Forest Biomass (forest + biomass)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The regional variation of aboveground live biomass in old-growth Amazonian forests

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
YADVINDER MALHI
Abstract The biomass of tropical forests plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, both as a dynamic reservoir of carbon, and as a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in areas undergoing deforestation. However, the absolute magnitude and environmental determinants of tropical forest biomass are still poorly understood. Here, we present a new synthesis and interpolation of the basal area and aboveground live biomass of old-growth lowland tropical forests across South America, based on data from 227 forest plots, many previously unpublished. Forest biomass was analyzed in terms of two uncorrelated factors: basal area and mean wood density. Basal area is strongly affected by local landscape factors, but is relatively invariant at regional scale in moist tropical forests, and declines significantly at the dry periphery of the forest zone. Mean wood density is inversely correlated with forest dynamics, being lower in the dynamic forests of western Amazonia and high in the slow-growing forests of eastern Amazonia. The combination of these two factors results in biomass being highest in the moderately seasonal, slow growing forests of central Amazonia and the Guyanas (up to 350 Mg dry weight ha,1) and declining to 200,250 Mg dry weight ha,1 at the western, southern and eastern margins. Overall, we estimate the total aboveground live biomass of intact Amazonian rainforests (area 5.76 106 km2 in 2000) to be 9323 Pg C, taking into account lianas and small trees. Including dead biomass and belowground biomass would increase this value by approximately 10% and 21%, respectively, but the spatial variation of these additional terms still needs to be quantified. [source]


Evaluating the impacts of climate and elevated carbon dioxide on tropical rainforests of the western Amazon basin using ecosystem models and satellite data

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
HIROFUMI HASHIMOTO
Abstract Forest inventories from the intact rainforests of the Amazon indicate increasing rates of carbon gain over the past three decades. However, such estimates have been questioned because of the poor spatial representation of the sampling plots and the incomplete understanding of purported mechanisms behind the increases in biomass. Ecosystem models, when used in conjunction with satellite data, are useful in examining the carbon budgets in regions where the observations of carbon flows are sparse. The purpose of this study is to explain observed trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) using climate observations and ecosystem models of varying complexity in the western Amazon basin for the period of 1984,2002. We first investigated trends in NDVI and found a positive trend during the study period, but the positive trend in NDVI was observed only in the months from August to December. Then, trends in various climate parameters were calculated, and of the climate variables considered, only shortwave radiation was found to have a corresponding significant positive trend. To compare the impact of each climate component, as well as increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, on evergreen forests in the Amazon, we ran three ecosystem models (CASA, Biome-BGC, and LPJ), and calculated monthly net primary production by changing a climate component selected from the available climate datasets. As expected, CO2 fertilization effects showed positive trends throughout the year and cannot explain the positive trend in NDVI, which was observed only for the months of August to December. Through these simulations, we demonstrated that the positive trend in shortwave radiation can explain the positive trend in NDVI observed for the period from August to December. We conclude that the positive trend in shortwave radiation is the most likely driver of the increasing trend in NDVI and the corresponding observed increases in forest biomass. [source]


The regional variation of aboveground live biomass in old-growth Amazonian forests

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
YADVINDER MALHI
Abstract The biomass of tropical forests plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, both as a dynamic reservoir of carbon, and as a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in areas undergoing deforestation. However, the absolute magnitude and environmental determinants of tropical forest biomass are still poorly understood. Here, we present a new synthesis and interpolation of the basal area and aboveground live biomass of old-growth lowland tropical forests across South America, based on data from 227 forest plots, many previously unpublished. Forest biomass was analyzed in terms of two uncorrelated factors: basal area and mean wood density. Basal area is strongly affected by local landscape factors, but is relatively invariant at regional scale in moist tropical forests, and declines significantly at the dry periphery of the forest zone. Mean wood density is inversely correlated with forest dynamics, being lower in the dynamic forests of western Amazonia and high in the slow-growing forests of eastern Amazonia. The combination of these two factors results in biomass being highest in the moderately seasonal, slow growing forests of central Amazonia and the Guyanas (up to 350 Mg dry weight ha,1) and declining to 200,250 Mg dry weight ha,1 at the western, southern and eastern margins. Overall, we estimate the total aboveground live biomass of intact Amazonian rainforests (area 5.76 106 km2 in 2000) to be 9323 Pg C, taking into account lianas and small trees. Including dead biomass and belowground biomass would increase this value by approximately 10% and 21%, respectively, but the spatial variation of these additional terms still needs to be quantified. [source]


Variation in wood density determines spatial patterns inAmazonian forest biomass

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
Timothy R. Baker
Abstract Uncertainty in biomass estimates is one of the greatest limitations to models of carbon flux in tropical forests. Previous comparisons of field-based estimates of the aboveground biomass (AGB) of trees greater than 10 cm diameter within Amazonia have been limited by the paucity of data for western Amazon forests, and the use of site-specific methods to estimate biomass from inventory data. In addition, the role of regional variation in stand-level wood specific gravity has not previously been considered. Using data from 56 mature forest plots across Amazonia, we consider the relative roles of species composition (wood specific gravity) and forest structure (basal area) in determining variation in AGB. Mean stand-level wood specific gravity, on a per stem basis, is 15.8% higher in forests in central and eastern, compared with northwestern Amazonia. This pattern is due to the higher diversity and abundance of taxa with high specific gravity values in central and eastern Amazonia, and the greater diversity and abundance of taxa with low specific gravity values in western Amazonia. For two estimates of AGB derived using different allometric equations, basal area explains 51.7% and 63.4%, and stand-level specific gravity 45.4% and 29.7%, of the total variation in AGB. The variation in specific gravity is important because it determines the regional scale, spatial pattern of AGB. When weighting by specific gravity is included, central and eastern Amazon forests have significantly higher AGB than stands in northwest or southwest Amazonia. The regional-scale pattern of species composition therefore defines a broad gradient of AGB across Amazonia. [source]


Above-ground forest biomass is not consistently related to wood density in tropical forests

GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
James C. Stegen
ABSTRACT Aim, It is increasingly accepted that the mean wood density of trees within a forest is tightly coupled to above-ground forest biomass. It is unknown, however, if a positive relationship between forest biomass and mean community wood density is a general phenomenon across forests. Understanding spatial variation in biomass as a function of wood density both within and among forests is important for predicting changes in stored carbon in response to global change, and here we evaluated the generality of a positive biomass,wood density relationship within and among six tropical forests. Location, Costa Rica, Panama, Puerto Rico and Ecuador. Methods, Individual stem data, including diameter at breast height and spatial position, for six forest dynamics plots were merged with an extensive wood density database. Individual stem biomass values were calculated from these data using published statistical models. Total above ground biomass, total basal area and mean community wood density were also quantified across a range of subcommunity plot sizes within each forest. Results, Among forests, biomass did not vary with mean community wood density. The relationship between subcommunity biomass and mean wood density within a forest varied from negative to null to positive depending on the size of subcommunities and forest identity. The direction of correlation was determined by the associated total basal area,mean wood density correlation, the slope of which increased strongly with whole forest mean wood density. Main conclusions, There is no general relationship between forest biomass and wood density, and in some forests, stored carbon is highest where wood density is lowest. Our results suggest that declining wood density, due to global change, will result in decreased or increased stored carbon in forests with high or low mean wood density, respectively. [source]


Net primary productivity mapped for Canada at 1-km resolution

GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
J Liu
Abstract Aim To map net primary productivity (NPP) over the Canadian landmass at 1-km resolution. Location Canada. Methods A simulation model, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), has been developed. The model uses a sunlit and shaded leaf separation strategy and a daily integration scheme in order to implement an instantaneous leaf-level photosynthesis model over large areas. Two key driving variables, leaf area index (every 10 days) and land cover type (annual), are derived from satellite measurements of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Other spatially explicit input data are also prepared, including daily meteorological data (radiation, precipitation, temperature, and humidity), available soil water holding capacity (AWC) and forest biomass. The model outputs are compared with ground plot data to ensure that no significant systematic biases are created. Results The simulation results show that Canada's annual net primary production was 1.22 Gt C year,1 in 1994, 78% attributed to forests, mainly the boreal forest, without considering the contribution of the understorey. The NPP averaged over the entire landmass was ~140 g C m,2 year,1 in 1994. Geographically, NPP varied greatly among ecozones and provinces/territories. The seasonality of NPP is characterized by strong summer photosynthesis capacities and a short growing season in northern ecosystems. Conclusions This study is the first attempt to simulate Canada-wide NPP with a process-based model at 1-km resolution and using a daily step. The statistics of NPP are therefore expected to be more accurate than previous analyses at coarser spatial or temporal resolutions. The use of remote sensing data makes such simulations possible. BEPS is capable of integrating the effects of climate, vegetation, and soil on plant growth at a regional scale. BEPS and its parameterization scheme and products can be a basis for future studies of the carbon cycle in mid-high latitude ecosystems. [source]


Predicting moisture dynamics of fine understory fuels in a moist tropical rainforest system: results of a pilot study undertaken to identify proxy variables useful for rating fire danger

NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 3 2010
David Ray
Summary ,The use of fire as a land management tool in the moist tropics often has the unintended consequence of degrading adjacent forest, particularly during severe droughts. Reliable models of fire danger are needed to help mitigate these impacts. ,Here, we studied the moisture dynamics of fine understory fuels in the east-central Brazilian Amazon during the 2003 dry season. Drying stations established under varying amounts of canopy cover (leaf area index (LAI) = 0 , 5.3) were subjected to a range of water inputs (5,15 mm) and models were developed to forecast litter moisture content (LMC). Predictions were then compared with independent field data. ,A multiple linear regression relating litter moisture content to forest structure (LAI), ambient vapor pressure deficit (VPDM) and an index of elapsed time since a precipitation event (d,1) was identified as the best-fit model (adjusted R2 = 0.89). Relative to the independent observations, model predictions were relatively unbiased when the LMC was , 50%, but consistently underestimated the LMC when the observed values were higher. ,The approach to predicting fire danger based on forest structure and meteorological variables is promising; however, additional information to the LAI, for example forest biomass, may be required to accurately capture the influence of forest structure on understory microclimate. [source]


Seedling Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Candidate Woody Species for Revegetating Korean Mine Spoils

RESTORATION ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
Kyung Won Seo
Abstract Selecting plant species that can overcome harsh soil and microclimatic conditions and speed the recovery of degraded minelands remains a worldwide restoration challenge. This study evaluated the potential of three woody species and various organic and inorganic fertilization treatments for revegetating abandoned metalliferous mines in Korea. We compared survival, growth, and heavy metal uptake of species common to Korean minelands in two spoil types and a reference forest soil. Substrate type and fertilization both influenced seedling growth and metal concentrations substantially, but they had little effect on seedling survival. Fertilization increased the growth of all three species when grown in mine spoils but influenced the growth of seedlings grown in forest soil only marginally. Initial seedling survival and growth indicate that the study species can tolerate the heavy metal concentrations and other soil constraints of metalliferous spoil types. We estimate that plants can stabilize 2,22% of various heavy metals contained in spoil materials into plant biomass during 20 years of plantation growth. Combined with the erosion control and site amelioration benefits of mineland reforestation, stabilization of heavy metals in forest biomass justifies this treatment on abandoned Korean metalliferous mines. [source]