Forensic Science (forensic + science)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Implementation and Validation of the Teleshake Unit for DNA IQÔ Robotic Extraction and Development of a Large Volume DNA IQÔ Method

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 3 2010
Jennifer C. Grubb B.A.
Abstract:, Automated platforms used for forensic casework sample DNA extraction need to be versatile to accommodate a wide variety of sample types, thus protocols frequently need modification. In this study, DNA IQÔ methods previously developed for the Biomek® 2000 Automation Workstation were adapted for the Teleshake Unit using normal volumes and all deepwell extraction, and a large volume DNA IQÔ method developed. DNA purification without detectable contamination of adjacent reagent blanks is reported in the extraction of tissue samples containing several micrograms of DNA. Sensitivity and contamination studies demonstrated similar performance with the manual organic extraction method for bloodstain dilution samples. Mock casework samples demonstrated the effectiveness of the Teleshake and Teleshake large volume methods. Because of the performance and increased versatility of the DNA IQÔ extraction with these modifications, the Teleshake Unit has been implemented in both normal and large volume automated DNA extractions at the Virginia Department of Forensic Science. [source]


Strengthening Forensic Science: A Way Station on the Journey to Justice

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2010
Thomas L. Bohan Ph.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


President's Editorial,AAFS and Forensic Science: The Next 60 Years

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2009
Carol E. Henderson J.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


A Forensic Laboratory Tests the Berkeley Microfabricated Capillary Array Electrophoresis Device,

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 4 2008
Susan A. Greenspoon Ph.D.
Abstract:, Miniaturization of capillary electrophoresis onto a microchip for forensic short tandem repeat analysis is the initial step in the process of producing a fully integrated and automated analysis system. A prototype of the Berkeley microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device was installed at the Virginia Department of Forensic Science for testing. Instrument performance was verified by PowerPlex® 16 System profiling of single source, sensitivity series, mixture, and casework samples. Mock sexual assault samples were successfully analyzed using the PowerPlex® Y System. Resolution was assessed using the TH01, CSF1PO, TPOX, and Amelogenin loci and demonstrated to be comparable with commercial systems along with the instrument precision. Successful replacement of the Hjerten capillary coating method with a dynamic coating polymer was performed. The accurate and rapid typing of forensic samples demonstrates the successful technology transfer of this device into a practitioner laboratory and its potential for advancing high-throughput forensic typing. [source]


President's Editorial,Fostering Advancements in Forensic Science

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2008
Bruce A. Goldberger Ph.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


The Relationship Between the Detection of Acquisitive Crime by Forensic Science and Drug-Dependent Offenders

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2007
John W. Bond D.Phil.
Abstract:, Drug- and nondrug-related acquisitive crime offences such as burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft, were compared to assess whether drug abusers were more likely to be apprehended via forensic science techniques. Data were all acquisitive offences committed over a 6-year period within a police force area in England. Drug-dependent offenders committed a wider range of offence types than nondependent offenders, and they were significantly more likely to be detected via their DNA or fingerprints (p < 0.01). A logistic regression (n > 14,000) revealed a number of predictors that influence the detection of the crime by forensic techniques. The results indicate that a number of these predictors are of statistical significance; the most significant of these being drug use by the offender with sex, ethnicity, and employment status also being relevant. Age of the offender and number of offences committed were found not to be significant. Of the four hypotheses considered to explain this, the most likely was thought to be the physical and mental impact of drug use on crime scene behavior. Consideration is given to the disciplines of forensic science and forensic psychology working closely together to distinguish factors that influence crime scene behavior. [source]


Review of: Forensic Science,,The Basics

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2007
Lawrence Quarino Ph.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Review of: Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9th edition

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 3 2007
Ph.D., Thomas A. Kubic M.S.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Forensic Science, Wrongful Convictions, and American Prosecutor Discretion

THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 1 2008
DENNIS J. STEVENS
This exploratory research will show that neither forensics or its fictionalised (CSI Effect) accounts, nor substantial evidence secured by police investigators, shape prosecutor decisions to charge a suspect with a crime, which can often result in freeing guilty suspects and convicting innocent individuals. In the summer of 2006, 444 American prosecutors responded to a survey. The findings reveal that judges, juries, and defence lawyers are influenced more by prime-time American drama forensic accounts than by the substantial documented evidence of a case. It was also discovered that regardless of the dangerous apprehension of violent criminals by the police, some suspects are never charged because of faulty prosecutor behaviour. One implication of these findings is that police officer alienation from the legal system is at an all-time high, and that prosecutors lack professional supervision and personal motivation to represent the ,people', giving rise to vast human and legal rights violations of suspects and defendants. [source]


Skeletal Estimation and Identification in American and East European Populations,

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 3 2008
Erin H. Kimmerle Ph.D.
Abstract:, Forensic science is a fundamental transitional justice issue as it is imperative for providing physical evidence of crimes committed and a framework for interpreting evidence and prosecuting violations to International Humanitarian Law (IHL). The evaluation of evidence presented in IHL trials and the outcomes various rulings by such courts have in regard to the accuracy or validity of methods applied in future investigations is necessary to ensure scientific quality. Accounting for biological and statistical variation in the methods applied across populations and the ways in which such evidence is used in varying judicial systems is important because of the increasing amount of international forensic casework being done globally. Population variation or the perceived effect of such variation on the accuracy and reliability of methods is important as it may alter trial outcomes, and debates about the scientific basis for human variation are now making their way into international courtrooms. Anthropological data on population size (i.e., the minimum number of individuals in a grave), demographic structure (i.e., the age and sex distribution of victims), individual methods applied for identification, and general methods of excavation and trauma analysis have provided key evidence in cases of IHL. More generally, the question of population variation and the applicability of demographic methods for estimating individual and population variables is important for American and International casework in the face of regional population variation, immigrant populations, ethnic diversity, and secular changes. The reliability of various skeletal aging methods has been questioned in trials prosecuted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Radislav Krsti, (Case No. IT-98-33, Trial Judgment) and again in the currently ongoing trial of The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Zdravko Tolimir, Radivolje Mileti,, Milan Gvero, Vinko Pandurevi,, Ljubisa Beara, Vujadin Popovi,, Drago Nikoli,, Milorad Trbi,, Ljubomir Borovcanin (IT-05-88-PT, Second Amended Indictment). Following the trial of General Krsti,, a collaborative research project was developed between the Forensic Anthropology Center at The University of Tennessee (UT) and the United Nations, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Office of the Prosecutor (ICTY). The purpose of that collaboration was to investigate methods used for the demographic analysis of forensic evidence and where appropriate to recalibrate methods for individual estimation of age, sex, and stature for specific use in the regions of the former Yugoslavia. The question of "local standards" and challenges to the reliability of current anthropological methods for biological profiling in international trials of IHL, as well as the performance of such methods to meet the evidentiary standards used by international tribunals is investigated. Anthropological methods for estimating demographic parameters are reviewed. An overview of the ICTY-UT collaboration for research aimed at addressing specific legal issues is discussed and sample reliability for Balkan aging research is tested. The methods currently used throughout the Balkans are discussed and estimated demographic parameters obtained through medico-legal death investigations are compared with identified cases. Based on this investigation, recommendations for improving international protocols for evidence collection, presentation, and research are outlined. [source]


Producing Absolute Truth: CSI Science as Wishful Thinking

AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 1 2010
Corinna Kruse
ABSTRACT, Forensic science has come to be assigned an important role in contemporary crime fiction. In this article, I analyze the cultural repertoire of forensic science conveyed by the popular television show Crime Scene Investigation (CSI). I argue that CSI science, in delivering an absolute "truth" about how and by whom crimes have been committed, is equated with justice, effectively superseding nonfictional forensic science as well as nonfictional judicature as a whole. Thus, CSI as a cultural performance adds to the mediascape a repertoire of wishful-thinking science with which to think about perceptions of and desires for crime and justice in nonfictional society. This repertoire seems to be considered relevant enough to nonfictional society to cause concern about the judicial system, as expressed in discussions of the so-called "CSI effect." [source]


Teaching forensic odontology: an opinion on its content and format,

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 3 2006
A. B. Acharya
Abstract, Forensic odontology involves dentists' participation in assisting legal and criminal issues. Formal teaching in forensic odontology has existed for over a 100 years. Over the last century, forensic odontology has evolved and, today, it is an integral part of undergraduate dental training in many countries. Dentists have been trained in the specialty, and dedicated departments established in institutes and universities around the world. A survey undertaken at five universities revealed that these centres have developed detailed curricula in forensic odontology, and a general standard exists in teaching forensic odontology, however, coverage of recent advances in forensic science may be lacking. While recognising that these programmes are not representative of teaching in forensic odontology worldwide, suggestions are made for an alternative approach to teaching the subject. Moreover, it is stressed that teaching be undertaken by qualified forensic odontologists. [source]


Interpreting DNA Evidence: A Review

INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2003
L.A. Foreman
Summary The paper provides a review of current issues relating to the use of DNA profiling in forensic science. A short historical section gives the main statistical milestones that occurred during a rapid development of DNA technology and operational uses. Greater detail is then provided for interpretation issues involving STR DNA profiles, including: , methods that take account of population substructure in DNA calculations; , parallel work carried out by the US National Research Council; , the move away from multiple independence testing in favour of experiments that demonstrate the robustness of casework procedures; , the questionable practice of source attribution ,with reasonable scientific certainty'; , the effect on the interpretation of profiles obtained under increasingly sensitive techniques, the LCN technique in particular; , the use of DNA profiles as an intelligence tool; , the interpretation of DNA mixtures. Experience of presenting DNA evidence within UK courts is also discussed. The paper then summarises a generic interpretation framework based on the concept of likelihood ratio within a hierarchy of propositions. Finally the use of Bayesian networks to interpret DNA evidence is reviewed. Résumé Cet article présente un inventaire des questions relativesá l'utilisation du profilage ADN dans la science légale. Une courte section historique décrit les principales étapes statistiques qui ont eu lieu pendant le rapide développement de la technologie ADN et ses utilisations opérationnelles. De plus grands détails sont ensuite donnés pour l'interprétation de questions sur les profils AND STR, ce qui inclut: ,les méthodes qui tiennent compte des sous-structures de population dans les calculs ADN; ,le travail conduit en paralléle par le Conseil de Recherche Nationale des Etats-Unis (NRC); ,l'évolution depuis les tests d'indépendance multiple vers des expériences qui démontrent la robustesse des procédures; ,la pratique contestable de l'attribution de source avec "certitude scientifique raisonnable"; ,l'effet de l'interprétation des profils obtenus sous techniques de plus en plus sensibles, la technique LCN en particulier ,l'utilisation de profils ADN comme outil d'intelligence; ,l'interprétation de mélanges ADN. L'expérience de ce type de preuve dans les tribunaux britanniques sera également présentée et commentée. L'article présentera un cavenas d'interprétation centré sur le concept de rapport de vraisemblance, inscrit dans une hérarchie de propositions. Finalement, l'utilisation de réseaux Bayesien pour interpréter la preuve par ADN sera abordée. [source]


Evaluation of the evidential value of physicochemical data by a Bayesian network approach

JOURNAL OF CHEMOMETRICS, Issue 7-8 2010
Grzegorz Zadora
Abstract The growing interest in applications of Bayesian networks (BNs) in forensic science raises the question of whether BN could be used in forensic practice for the evaluation of results from physicochemical analysis of a limited number of observations from flammable liquids (weathered kerosene and diesel fuel) by automated thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS), car paints by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and fibres by microspectrophotometry (MSP) in the visible (VIS) range. Therefore, various simple BN models, which allow the evaluation of both discrete and continuous types of data, were studied in order to address questions raised by the representatives of the administration of justice, concerning the identification and classification of objects into certain categories and/or the association between two items. The results of the evaluation performed by BN models were expressed in the form of a likelihood ratio, which is a well-documented measure of evidential value in the forensic field. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that BN models seem to be promising tool for evaluating physicochemical data. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Non-parametric permutation test for the discrimination of float glass samples based on LIBS spectra

JOURNAL OF CHEMOMETRICS, Issue 6 2010
Erin McIntee
Abstract Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with non-parametric permutation based hypothesis testing is demonstrated to have good performance in discriminating float glass samples. This type of pairwise sample comparison is important in manufacturing process quality control, forensic science and other applications where determination of a match probability between two samples is required. Analysis of the pairwise comparisons between multiple LIBS spectra from a single glass sample shows that some assumptions required by parametric methods may not hold in practice, motivating the adoption of a non-parametric permutation test. Without rigid distributional assumptions, the permutation test exhibits excellent discriminating power while holding the actual size of Type I error at the nominal level. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Trichophyton Mentagrophytes Perforates Hair of Adult Corpses in the Gaseous Period,

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2010
Renato Evando M. Filho M.S
Abstract:, Despite the substantial literature on mycology, there are still limited reports of the interaction between fungi and human hosts in the postmortem period. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the in vitro perforation test using Trichophyton mentagrophytes on hair from adult corpses in the postmortem period (gaseous period). The protocol was carried out with positive (prepubescent children's hair) and negative controls (healthy adult hair) as well. One strain of Trichophyton rubrum was also used as a negative perforation control. Perforations were found in all the hair samples from corpses and prepubescent children after 12,14 days exposure to T. mentagrophytes and were absent in the hair samples of healthy adults. Furthermore, hair perforation was not observed with T. rubrum. Our preliminary findings suggest the use of T. mentagrophytes as a potential marker of the death interval in forensic science. [source]


Sample Size Determination for Categorical Responses

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2009
Dimitris Mavridis Ph.D.
Abstract:, Procedures are reviewed and recommendations made for the choice of the size of a sample to estimate the characteristics (sometimes known as parameters) of a population consisting of discrete items which may belong to one and only one of a number of categories with examples drawn from forensic science. Four sampling procedures are described for binary responses, where the number of possible categories is only two, e.g., licit or illicit pills. One is based on priors informed from historical data. The other three are sequential. The first of these is a sequential probability ratio test with a stopping rule derived by controlling the probabilities of type 1 and type 2 errors. The second is a sequential variation of a procedure based on the predictive distribution of the data yet to be inspected and the distribution of the data that have been inspected, with a stopping rule determined by a prespecified threshold on the probability of a wrong decision. The third is a two-sided sequential criterion which stops sampling when one of two competitive hypotheses has a probability of being accepted which is larger than another prespecified threshold. The fifth procedure extends the ideas developed for binary responses to multinomial responses where the number of possible categories (e.g., types of drug or types of glass) may be more than two. The procedure is sequential and recommends stopping when the joint probability interval or ellipsoid for the estimates of the proportions is less than a given threshold in size. For trinomial data this last procedure is illustrated with a ternary diagram with an ellipse formed around the sample proportions. There is a straightforward generalization of this approach to multinomial populations with more than three categories. A conclusion provides recommendations for sampling procedures in various contexts. [source]


Variability of Bodily Measures of Normally Dressed People Using PhotoModeler® Pro 5,

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 6 2008
Peter K. Larsen M.Sc.
Abstract:, Photogrammetry is used in forensic science to help identify perpetrators from crime scenes by way of surveillance video, but the reproducibility of manually locating hidden body-points such as the joints remains to be established. In this study, we quantified the inter- and intra-observer variability of bodily measures of clothed individuals in two different poses and examined whether body segment lengths could be used to distinguish between people of similar stature. Stature was reproduced within ±1.5 cm in both the intra- and inter-observer study. Segment lengths were best reproduced when flexion in the joints was present in the intra-observer study, but only the length of the trunk could be used to distinguish between people of similar height. The reproducibility between the two poses was low. Other measures than stature should be used with caution and with the perpetrator and suspect in the same pose. Consistent guidelines for locating body-points should be developed. [source]


Bioterrorism: Processing Contaminated Evidence, the Effects of Formaldehyde Gas on the Recovery of Latent Fingermarks,

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2007
Rebecca Hoile B.Sc.
Abstract:, In the present age of heightened emphasis on counter terrorism, law enforcement and forensic science are constantly evolving and adapting to the motivations and capabilities of terrorist groups and individuals. The use of biological agents on a population, such as anthrax spores, presents unique challenges to the forensic investigator, and the processing of contaminated evidence. In this research, a number of porous and nonporous items were contaminated with viable anthrax spores and marked with latent fingermarks. The test samples were then subjected to a standard formulation of formaldehyde gas. Latent fingermarks were then recovered postdecontamination using a range of methods. Standard fumigation, while effective at destroying viable spores, contributed to the degradation of amino acids leading to loss of ridge detail. A new protocol for formaldehyde gas decontamination was developed which allows for the destruction of viable spores and the successful recovery of latent marks, all within a rapid response time of less than 1 h. [source]


The Relationship Between the Detection of Acquisitive Crime by Forensic Science and Drug-Dependent Offenders

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2007
John W. Bond D.Phil.
Abstract:, Drug- and nondrug-related acquisitive crime offences such as burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft, were compared to assess whether drug abusers were more likely to be apprehended via forensic science techniques. Data were all acquisitive offences committed over a 6-year period within a police force area in England. Drug-dependent offenders committed a wider range of offence types than nondependent offenders, and they were significantly more likely to be detected via their DNA or fingerprints (p < 0.01). A logistic regression (n > 14,000) revealed a number of predictors that influence the detection of the crime by forensic techniques. The results indicate that a number of these predictors are of statistical significance; the most significant of these being drug use by the offender with sex, ethnicity, and employment status also being relevant. Age of the offender and number of offences committed were found not to be significant. Of the four hypotheses considered to explain this, the most likely was thought to be the physical and mental impact of drug use on crime scene behavior. Consideration is given to the disciplines of forensic science and forensic psychology working closely together to distinguish factors that influence crime scene behavior. [source]


Age Estimation by Pulp/Tooth Ratio in Canines by Peri-Apical X-Rays

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2007
Roberto Cameriere Ph.D.
ABSTRACT: Estimation of age in individuals has received considerable attention in forensic science, in which it is a widely used method for individual identification, together with paleo-demographic analyses to establish mortality patterns in past populations. The present investigation, which is a continuation of a previously published pilot study, was conducted to examine the possible application of the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical images as an indicator of age at death. A total of 200 peri-apical X-rays of upper and lower canines were assembled from 57 male and 43 female skeletons of Caucasian origin, aged between 20 and 79 years. They belong to the Frassetto osteological collection of Sassari (Sardinia) and are housed in the Museum of Anthropology, Department of Experimental and Evolutionistic Biology, University of Bologna. For each skeleton, dental maturity was evaluated by measuring the pulp/tooth area ratio on upper (x1) and lower (x2) canines. Very good agreement was found between intraobserver measurements. Statistical analysis was performed in order to obtain multiple regression formulae for dental age calculation, with chronological age as dependent variable, and gender, and upper and lower canines as independent variables. Stepwise regression analysis showed that gender did not contribute significantly to the fit (p=0.881) whereas variables x1 and x2 and the first-order interaction between them did. These two variables explained 92.5% of variations in estimated chronological age and the residual standard error was 4.06 years. Lastly, two simple linear regression equations were obtained for age estimation using canines from the maxilla and mandible separately. Both models explained 86% of variations in estimated chronological age and allowed an age-at-death estimate with a residual standard error of about 5.4 years. [source]


Producing Absolute Truth: CSI Science as Wishful Thinking

AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 1 2010
Corinna Kruse
ABSTRACT, Forensic science has come to be assigned an important role in contemporary crime fiction. In this article, I analyze the cultural repertoire of forensic science conveyed by the popular television show Crime Scene Investigation (CSI). I argue that CSI science, in delivering an absolute "truth" about how and by whom crimes have been committed, is equated with justice, effectively superseding nonfictional forensic science as well as nonfictional judicature as a whole. Thus, CSI as a cultural performance adds to the mediascape a repertoire of wishful-thinking science with which to think about perceptions of and desires for crime and justice in nonfictional society. This repertoire seems to be considered relevant enough to nonfictional society to cause concern about the judicial system, as expressed in discussions of the so-called "CSI effect." [source]


Age estimation of archaeological remains using amino acid racemization in dental enamel: A comparison of morphological, biochemical, and known ages-at-death

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
R.C. Griffin
Abstract The poor accuracy of most current methods for estimating age-at-death in adult human skeletal remains is among the key problems facing palaeodemography. In forensic science, this problem has been solved for unburnt remains by the development of a chemical method for age estimation, using amino acid racemization in collagen extracted from dentine. Previous application of racemization methods to archaeological material has proven problematic. This study presents the application to archaeological human remains of a new age estimation method utilizing amino acid racemization in a potentially closed system,the dental enamel. The amino acid composition and extent of racemization in enamel from two Medieval cemeteries (Newcastle Blackgate and Grantham, England) and from a documented age-at-death sample from a 19th century cemetery (Spitalfriedhof St Johann, Switzerland) were determined. Alterations in the amino acid composition were detected in all populations, indicating that diagenetic change had taken place. However, in the Medieval populations, these changes did not appear to have substantially affected the relationship between racemization and age-at-death, with a strong relationship being retained between aspartic acid racemization and the morphological age estimates. In contrast, there was a poor relationship between racemization and age in the post-medieval documented age-at-death population from Switzerland. This appears to be due to leaching of amino acids post-mortem, indicating that enamel is not functioning as a perfectly closed system. Isolation of amino acids from a fraction of enamel which is less susceptible to leaching may improve the success of amino acid racemization for archaeological age estimation. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Virtobot,a multi-functional robotic system for 3D surface scanning and automatic post mortem biopsy

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ROBOTICS AND COMPUTER ASSISTED SURGERY, Issue 1 2010
Lars Christian Ebert
Abstract Background The Virtopsy project, a multi-disciplinary project that involves forensic science, diagnostic imaging, computer science, automation technology, telematics and biomechanics, aims to develop new techniques to improve the outcome of forensic investigations. This paper presents a new approach in the field of minimally invasive virtual autopsy for a versatile robotic system that is able to perform three-dimensional (3D) surface scans as well as post mortem image-guided soft tissue biopsies. Methods The system consists of an industrial six-axis robot with additional extensions (i.e. a linear axis to increase working space, a tool-changing system and a dedicated safety system), a multi-slice CT scanner with equipment for angiography, a digital photogrammetry and 3D optical surface-scanning system, a 3D tracking system, and a biopsy end effector for automatic needle placement. A wax phantom was developed for biopsy accuracy tests. Results Surface scanning times were significantly reduced (scanning times cut in half, calibration three times faster). The biopsy module worked with an accuracy of 3.2 mm. Discussion Using the Virtobot, the surface-scanning procedure could be standardized and accelerated. The biopsy module is accurate enough for use in biopsies in a forensic setting. Conclusion The Virtobot can be utilized for several independent tasks in the field of forensic medicine, and is sufficiently versatile to be adapted to different tasks in the future. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


LC-MS: a powerful tool in workplace drug testing

DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 3 2009
E. Gallardo
Abstract Workplace drug testing is a well-established application of forensic toxicology and it aims to reduce workplace accidents caused by affected workers. Several classes of abused substances may be involved, such as alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opiates and also prescription drugs, such as benzodiazepines. The use of alternative biological specimens such as hair, oral fluid or sweat in workplace drug testing presents several advantages over urinalysis,mainly the fact that sample collection can be performed easily without infringing on the examinee's privacy, so the subject is more likely to perform the test. However, drugs are usually present in these alternative specimens at low concentrations and the amount of sample available for analysis is small. The use of highly sensitive techniques is therefore necessary. In fact, the successful interface of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has brought a new light into bioanalytical and forensic sciences as it allows the detection of drugs and metabolites at concentrations that are difficult to analyse using the more commonly adopted GC-MS based techniques. This paper will discuss the importance of LC-MS in supporting workplace drug-testing programmes. The combination of LC-MS with innovative instrumentation such as triple quadrupoles, ion traps and time-of-flight mass spectrometers will also be focused. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Cover Picture: Electrophoresis 1'2010

ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 1 2010
Article first published online: 28 DEC 200
Issue no. 1 has 17 "comprehensive and critical reviews written by experts in the fields of CE and CEC. The six review articles in Part I provide an in-depth description of the latest developments in different methodologies and their applications, e.g. surface modification in microfluidics, determination of binding constants in CE, enhanced sensitivity in chiral CE, coupling SPE-CE, CE and MCE in microdialysis, and electrophoretically mediated microanalysis. Part II reviews CE and CEC of biomolecules such as amino acids, peptides and proteins. Part III is on recent progress made in inorganic species, food, antibiotics, and phytochemical analyses and forensic sciences." [source]