Forest Age (forest + age)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Forest age, wood and nutrient dynamics in headwater streams of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH

Dana R. Warren
Abstract Instream processing may substantially alter nutrient export from forested watersheds. This study tested how instream uptake of N and P were affected by successional differences in the accumulation of large wood and debris dams in a 66-year chronosequence formed by five watersheds within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH. Nutrient enrichment releases in summer 1998 were used to measure the uptake velocities of phosphate, nitrate and ammonium for five streams within HBEF, and results indicated that uptake of PO43, was closely associated with forest age. In 2004, we quantified volume and abundance of large wood in each stream to test whether large wood abundance could be linked to nitrate uptake as well as phosphate. The volume of instream wood increased with forest age, at an apparent rate of 0·03 m3 (100 m),1 per year for these early to mid-successional forests (r2 = 0.95); however, debris dam frequency did not. Instead, debris dam frequency, when controlled for stream size, followed a U-shaped distribution, with high dam frequency in very young forests, low frequency in forests around 20,30 years of age and increasing dam frequency again as forests matured. Phosphate uptake velocity increased strongly with both forest age and large wood volume (r2 = 0·99; p < 0·001 in both cases); however, nitrate and ammonium uptake were not related to either factor. We attribute the positive relationship between phosphate uptake velocity and forest age/large wood volume to increased abiotic adsorption of phosphate by the inorganic sediments retained by wood. Nitrogen uptake in these streams is primarily biologically driven and did not vary predictably with these structural features of channels. We expect wood abundance to increase in HBEF streams as the forest matures, with a subsequent increase in stream phosphate uptake capacity. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Runoff and peak flow responses to timber harvest and forest age in southern Chile

Professor Andrés Iroumé
Abstract Runoff and peak flows in three experimental catchments with different forest conditions were analysed in a rainy temperate climate in southern Chile. The hydrological effects of clearcutting a Pinus radiata plantation covering 79·4% of the La Reina catchment were studied by analysing runoff and peak flows in the pre- and post-harvesting periods. Mean annual runoff increased 110% after timber harvesting. Clearcutting generated a 32% mean increase in peak flows. Peak flow and runoff were examined in two adjacent catchments with different forest conditions. The older plantation in Los Ulmos 1 increasingly consumed more water than the younger plantation established at Los Ulmos 2, whereas differences in peak flows between these two catchments were not significant. Runoff and peak flows comparisons not only reflected changes in forest cover, but also the effect of rainfall characteristics during the study periods and the basins' morphologies. Comparisons between pre- and post-harvesting peak discharges must be undertaken with caution, because a previous analysis at La Reina using a partial set of data overestimated changes in peak flows after timber harvesting. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The relative importance of dispersal limitation of vascular plants in secondary forest succession in Muizen Forest, Belgium

Kris Verheyen
Abstract 1,Distribution patterns (frequency and percentage cover) of 18 forest plant species were studied in 34 ha of mixed deciduous forest (Muizen Forest, north Belgium). Stands varied in age between 6 and more than 223 years and both slow and fast colonizing species were studied. 2,Detailed land use history data were combined with the species distribution maps to identify species-specific colonization sources and calculate colonization distances. 3,A multiple logistic regression model was constructed with four covariables: pH (which can impose limits on the potential species-distribution), secondary forest age, distance from nearest colonization source and age,distance interaction, to allow us to account for the gradual completion of colonization over time. 4,We could distinguish species which are limited by both dispersal and recruitment (Primula elatior, Arum maculatum and Lamium galeobdolon), mainly by dispersal (Anemone nemorosa, Deschampsia cespitosa), mainly by recruitment (Paris quadrifolia and Polygonatum multiflorum) and by neither (Geum urbanum, Ranunculus ficaria, Glechoma hederacea, Aegopodium podagraria, Ajuga reptans, Adoxa moschatellina and Oxalis acetosella). 5,The low colonizing capacity of ancient forest plants cannot be attributed to a single cause; rather both dispersal and recruitment are limiting but the relative importance varies. [source]

A comparison of litter beetle assemblages (Coleoptera) in mature and recently clearfelled Eucalyptus obliqua forest

Susan C Baker
Abstract, This study compares litter-dwelling beetles in mature wet eucalypt forest with those in young forest regenerated following clearfelling. The aims of the study were to determine the extent to which these forest ages support differing litter beetle assemblages, and to identify species characteristic of each age. Beetles were collected with pitfall traps in a spatially replicated study design to avoid confounding forest age and site differences. Three transects of traps were located in each of mature and young forest stands at four study sites. Beetle abundance was greatest in young forest, and young and mature forest supported distinctly different beetle assemblages. Of 37 commonly collected species, an indicator species analysis found 9 species characteristic of young logging regeneration, and 7 species characteristic of mature unlogged forest. These species could be useful in other Tasmanian studies concerning forest management impacts. Only two significant indicator species were carabids, suggesting that focusing only on carabids as indicators of forest management may be undesirable. [source]

Nest-site selection by Common Black-Hawks in southwestern New Mexico

Giancarlo Sadoti
ABSTRACT Despite the interest of resource managers and conservationists in the status of Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) populations in the southwestern United States, little is known about their nesting success and habitat requirements. Because such information is essential for effective population and habitat management, I examined the nesting success and nest-site selection of Common Black-Hawks in southwestern New Mexico during 2000 and 2001. Of the 37 nesting attempts in 21 territories, ,1 young fledged from 25 nests (68%). Comparison of nest-sites and nonused sites suggested that breeding Common Black-Hawks selected nest-sites in areas with a sparser and shorter subcanopy tree layer and in trees with a smaller trunk diameter and a greater minimum crown diameter. These differences appear to be related to variation in forest ages within territories, with nonused sites having fewer, but older, canopy trees than nest-sites. Sites with younger, smaller subcanopy trees may provide forest structure for more effective foraging, whereas the characteristics of younger nest tree canopies may reduce the risk of nest predation or offer more protection from inclement weather. Due to the limited range of this species in the southwestern United States, efforts to encourage the establishment and maturation of riparian forests in Common Black-Hawk breeding areas could be important in sustaining available nesting habitat and, in turn, maintaining or expanding current population levels. SINOPSIS Aunque existe interés de parte de profesionales en manejo de recursos y conservacionistas en el estatus de las poblaciones de Buteogallus anthracinus en el sudoeste de los Estados Unidos, poco se conoce sobre su éxito de anidamiento y requerimientos de hábitat. Por la razón que esta información es esencial para el éxito del manejo poblacional y del hábitat para esta especie, examiné el éxito de anidamiento y la selección del lugar de anidamiento de Buteogallus anthracinus en el sudeste del estado de Nueva México durante el 2000 y el 2001. De los 37 intentos de anidamiento en 21 territorios, ,1 de los polluelos volaron de 25 nidos (68%). Una comparación entre lugares donde se ubicaban los nidos y sitios no utilizados para anidar indica que individuos seleccionaron lugares para anidar en áreas con una menor cobertura y una menor altura del sub-dosel. Adicionalmente, los nidos fueron ubicados en árboles con un menor diámetro del tronco y con un mayor diámetro mínimo de la corona. Estas diferencias parecen ser relacionadas a la variación en la edad del bosque dentro de los territorios, con sitios no utilizados caracterizados por un número menor de árboles del dosel pero las cuales tienen una edad mayor que los árboles del dosel en los sitios donde se ubicaron los nidos. Sitios con árboles en el sub-dosel de menor edad y de menor tamaño podrían proveer la estructura del bosque necesaria para un forrajeo mas efectivo, mientras que las características de las coronas de los árboles de menor edad en la cual se encuentra el nido podrían reducir el riesgo de la depredación del nido o proveer mas protección de mal tiempo. Dado el rango limitado de esta especie en el sudeste de los Estados Unidos, los esfuerzos para animar el establecimiento y la maduración de los bosques riparios en las áreas de anidamiento de esta especie podrían ser importantes para mantener el hábitat disponible para anidar y a la vez mantener o expandir los tamaños actuales de las poblaciones. [source]