Forepaw Stimulation (forepaw + stimulation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

CBF, BOLD, CBV, and CMRO2 fMRI signal temporal dynamics at 500-msec resolution

Qiang Shen PhD
Abstract Purpose To investigate the temporal dynamics of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD), cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes due to forepaw stimulation with 500-msec resolution in a single setting. Materials and Methods Forepaw stimulation and hypercapnic challenge on rats were studied. CBF and BOLD functional MRI (fMRI) were measured using the pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeling technique at 500-msec resolution. CBV fMRI was measured using monocrystalline iron-oxide particles following CBF and BOLD measurements in the same animals. CMRO2 change was estimated via the biophysical BOLD model with hypercapnic calibration. Percent changes and onset times were analyzed for the entire forepaw somatosensory cortices and three operationally defined cortical segments, denoted Layers I,III, IV,V, and VI. Results BOLD change was largest in Layers I,III, whereas CBF, CBV, and CMRO2 changes were largest in Layers IV,V. Among all fMRI signals in all layers, only the BOLD signal in Layers I,III showed a poststimulus undershoot. CBF and CBV dynamics were similar. Closer inspection showed that CBV increased slightly first (P < 0.05), but was slow to peak. CBF increased second, but peaked first. BOLD significantly lagged both CBF and CBV (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study provides important temporal dynamics of multiple fMRI signals at high temporal resolution in a single setting. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Elevated endogenous GABA level correlates with decreased fMRI signals in the rat brain during acute inhibition of GABA transaminase

Zhengguang Chen
Abstract Vigabatrin and gabaculine, both highly specific inhibitors of GABA (,-aminobutyric acid) transaminase, cause significant elevation of endogenous GABA levels in brain. The time course of GABA concentration after acute GABA transaminase inhibition was measured quantitatively in the ,-chloralose-anesthetized rat brain using in vivo selective homonuclear polarization transfer spectroscopy. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been considered to be coupled tightly to neuronal activation via the metabolic demand of associated glutamate transport. Correlated with the rise in endogenous GABA level after vigabatrin or gabaculine treatment, the intensity of BOLD-weighted fMRI signals in rat somatosensory cortex during forepaw stimulation was found to be reduced significantly. These results are consistent with previous findings that inhibition of GABA transaminase leads to augmented GABA release and potentiation of GABAergic inhibition. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Functional MRI of the rodent somatosensory pathway using multislice echo planar imaging,

Shella D. Keilholz
Abstract A multislice EPI sequence was used to obtain functional MR images of the entire rat brain with BOLD contrast at 11.7 T. Ten to 11 slices covering the rat brain, with an in-plane resolution of 300 ,m, provided enough sensitivity to detect activation in brain regions known to be involved in the somatosensory pathway during stimulation of the forelimbs. These regions were identified by warping a digitized rat brain atlas to each set of images. Data analysis was constrained to four major areas of the somatosensory pathway: primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, thalamus, and cerebellum. Incidence maps were generated. Electrical stimulation at 3 Hz led to significant activation in the primary sensory cortex in all rats. Activation in the secondary sensory cortex and cerebellum was observed in 70% of the studies, while thalamic activation was observed in 40%. The amplitude of activation was measured for each area, and average response time courses were calculated. Finally, the frequency dependence of the response to forepaw stimulation was measured in each of the activated areas. Optimal activation occurred in all areas at 3 Hz. These results demonstrate that whole-brain fMRI can be performed on rodents at 11.7 T to probe a well-defined neural network. Magn Reson Med 52:89,99, 2004. Published 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Stimulation of the rat somatosensory cortex at different frequencies and pulse widths

N. Van Camp
Abstract Functional MRI (fMRI) during electrical somatosensory stimulation of the rat forepaw is a widely used model to investigate the functional organization of the somatosensory cortex or to study the underlying mechanisms of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response. In reality, somatosensory stimuli have complex timing relationships and are of long duration. However, by default electrical sensory stimulation seems to be performed at an extremely short pulse width (0.3,ms). As the pulse duration may alter the neuronal response, our aim was to investigate the influence of a much longer stimulus pulse width (10,ms) using BOLD fMRI during electrical forepaw stimulation. The optimal neuronal response was investigated by varying the stimulus frequency at a fixed pulse duration (10,ms) and amplitude (1,mA). In a parallel experiment we measured the neuronal response directly by recording the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Quantification of the BOLD data revealed a shift in the optimal response frequencies to 8,10,Hz compared with 1,Hz at 0.3,ms. The amplitude of the recorded SEPs decreased with increasing stimulation frequency and did not display any correlation with the BOLD data. Nevertheless, the summated SEPs, which are a measure of the integrated neuronal activity as a function of time, displayed a similar response profile, with a similar maximum as observed by relative BOLD changes. This shift in optimal excitation frequencies might be related to the fact that an increased pulse width of an electrical stimulus alters the nature of the stimulation, generating also sensorimotor instead of merely somatosensory input. This may influence or alter the activated pathways, resulting in a shift in the optimal response profile. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]