Forelimb Lameness (forelimb + lameness)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Scapula stress fractures in Thoroughbred racehorses: Eight cases (1997,2006)

S. A. Vallance
No case series exists in the literature describing scapula stress fractures. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical findings, diagnostic images and outcome of 8 horses diagnosed with scapula stress fractures. Scapula stress fractures were seen in Thoroughbred racehorses displaying acute moderate forelimb lameness. Nuclear scintigraphy identified the mid-distal scapula spine and/or scapula supraspinous fossa as predilection sites. Conservative management resulted in a good prognosis for return to racing, but stress fracture recurrence may be seen. [source]

Collateral desmitis of the distal interphalangeal joint in conjunction with concurrent ossification of the cartilages of the foot in nine horses

T. S. Mair
Summary The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of severe ossification of the collateral cartilages (sidebone) coexistent with collateral desmitis of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) in lame horses. Sidebone was diagnosed and graded on standard radiographs and soft tissue injuries of the foot were diagnosed using standing low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Of 15 horses with forelimb lameness and severe sidebone, 9 had evidence of concurrent collateral desmitis of the DIPJ. All 15 horses had damage to other structures (including the deep digital flexor tendon, distal sesamoidean impar ligament, collateral sesamoidean ligament, navicular bone and distal phalanx) within the affected feet as identified on MRI. The clinical and pathophysiological significance of concurrent collateral desmitis of the DIPJ and sidebone is currently uncertain. However, this study shows that injuries to multiple structures within the foot are common and that collateral desmitis of the distal interphalangeal joint is frequently seen in lame horses in conjunction with severe ossification of the collateral cartilages. [source]

Repeatability of subjective evaluation of lameness in horses

Summary Reasons for performing study: Previous studies have suggested that agreement between equine veterinarians subjectively evaluating lameness in horses is low. These studies were limited to small numbers of horses, evaluating movement on the treadmill or to evaluating previously-recorded videotape. Objectives: To estimate agreement between equine practitioners performing lameness evaluations in horses in the live, over ground setting. Methods: 131 mature horses were evaluated for lameness by 2,5 clinicians (mean 3.2) with a weighted-average of 18.7 years of experience. Clinicians graded each limb using the AAEP lameness scale by first watching the horse trot in a straight line only and then after full lameness evaluation. Agreement was estimated by calculation of Fleiss' (,). Evaluators agreed if they picked the same limb as lame or not lame regardless of the severity of perceived lameness. Results: After only evaluating the horse trot in a straight line clinicians agreed whether a limb was lame or not 76.6% of the time (,= 0.44). After full lameness evaluation clinicians agreed whether a limb was lame or not 72.9% of the time (,= 0.45). Agreement on forelimb lameness was slightly higher than on hindlimb lameness. When the mean AAEP lameness score was >1.5 clinicians agreed whether or not a limb was lame 93.1% of the time (,= 0.86), but when the mean score was ,1.5 they agreed 61.9% (,= 0.23) of the time. When given the task of picking whether or not the horse was lame and picking the worst limb after full lameness evaluation, clinicians agreed 51.6% (,= 0.37) of the time. Conclusions: For horses with mild lameness subjective evaluation of lameness is not very reliable. Potential relevance: A search for and the development of more objective and reliable methods of lameness evaluation is justified and should be encouraged and supported. [source]

Clinical findings, diagnosis, prevalence and predisposing factors for lameness localised to the middle carpal joint in young Standardbred racehorses

C. M. Steel
Summary Reasons for performing study: Lameness related to the middle carpal joint (MCJ) occurs in up to 30% of young Standardbred horses in race training and the incidence increase with radiographic severity of third carpal bone (C3) sclerosis on DPr-DDIO (skyline) view of the carpus. Factors predisposing horses to carpal injury have not been well investigated. Objectives: To determine the importance of MCJ lameness as a cause of wastage in young Standardbred racehorses, stage of training at which it occurs and predisposing factors, and to describe clinical findings and diagnosis. Methods: Standardbred horses (n = 114) entering their first year of race training were examined at approximately 3-month intervals over 12,18 months. For 87 of the horses, a training diary was available and these horses were trained at 3 different stables, each using a different exercise regime. At each examination, forelimb conformation, MCJ effusion, MCJ lameness and radiographic findings were graded, and training history and reasons for lost training days recorded. Nuclear scintigraphy and exploratory arthroscopy were performed on a limited selection of horses. Results for horses that developed MCJ lameness during the study period were compared statistically with results for horses that did not. Results: Carpal lameness occurred in 28% of horses and was present in 56% with forelimb lameness. In most cases lameness was mild, bilateral and with little or no MCJ effusion and was attributed to subchondral bone pain associated with radiographic evidence of C3 sclerosis. Carpal lameness was the most common reason for >1 month's rest during the study period. It occurred at any stage of training but, in most cases, some speed training had begun. Of the variables studied, poor forelimb conformation and more intense speed training were predisposing factors. Conclusions and potential relevance: The information gained should assist in making recommendations regarding training young Standardbreds to reduce the incidence of MCJ lameness. However, further investigations to determine the optimal training regime are warranted. [source]

Treatment of chronic or recurrent proximal suspensory desmitis using radial pressure wave therapy in the horse

Summary Reasons for performing study: Proximal suspensory desmitis (PSD) is diagnosed with increasing frequency in horses and radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) is a widely used therapy for painful orthopaedic conditions in man and dogs. There are, however, few published data as to the outcome of its use in PSD. Objective: To evaluate the use of RPWT in the treatment of chronic or recurrent PSD in the horse, an injury which carries a poor prognosis for return to athletic function with conservative management alone. Hypothesis: RPWT and controlled exercise improves the prognosis of chronic or recurrent PSD in the horse when compared to previously published results of controlled exercise alone. Methods: The use of RPWT in the management of chronic or recurrent proximal suspensory desmitis (PSD) was evaluated in 65 horses. Diagnosis was based on response to local analgesia, ultrasonography and radiography. Horses were classified according to severity of ultrasonographic lesions, whether fore- or hindlimbs were affected, and duration of lameness prior to diagnosis. Horses were treated 3 times at 2-week intervals and followed a controlled exercise programme; they were reassessed clinically and ultrasonographically 10,12 weeks after diagnosis, when further exercise recommendations were made dependent upon the animal's progress. Results: Forty-one percent of horses with hindlimb lameness and 53% with forelimb lameness were nonlame and returned to full work 6 months after diagnosis. The prognosis was significantly affected by the ultrasonographic grade at the time of diagnosis and by ultrasonographic evidence of resolution of the lesion in hindlimb cases. Conclusions: These findings, when compared to previously published results of treatment using controlled exercise alone, suggest that RPWT improves the prognosis for PSD in the hindlimb. Potential relevance: RPWT is a useful treatment modality for chronic or recurrent PSD when combined with controlled exercise. Further studies are required on the effect of RPWT employing histology and biomechanics in order to fully evaluate its use on equine tissues. [source]

Acute onset quadriparesis as a sequela to an oropharyngeal stick injury

R. M. Rayward
A three-year-old male neutered crossbred dog was referred for investigation of acute onset quadriparesis, which had occurred following an oropharyngeal stick injury. Myelography revealed a right-sided extradural lesion overlying the C5/6 intervertebral disc space. A dorsolateral hemilaminectomy was performed at this site and two fragments of wood were removed from the vertebral canal adjacent to the spinal cord. The dog was ambulatory with right-sided forelimb monoparesis within a week of surgery and improved further following discharge. Three months following surgery, the dog was exercising freely with only mild right forelimb lameness. [source]

Fine mapping a quantitative trait locus on horse chromosome 2 associated with radiological signs of navicular disease in Hanoverian warmblood horses

M. S. Lopes
Summary Navicular disease or podotrochlosis is one of the main causes of progressive forelimb lameness in warmblood horses. The objective of this study was to refine a quantitative trait locus on horse chromosome 2 for radiological alterations in the contour of the navicular bone (RAC) in Hanoverian warmblood horses. Genotyping was performed in 192 Hanoverian warmblood horses from 17 paternal half-sib groups. The marker set was extended to 58 informative microsatellites including nine newly developed microsatellites. QTL for RAC could be delineated at 32.50,43.13 Mb and a further new QTL for RAC could be identified at 59.08,65.14 Mb. The markers ABGe342 and ABGe343 reached the highest multipoint Zmean and LOD scores at 34.42 and 35.23 Mb with genome-wide error probabilities of P = 0.013 and P = 0.064. In addition, significant associations of markers and haplotypes within the QTL could be shown. The results support the location of the QTL on ECA2 associated with RAC. This work is a further step towards the development of a marker test for navicular disease in Hanoverian warmblood horses. [source]

Elbow joint luxation in a 1-month-old foal

LM Rubio-Martínez
This paper reports on luxation of the elbow joint without concomitant fracture in a 1-month-old foal. Conservative treatment, with closed reduction and full-limb bandaging, including caudal and lateral splints, seemed successful initially, however, failed to provide enough stability and luxation recurred, and open reduction and surgical placement of prosthetic collateral ligaments was required. Luxation of the elbow joint should be considered when acute non-weight bearing forelimb lameness occurs associated with pain and swelling in the area of the elbow in young foals. Closed reduction failed to provide sufficient joint stability. [source]