Forest Birds (forest + bird)

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Terms modified by Forest Birds

  • forest bird species

  • Selected Abstracts

    One Hundred Fifty Years of Change in Forest Bird Breeding Habitat: Estimates of Species Distributions

    aptitud del hábitat; ecología aviar; ecología de paisaje; planificación de conservación Abstract:,Evaluating bird population trends requires baseline data. In North America the earliest population data available are those from the late 1960s. Forest conditions in the northern Great Lake states (U.S.A.), however, have undergone succession since the region was originally cut over around the turn of the twentieth century, and it is expected that bird populations have undergone concomitant change. We propose pre-Euro-American settlement as an alternative baseline for assessing changes in bird populations. We evaluated the amount, quality, and distribution of breeding bird habitat during the mid-1800s and early 1990s for three forest birds: the Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus), Blackburnian Warbler (D. fusca), and Black-throated Green Warbler (D. virens). We constructed models of bird and habitat relationships based on literature review and regional data sets of bird abundance and applied these models to widely available vegetation data. Original public-land survey records represented historical habitat conditions, and a combination of forest inventory and national land-cover data represented current conditions. We assessed model robustness by comparing current habitat distribution to actual breeding bird locations from the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas. The model showed little change in the overall amount of Pine Warbler habitat, whereas both the Blackburnian Warber and the Black-throated Green Warbler have experienced substantial habitat losses. For the species we examined, habitat quality has degraded since presettlement and the spatial distribution of habitat shifted among ecoregions, with range expansion accompanying forest incursion into previously open habitats or the replacement of native forests with pine plantations. Sources of habitat loss and degradation include loss of conifers and loss of large trees. Using widely available data sources in a habitat suitability model framework, our method provides a long-term analysis of change in bird habitat and a presettlement baseline for assessing current conservation priority. Resumen:,La evaluación de tendencias de las poblaciones de aves requiere de datos de referencia. En Norte América, los primeros datos disponibles de poblaciones son del final de la década de 1960. Sin embargo, las condiciones de los bosques en los estados de los Grandes Lagos (E.U.A.) han experimentado sucesión desde que la región fue talada en los inicios del siglo veinte, y se espera que las poblaciones de aves hayan experimentado cambios concomitantes. Proponemos que se considere al período previo a la colonización euro americana como referencia alternativa para evaluar los cambios en las poblaciones de aves. Evaluamos la cantidad, calidad y distribución del hábitat para reproducción de tres especies de aves de bosque (Dendroica pinus, D. fusca y D. virens) a mediados del siglo XIX e inicios del XX. Construimos modelos de las relaciones entre las aves y el hábitat con base en la literatura y conjuntos de datos de abundancia de aves y los aplicamos a los datos de vegetación ampliamente disponibles. Los registros topográficos de tierras públicas originales representaron las condiciones históricas del hábitat, y una combinación de datos del inventario forestal y de cobertura de suelo representaron las condiciones actuales. Evaluamos la robustez del modelo mediante la comparación de la distribución de hábitat actual con sitios de reproducción de aves registrados en el Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas. El modelo mostró poco cambio en la cantidad total de hábitat de Dendroica pinus, mientras que tanto D. fusca como D. virens han experimentado pérdidas sustanciales de hábitat. Para las especies examinadas, la calidad del hábitat se ha degradado desde antes de la colonización y la distribución espacial del hábitat cambió entre ecoregiones, con la expansión del rango acompañando la incursión de bosques en hábitats anteriormente abiertos o el reemplazo de bosques nativos con plantaciones de pinos. Las fuentes de pérdida y degradación de hábitats incluyen la pérdida de coníferas y de árboles grandes. Mediante la utilización de fuentes de datos ampliamente disponibles en un modelo de aptitud de hábitat, nuestro método proporciona un análisis a largo plazo de los cambios en el hábitat de aves y una referencia precolonización para evaluar prioridades de conservación actuales. [source]

    Conservation value of degraded habitats for forest birds in southern Peninsular Malaysia

    Kelvin S.-H.
    ABSTRACT Clearance of tropical forest for agricultural purposes is generally assumed to seriously threaten the survival of forest species. In this study, we quantified the conservation value, for forest bird species, of three degraded habitat types in Peninsular Malaysia, namely rubber tree plantations, oil palm plantations, and open areas. We surveyed these degraded habitats using point counts to estimate their forest bird species richness and abundance. We assessed whether richness, abundance, and activities of different avian dietary groups (i.e. insectivores and frugivores) varied among the habitats. We identified the critical habitat elements that accounted for the distribution of forest avifauna in these degraded habitats. Our results showed that these habitats harboured a moderate fraction of forest avifauna (approximately 46,76 species) and their functions were complementary (i.e. rubber tree plantations for moving; open habitats for perching; shrubs in oil palm plantations for foraging). In terms of species richness and abundance, rubber tree plantations were more important than oil palm plantations and open habitats. The relatively high species richness of this agricultural landscape was partly due to the contiguity of our study areas with extensive forest areas. Forecasts of forest-species presence under various canopy cover scenarios suggest that leaving isolated trees among non-arboreal crops could greatly attract relatively tolerant species that require tree canopy. The conservation value of degraded habitats in agricultural landscapes seems to depend on factors such as the type of crops planted and distance to primary forest remnants. [source]

    Postfledging habitat selection of juvenile middle spotted woodpeckers: a multi-scale approach

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2009
    Carlos Ciudad
    Despite its relevance for the persistence of populations, the ecological mechanisms underlying habitat use decisions of juvenile birds are poorly understood. We examined postfledging habitat selection of radio-tracked juvenile middle spotted woodpeckers Dendrocopos medius at multiple hierarchically-nested spatial scales in NW Spain. At the landscape and home range scales, old oak forest was the most used and selected habitat, young oak forests and pine plantations were avoided, and riverside forests were used as available. At a lower scale, birds selected larger diameter trees for foraging. Home ranges had higher densities of large deciduous trees (mainly oaks Quercus spp., but also poplars Populus spp. and willows Salix spp. >22,cm and >33,cm DBH) selected for foraging by juveniles than non-used areas. These results suggest that foraging conditions may drive, at least partly, habitat use decisions by juvenile birds. We also discuss the potential influence of intraspecific competition, the search for a future breeding territory in the early postfledging period and predation avoidance on habitat use decisions by juvenile birds. Contrary to previous studies on migrant forest birds, postfledging juvenile woodpeckers selected the same habitat as for the breeding adults (i.e. old oak forest), indicating that migrant and resident specialist avian species may require different conservation actions. Conservation strategies of woodpecker populations should consider the protection of old oak forests with high densities of large trees to provide suitable habitat to breeding adults and postfledging juveniles. The habitat improvement for this indicator and umbrella species would also favour other organisms that depend on characteristics of old-growth oak forests. [source]

    Are forest birds categorised as "edge species" strictly associated with edges?

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2003
    Louis Imbeau
    In recent years, studies of bird-habitat relationships undertaken in the context of habitat fragmentation have led to the widespread use of species categorisation according to their response to edge alongside mature forest patches (edge species, interior species, interior-edge generalist species). In other research contexts, especially in less fragmented landscapes dominated by a forested land base in various age classes, bird-habitat relationships are often described in relation to their use of various successional stages (early-successional species, mature forest species, generalist species). A simple comparison of these two commonly-used classifications schemes in a close geographical range for 60 species in eastern North America as well as for 36 species in north-western Europe clearly reveals that in these two particular biomes the two classifications are not independent. We believe that this association is not only a semantic issue and has important ecological consequences. For example, almost all edge species are associated with early-successional habitats when a wide range of forest age-classes are found in a given area. Accordingly, we suggest that most species considered to prefer edge habitats in agricultural landscapes are in fact only early-successional species that could not find shrubland conditions apart from the exposed edges of mature forest fragments. To be considered a true edge species, a given species should require the simultaneous availability of more than one habitat type and consequently should be classified as a habitat generalist in its use of successional stages. However, 28 out of 30 recognised edge species were considered habitat specialists in terms of successional status. Based on these results, we conclude that "real edge species" are probably quite rare and that we should make a difference between true edge species and species which in some landscapes, happen to find their habitat requirements on edges. [source]

    Distributions of forest birds and butterflies in the Andaman islands, Bay of Bengal: nested patterns and processes

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2002
    Priya Davidar
    The distributional patterns of forest birds and butterflies in the Andaman islands, an oceanic chain located off SE Asia, were tested for nestedness. Both taxa were highly nested. Nestedness could be due to colonization or extinction processes, area or distance effects or nestedness of habitats. Nestedness in forest bird distributions were strongly influenced by area and habitat related factors. Habitats were significantly nested in all three island groups, however most strongly for the North Andamans. However forest bird distributions in the North Andamans, as indicated by row order in the packed matrix, was not correlated with habitat diversity, suggesting that habitat related factors alone cannot account for these patterns. Other causal influences could be passive sampling, where common and abundant species and habitats are more likely to have a widespread distribution than rare species and habitats. The nested subset pattern seen in two unrelated taxa suggests that the Andamans are extinction dominated and that the protection of forests on large islands is critical for the conservation of its biodiversity. [source]

    Dose-dependent uptake, elimination, and toxicity of monosodium methanearsonate in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Courtney A. Albert
    Abstract Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), an arsenic-based pesticide, has been used for the past 10 years in attempts to suppress mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada. Previous studies have shown that cavity nesting forest birds such as woodpeckers forage and breed in MSMA treated pine stands. Here we examined the effects of MSMA in the laboratory using the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), with the objective to examine tissue distribution and sublethal toxic effects in a model avian species. Zebra finches were exposed to this pesticide at doses similar to those found in bark beetle samples from MSMA stands of trees treated in the southern interior of British Columbia (8, 24, and 72 ,g/g/d and a control group). Results showed high excretion (>90%) of arsenic in all dose groups, as well as dose-dependent trends in accumulation of arsenic in the blood (p < 0.001) and specific tissues. Monomethylarsonic acid, MMA (V), was the predominant form of arsenic in the blood plasma. Dimethylarsinic acid was the major form of arsenic found in the liver (83%) and kidney (61%) tissues. The brain tissue contained primarily the MMA (V) form (57%). Significant weight loss occurred in the two highest dose groups (p < 0.05). Birds in the highest dose group lost up to 15% of initial body mass. [source]

    Population trends of widespread woodland birds in Europe

    IBIS, Issue 2007
    We explore population trends of widespread and common woodland birds using data from an extensive European network of ornithologists for the period 1980,2003. We show considerable differences exist in the European trends of species according to the broad habitat they occupy and the degree to which they specialize in habitat use. On average, common forest birds are in shallow decline at a European scale; common forest birds declined by 13%, and common forest specialists by 18%, from 1980 to 2003. In comparison, populations of common specialists of farmland have declined moderately, falling on average by 28% from 1980 to 2003. These patterns contrast with that shown by generalist species whose populations have been roughly stable over the same period, their overall index increasing by 3%. There was some evidence of regional variation in the population trends of these common forest species. The most obvious pattern was the greater stability of population trends in Eastern Europe compared with other regions considered. Among common forest birds, long-distance migrants and residents have on average declined most strongly, whereas short-distance migrants have been largely stable, or have increased. There was some evidence to suggest that ground- or low-nesting species have declined more strongly on average, as have forest birds with invertebrate diets. Formal analysis of the species trends confirmed the influence of habitat use, habitat specialization and nest-site; the effects of region and migration strategy were less clear-cut. There was also evidence to show that year-to-year variation in individual species trends at a European scale was influenced by cold winter weather in a small number of species. We recommend that the species trend information provided by the new pan-European scheme should be used alongside existing mechanisms to review the conservation status of European birds. The analysis also allows us to reappraise the role of common forest bird populations as a potential barometer of wider forest health. The new indicator appears to be a useful indicator of the state of widespread European forest birds and might prove to be a useful surrogate for trends in forest biodiversity and forest health, but more work is likely to be needed to understand the interaction between bird populations and their drivers in forest. [source]

    The effects of fragmentation on fluctuating asymmetry in passerine birds of Brazilian tropical forests

    M. Anciães
    Summary 1. ,Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) refers to the difference between the right and left sides in characters that should otherwise be bilaterally symmetrical, but whose expression is affected by epigenetic stress during development. Forest fragmentation may promote an increase in FA in isolated populations, by either genetic or environmental stress. FA may function as a biomonitor index in conservation biology if increased levels were observed in populations from fragmented habitats. 2. ,We tested the hypothesis that FA is higher in birds from small tropical forest patches than in large forest tracts. We measured wing and tarsus FA on mist-netted birds from seven fragments and seven continuous areas from south-eastern Atlantic rain forest in Brazil. We performed FA comparisons between fragments and control groups for the whole community, for individual foraging guilds and for the six most abundant species. 3. ,Wing and tarsus FA were significantly greater in fragments than continuous areas for the whole community and were both negatively correlated with forest fragment size. Differences in FA varied among foraging guilds, being more evident for insectivorous species, especially those feeding in or near the understorey. 4. ,FA levels increased significantly in forest fragments in at least one trait for five of the six most abundant species. There was no correlation between tarsus and wing asymmetries for the individuals of any species nor any difference between the degree of asymmetries of these characters. 5. ,We suggest that FA is a useful tool to assess the effects of fragmentation on forest birds, and may be applied in monitoring neotropical birds. FA indices might be profitably developed, particularly in species most threatened by fragmentation effects and when investigated in different morphological characters. [source]

    Assessing the impact of deforestation and climate change on the range size and environmental niche of bird species in the Atlantic forests, Brazil

    Bette A. Loiselle
    Abstract Aim, Habitat loss and climate change are two major drivers of biological diversity. Here we quantify how deforestation has already changed, and how future climate scenarios may change, environmental conditions within the highly disturbed Atlantic forests of Brazil. We also examine how environmental conditions have been altered within the range of selected bird species. Location, Atlantic forests of south-eastern Brazil. Methods, The historical distribution of 21 bird species was estimated using Maxent. After superimposing the present-day forest cover, we examined the environmental niches hypothesized to be occupied by these birds pre- and post-deforestation using environmental niche factor analysis (ENFA). ENFA was also used to compare conditions in the entire Atlantic forest ecosystem pre- and post-deforestation. The relative influence of land use and climate change on environmental conditions was examined using analysis of similarity and principal components analysis. Results, Deforestation in the region has resulted in a decrease in suitable habitat of between 78% and 93% for the Atlantic forest birds included here. Further, Atlantic forest birds today experience generally wetter and less seasonal forest environments than they did historically. Models of future environmental conditions within forest remnants suggest generally warmer conditions and lower annual variation in rainfall due to greater precipitation in the driest quarter of the year. We found that deforestation resulted in a greater divergence of environmental conditions within Atlantic forests than that predicted by climate change. Main conclusions, The changes in environmental conditions that have occurred with large-scale deforestation suggest that selective regimes may have shifted and, as a consequence, spatial patterns of intra-specific variation in morphology, behaviour and genes have probably been altered. Although the observed shifts in available environmental conditions resulting from deforestation are greater than those predicted by climate change, the latter will result in novel environments that exceed temperatures in any present-day climates and may lead to biotic attrition unless organisms can adapt to these warmer conditions. Conserving intra-specific diversity over the long term will require considering both how changes in the recent past have influenced contemporary populations and the impact of future environmental change. [source]

    A multilocus study of pine grosbeak phylogeography supports the pattern of greater intercontinental divergence in Holarctic boreal forest birds than in birds inhabiting other high-latitude habitats

    Sergei V. Drovetski
    Abstract Aim, Boreal forest bird species appear to be divided into lineages endemic to each northern continent, in contrast to Holarctic species living in open habitats. For example, the three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) and the winter wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) have divergent Nearctic and Palaearctic mitochondrial DNA clades. Furthermore, in these species, the next closest relative of the Nearctic/Palaearctic sister lineages is the Nearctic clade, suggesting that the Palaearctic may have been colonized from the Nearctic. The aim of this study is to test this pattern of intercontinental divergence and colonization in another Holarctic boreal forest resident , the pine grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator). Location, The Holarctic. Methods, We sequenced the mitochondrial ND2 gene and Z -specific intron 9 of the ACO1 gene for 74 pine grosbeaks collected across the Holarctic. The sequences were used to reconstruct the phylogeographical history of this species using maximum likelihood analysis. Results, We discovered two distinct mitochondrial and Z -specific lineages in the Nearctic and one in the Palaearctic. The two Nearctic mtDNA lineages, one in the northern boreal forest and one in south-western mountain forest, were more closely related to each other than either was to the Palaearctic clade. Two Nearctic Z-chromosome clades were sympatric in the boreal and south-western mountain forests. Unlike the topology of the mtDNA tree, the relationship among the Z-chromosome clades was the same as in the three-toed woodpecker and winter wren [Nearctic (Nearctic, Palaearctic)]. The Palaearctic Z-chromosome clade had much lower genetic diversity and a single-peak mismatch distribution with a mean < 25% of that for either Nearctic region, both of which had ragged mismatch distributions. Main conclusions, Our data suggest that, similar to the other boreal forest species, the pine grosbeak has divergent lineages in each northern continent and could have colonized the Palaearctic from the Nearctic. Compared with many Holarctic birds inhabiting open habitats, boreal forest species appear to be more differentiated, possibly because the boreal forests of the Nearctic and Palaearctic have been isolated since the Pliocene (3.5 Ma). [source]

    Effects of forest fragmentation on European birds: implications of regional differences in species richness

    José Luis Tellería
    Abstract Aim, In this paper, we adopted a large-scale approach to evaluate the effect of regional richness of forest birds on the number of bird species retained by forest fragments in several localities across Europe. Location, We studied bird assemblages in fourteen forest archipelagos embedded in agricultural matrices from southern Norway to central Spain. Tree composition varied from oak and beech forests of the northern localities to oak and pine xerophitic woodlands of the southern ones. The number of fragments in each forest archipelago ranged from eighteen to 211. Methods, We used the Gleason equation (s = a + z log A; where s and A are, respectively, the species richness and size of forest fragments and z the rate of species loss) to estimate the species richness for 1- and 15-ha fragments in each archipelago. The regional richness of forest birds was estimated by modelling the geographical distribution of species richness in the European atlas of breeding birds. Results, The latitudinal distribution of regional richness displayed a convex form, with the highest values being in central Europe. Along this gradient, the number of species retained by fragments and the rate of species loss was positively related to regional richness. In addition, the percentage of the regional pool of species sampled by fragments decreased in the southern localities. Main conclusions, Relationships between regional richness of forest birds and richness in fragments seem to explain why fragments in central Europe shelter more species than their southern counterparts. The decreased ability of southern forest fragments to sample the regional richness of forest birds, could be explained as an effect of the low abundance of many species in the Mediterranean, which could depress their ability to prevent extinction in fragments by a rescue effect. Alternatively, high beta diversity in the Mediterranean could produce undersampling by fragments of the regional pool of species. These regional differences in the response of bird assemblages to forest fragmentation are used to discuss the usefulness of large-scale, biogeographical approaches in the design of conservation guidelines. [source]

    Forest fragmentation relaxes natural nest predation in an Afromontane forest

    T. Spanhove
    Abstract Nest predation is widely regarded as a major driver underlying the population dynamics of small forest birds. Following forest fragmentation and the subsequent invasion by species from non-forested landscape matrices, shifts in predator communities may increase nest predation near forest edges. However, effects of human-driven habitat change on nest predation have mainly been inferred from studies with artificial nests, despite being regarded as poor surrogates for natural ones. We studied variation in predation rates, and relationships with timing of breeding and characteristics of microhabitats and fragments, on natural white-starred robin Pogonocichla stellata nests during three consecutive breeding seasons (2004,2007) in a Kenyan fragmented cloud forest. More than 70% of all initiated nests were predated during each breeding season. Predation rates nearly quadrupled between the earliest and the latest nests within a single breeding season, increased with distance to the forest edge, and decreased with the edge-to-area ratio of forest fragments. These spatial relationships oppose the traditional perception of edge and fragmentation effects on nest predation, but are in line with results from artificial nest experiments in other East African forests. In case of inverse edge and fragmentation effects on nest predation, such as shown in this study, species that tolerate edges for breeding may be affected positively, rather than negatively, by forest fragmentation, while the opposite can be expected for species restricted to the forest interior. The possibility of inverse edge effects, and its conservation implications, should therefore be taken into account when drafting habitat restoration plans. [source]

    Forest fragmentation positively affecting forest birds?

    N. S. Sodhi
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Housing developments in rural New England: effects on forest birds

    Daniel A. Kluza
    In rural New England, forest fragmentation is caused by housing developments in forested areas. To evaluate the effects of these changes on forest birds, we compared bird assemblages between forests with different housing densities in western Massachusetts. Species occurrences and relative abundances were determined from systematic point count surveys and mist-netting at three plots in forest of low housing density (0,0.05 houses/ha) and of moderate housing density (0.60,6.70 houses/ha) in 1993 and 1994. Among guilds, Neotropical migrants and forest-interior species had significantly lower abundances in forests of moderate housing density. Abundances of ground/shrub nesting birds as a group, and of individual species such as veery (Catharus fuscescens), ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were greater in forest of low housing density, but blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) were more abundant in forest of moderate housing density. Although the abundances of ground/shrub nesting birds were positively related to ground cover, this vegetation structure did not differ between forest types. Avian and mammalian nest predators may be responsible for the trends in bird abundance. Avian nest predators may recognize forest of moderate housing density as edge habitat, and this rural development may also support relatively high densities of mammalian nest predators. These trends suggest that birds of New England's relatively extensive forests may be subject to greater fragmentation effects than generally thought, as a result of increasing rural housing development within forests. [source]

    Gap-crossing decisions of forest birds in a fragmented landscape

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Abstract Habitat loss and fragmentation are recognized as primary drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. To understand the functional effects of habitat fragmentation on bird populations, data on movement across gaps in habitat cover are necessary, although rarely available. In this study, we used call playback to simulate a conspecific territorial intruder to entice birds to move through the landscape in a predictable and directional manner. We then quantified the probability of movement in continuous forest and across cleared gaps for two forest-dependent species, the grey shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica) and the white-throated treecreeper (Cormobates leucophaeus). Fifty-four playback trials were conducted for each species across distances ranging from 25 to 480 m in continuous forest and 15,260 m across gaps in a forest-agricultural landscape in southern Victoria, Australia. The probability of movement was significantly reduced by gaps in forest cover for both species. Shrike-thrushes were six times more likely to move 170 m in continuous forest than to cross 170-m gaps. The mean probability that treecreepers would cross any gap at all was less than 0.5, and they were three times less likely to move 50 m across a gap than through continuous forest. Both species displayed non-linear responses to increasing gap distance: we identified a gap-tolerance threshold of 85 m for the shrike-thrush and 65 m for the treecreeper beyond which individuals were most unlikely to cross. The presence of scattered paddock trees increased functional connectivity for the shrike-thrush, with individuals crossing up to 260 m when scattered trees were present. We conclude that gaps in habitat cover are barriers to movement, and that characteristics of the intervening matrix influence landscape permeability. [source]

    Behavioral Response of Resident Jamaican Birds to Dry Season Food Supplementation,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 1 2006
    David R. Brown
    ABSTRACT We used plot-level manipulations and analyses to test the effects of food availability on the behavior and condition of resident dry-forest birds in Jamaica. Two control plots were monitored in each of 2 yr. Food was supplemented on five plots over 2 yr with piles of cut oranges distributed around plots, which served as a direct source of carbohydrates and water, and an indirect source of ground arthropods due to increased above-ground activity. We reduced ants on five plots over 2 yr; however, we found no difference in total ground arthropod biomass between control and reduction treatments, so we pooled these plots for analysis. We selected nine focal resident bird species for study of relative abundance, body condition, and breeding condition. Birds were sampled prior to, and 5 to 6 weeks after the initiation of treatments. Seven of nine species had higher relative abundance following food supplementation. Three species were recaptured more frequently in supplementation plots than in control plots. These abundance and persistence responses did not cause any changes in body condition. In one species, Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola), food supplementation resulted in higher concentrations of individuals in breeding condition. These results demonstrate a functional response to dry-season food availability and suggest a limiting mechanism. This study helps explain mechanisms by which bird populations respond to resource availability, and is the first successful plot-level food supplementation experiment for tropical forest birds. [source]