénombrement des parcelles a montré que trois compositions d'espèces des fragments forestiers composaient respectivement 60,0%, 23,7% et 6,3% du sous-bois, de l'étage moyen et de la canopée. L'activité principale était l'extraction de bois de feu (65%), suivie par la fabrication de briques (10%), les enclos pour la culture ou le bétail (10%), la fabrication de charbon de bois (5%), la distillation de boissons locales et autres (5%). Ces diverses extractions causaient des changements structurels importants, une dégradation de l'habitat, voire sa destruction. Le dénombrement des souches d'arbres a montré que les arbres des sous-bois constituaient la plus grande proportion des arbres prélevés. Il n'y avait pas de différence significative du niveau d'exploitation forestière (perte de surface réelle) entre les îlots forestiers de tailles différentes. [source]


55 Ice age kelp forests: climate-driven changes in kelp forest distribution since the last glacial maximum

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2003
M. H. Graham
Kelp forest distributions are constrained by the availability of rocky substrate within the depth range tolerable for growth and reproduction, which can vary over relatively short geological timescales (millennia) due to interactions between coastal bathymetry and climate-driven changes in eustatic sea level. Using GIS, a digital bathymetric map, sea level curves, and published kelp depth tolerances, I reconstructed changes in the size and distribution of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forests in the Southern California Bight since the last glacial maximum. Reconstructions predicted that the total area of available kelp forest habitat for the California Channel Islands during the last glacial maximum (18.5 kyr BP; 628 square km) was greater than at present (382 square km) but less than at 16.5 kyr BP (1130 square km). Available kelp forest habitat along the southern California mainland also increased rapidly from 18.5 to 16.5 kyr BP but continued to increase with sea level rise. Differences in the effects of sea level rise on coastal geomorphology between the islands and mainland further constrained the extent of rocky substrate available to kelps. Given biomass and productivity estimates from present-day kelp forests, these reconstructions suggest more productive and spatially extensive island kelp forests near the last glacial maximum than at present, but the opposite pattern for the mainland. These climate-driven changes in kelp forest distribution and productivity likely had important historical impacts on the ecology and evolution of the present-day kelp ecosystem including kelp forest exploitation by early human inhabitants of southern California. [source]