Forensic Psychology (forensic + psychology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Handbook of psychology: volume 11,Forensic psychology.


No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Psychology brings justice: the science of forensic psychology,

Gisli H. Gudjonsson Professor of Forensic Psychology
In this paper the focus is on one aspect of forensic psychology: the development of psychological instruments, a social psychological model and assessment procedures for evaluating the credibility of witnesses and police detainees during interviewing. Clinically grounded case work and research has impacted on police interviewing and practice, the admissibility of expert psychological testimony and the outcome of cases of miscarriage of justice. After describing the research that laid the foundations for advancement of scientific knowledge in this area, a brief review is presented of 22 high-profile murder cases where convictions based on confession evidence have been quashed on appeal between 1989 and 2001, often primarily on the basis of psychological evidence. The review of the cases demonstrates that psychological research and expert testimony in cases of disputed confessions have had a profound influence on the practice and ruling of the Court of Appeal for England and Wales and the British House of Lords. The cases presented in this paper show that it is wrong to assume that only persons with learning disability or those who are mentally ill make unreliable or false confessions. Personality factors, such as suggestibility, compliance, high trait anxiety and antisocial personality traits, are often important in rendering a confession unreliable. Future research needs to focus more on the role of personality factors in rendering the evidence of witnesses and suspects potentially unreliable. Copyright 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

The Relationship Between the Detection of Acquisitive Crime by Forensic Science and Drug-Dependent Offenders

John W. Bond D.Phil.
Abstract:, Drug- and nondrug-related acquisitive crime offences such as burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft, were compared to assess whether drug abusers were more likely to be apprehended via forensic science techniques. Data were all acquisitive offences committed over a 6-year period within a police force area in England. Drug-dependent offenders committed a wider range of offence types than nondependent offenders, and they were significantly more likely to be detected via their DNA or fingerprints (p < 0.01). A logistic regression (n > 14,000) revealed a number of predictors that influence the detection of the crime by forensic techniques. The results indicate that a number of these predictors are of statistical significance; the most significant of these being drug use by the offender with sex, ethnicity, and employment status also being relevant. Age of the offender and number of offences committed were found not to be significant. Of the four hypotheses considered to explain this, the most likely was thought to be the physical and mental impact of drug use on crime scene behavior. Consideration is given to the disciplines of forensic science and forensic psychology working closely together to distinguish factors that influence crime scene behavior. [source]

Predicting the behaviour of offenders with personality disorder: issues for investigative psychology

Simon Duff
Abstract This paper explores the extent to which the diagnosis of personality disorder is valid and reliable, whether such a diagnosis conveys useful information of predictive value to forensic psychology, and thus, the extent to which such a diagnosis may be of use in investigative psychology. It argues that the diagnostic criteria are of questionable reliability, validity, and utility. Using a recently developed model of the psychological underpinnings of the problematic thoughts, emotions, and behaviours encompassed by the term ,personality disorder', it argues that such problems emerge from psychological processes that are part of the ,normal' architecture of cognition rather than from an ,abnormal' psychology particular to personality disorder. Great caution is therefore urged before investigative psychology adopts such terminology and associated methodologies from clinical psychology or psychiatry. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

From marine ecology to crime analysis: Improving the detection of serial sexual offences using a taxonomic similarity measure

Jessica Woodhams
Abstract Jaccard has been the choice similarity metric in ecology and forensic psychology for comparison of sites or offences, by species or behaviour. This paper applies a more powerful hierarchical measure,taxonomic similarity (,s), recently developed in marine ecology,to the task of behaviourally linking serial crime. Forensic case linkage attempts to identify behaviourally similar offences committed by the same unknown perpetrator (called linked offences). ,s considers progressively higher-level taxa, such that two sites show some similarity even without shared species. We apply this index by analysing 55 specific offence behaviours classified hierarchically. The behaviours are taken from 16 sexual offences by seven juveniles where each offender committed two or more offences. We demonstrate that both Jaccard and ,s show linked offences to be significantly more similar than unlinked offences. With up to 20% of the specific behaviours removed in simulations, ,s is equally or more effective at distinguishing linked offences than where Jaccard uses a full data set. Moreover, ,s retains significant difference between linked and unlinked pairs, with up to 50% of the specific behaviours removed. As police decision-making often depends upon incomplete data, ,s has clear advantages and its application may extend to other crime types. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]