Forearm

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Forearm

  • distal forearm
  • leave forearm
  • right forearm
  • volar forearm

  • Terms modified by Forearm

  • forearm blood flow
  • forearm exercise
  • forearm flap
  • forearm fracture
  • forearm fractures
  • forearm free flap
  • forearm muscle
  • forearm skin
  • forearm vascular resistance
  • forearm vascular response
  • forearm vessel

  • Selected Abstracts


    Forearm and leg amino acid metabolism in the basal state and during combined insulin and amino acid stimulation after a 3-day fast

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    J. Gjedsted
    Abstract Aim:, Fasting is characterized by a progressive loss of protein, but data on protein kinetics are unclear and few have studied the effects of re-feeding. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that a combined infusion of insulin and amino acids after fasting would induce compensatory increases in protein synthesis and reductions in protein breakdown at the whole body level and in muscle. Methods:, We included 10 healthy male volunteers and studied them twice: (1) in the post-absorptive state and (2) after 72 h of fasting. Amino acid kinetics was measured using labelled phenylalanine and tyrosine, whole body energy expenditure was assessed and urea nitrogen synthesis rates were calculated. Results:, After fasting we observed an increase in arterial blood concentration of branched chain amino acids and a decrease in gluconeogenic amino acids (P < 0.05). Isotopically determined whole body, forearm and leg phenylalanine fluxes were unaltered apart from a 30% decrease in phenylalanine-to-tyrosine conversion (2.0 vs. 1.4 ,mol kg,1 h,1, P < 0.01). During infusion of insulin and amino acids, amino acid concentrations increased. Conclusion:, Our data indicate that after a 72-h fast basal and insulin/amino acid-stimulated regional phenylalanine fluxes in leg and forearm muscle are unaltered. During fasting concentrations of gluconeogenic amino acids decrease and hepatic and/or renal phenylalanine-to-tyrosine conversion decreases. Thus, as opposed to glucose and lipid metabolism, fasting does not induce insulin resistance as regards amino acid metabolism. [source]


    Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Skin of the Forearm

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 6 2003
    Adil Ceydeli MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Quantitative Trait Loci on Chromosomes 2p, 4p, and 13q Influence Bone Mineral Density of the Forearm and Hip in Mexican Americans,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 12 2003
    Candace M Kammerer
    Abstract We performed a genome scan using BMD data of the forearm and hip on 664 individuals in 29 Mexican-American families. We obtained evidence for QTL on chromosome 4p, affecting forearm BMD overall, and on chromosomes 2p and 13q, affecting hip BMD in men. Introduction: The San Antonio Family Osteoporosis Study (SAFOS) was designed to identify genes and environmental factors that influence bone mineral density (BMD) using data from large Mexican-American families. Materials and Methods: We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis using 416 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers spaced approximately 9.5 cM apart to locate and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect BMD of the forearm and hip. Multipoint variance components linkage analyses were done using data on all 664 subjects, as well as two subgroups of 259 men and 261 premenopausal women, from 29 families for which genotypic and phenotypic data were available. Results: We obtained significant evidence for a QTL affecting forearm (radius midpoint) BMD in men and women combined on chromosome 4p near D4S2639 (maximum LOD = 4.33, genomic p = 0.006) and suggestive evidence for a QTL on chromosome 12q near locus D12S2070 (maximum conditional LOD = 2.35). We found suggestive evidence for a QTL influencing trochanter BMD on chromosome 6 (maximum LOD = 2.27), but no evidence for QTL affecting the femoral neck in men and women combined. In men, we obtained evidence for QTL affecting neck and trochanter BMD on chromosomes 2p near D2S1780 (maximum LOD = 3.98, genomic p = 0.013) and 13q near D13S788 (maximum LOD = 3.46, genomic p = 0.039), respectively. We found no evidence for QTL affecting forearm or hip BMD in premenopausal women. Conclusion: These results provide strong evidence that a QTL on chromosome 4p affects radius BMD in Mexican-American men and women, as well as evidence that QTL on chromosomes 2p and 13q affect hip BMD in men. Our results are consistent with some reports in humans and mice. [source]


    Fractional deep dermal ablation induces tissue tightening,

    LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
    Zakia Rahman MD
    Abstract Background and Objective Due to the significant risk profile associated with traditional ablative resurfacing, a safer and less invasive treatment approach known as fractional deep dermal ablation (FDDA) was recently developed. We report the results of the first clinical investigation of this modality for treatment of photodamaged skin. Study Design/Materials and Methods Twenty-four subjects received treatments on the inner forearm with a prototype fractional CO2 laser device (Reliant Technologies Inc., Mountain View, CA) at settings of 5,40 mJ/MTZ and 400 MTZ/cm2. Clinical and histological effects were assessed by study investigators 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months following treatment. Thirty subjects were then enrolled in a multi-center study for treatment of photodamage using the same device. Subjects received 1,2 treatments on the face and neck, with energies ranging from 10 to 40 mJ/MTZ and densities ranging from 400 to 1,200 MTZ/cm2. Study investigators assessed severity of post-treatment responses during follow-up visits 48 hours, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months following treatment. Using a standard quartile improvement scale (0,4), subjects and investigators assessed improvement in rhytides, pigmentation, texture, laxity and overall appearance 1 and 3 months post-treatment. Results Clinical and histologic results demonstrated that fractional delivery of a 10,600 nm CO2 laser source offers an improved safety profile with respect to traditional ablative resurfacing, while still effectively resurfacing epidermal and dermal tissue. Forearm and facial treatments were well-tolerated with no serious adverse events observed. Eighty-three percent of subjects exhibited moderate or better overall improvement (50,100%), according to study investigator quartile scoring. Conclusions FDDA treatment is a safe and promising new approach for resurfacing of epidermal and deep dermal tissue targets. Lasers Surg. Med. 41:78,86, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Comparative Analysis of Muscle Architecture in Primate Arm and Forearm

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2 2010
    Yasuhiro Kikuchi
    With 7 figures and 3 tables Summary A comparative study of myological morphology, i.e. muscle mass (MM), muscle fascicle length and muscle physiological cross-sectional area (an indicator of the force capacity of muscles), was conducted in nine primate species: human (Homo sapiens), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gibbon (Hylobates spp.), papio (Papio hamadryas), lutong (Trachypithecus francoisi), green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops), macaque monkey (Macaca spp.), capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The MM distributions and the percentages in terms of functional categories were calculated as the ratios of the muscle masses. Moreover, individual normalized data were compared directly amongst species, independent of size differences. The results show that the different ratios of forearm-rotation muscles between chimpanzee and gibbons may be related to the differences in their main positional behaviour, i.e. knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and brachiation in gibbons, and the different frequencies of arm-raising locomotion between these two species. Moreover, monkeys have larger normalized MM values for the elbow extensor muscles than apes, which may be attributed to the fact that almost all monkeys engage in quadrupedal locomotion. The characteristics of the muscle internal parameters of ape and human are discussed in comparison with those of monkey. [source]


    Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 gene influence the stratum corneum interleukin-1, concentration in uninvolved skin of patients with chronic irritant contact dermatitis

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 5 2008
    Cindy M. DeJongh
    Background:, Interleukin (IL)-1, and its receptor antagonist IL-1ra play a role in skin inflammation. Several polymorphisms in the IL1 gene cluster, coding for IL-1,, IL-1ra, and IL-1,, influence their protein expression. Within this cluster, strong linkage disequilibrium has been shown. Objective:, We studied the association between the polymorphisms IL1A -889 (C,T) and IL1B -31 (T,C) and the concentration of IL-1, and IL-1ra in the stratum corneum (SC). Method:, In 124 patients with chronic irritant contact dermatitis, we genotyped the IL1A -889 and IL1B -31 polymorphisms and determined the amount of IL-1, and IL-1ra on tape strips obtained from uninvolved skin of the volar forearm. Results:, The SC IL-1, concentration was 23% and 47% lower in subjects with IL1A -889 C/T genotype and T/T genotype, respectively, compared with wild-type genotype. In subjects with IL1B -31 C/C genotype, the IL-1, concentration was 51% lower compared with C/T and T/T genotypes. The ratio IL-1ra/IL-1, increased twofold in IL1A -889 C/T genotype and threefold in T/T genotype compared with wild type. Conclusions:, We have shown a clear effect of IL1 genotype on protein expression in the SC. This altered expression may be responsible for the interindividual differences in the inflammatory response of the skin. [source]


    Functional map and age-related differences in the human face: nonimmunologic contact urticaria induced by hexyl nicotinate

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2006
    Slaheddine Marrakchi
    Variation in human skin reactivity to various irritants in association with age and body region has been reported. Hexyl nicotinate (HN), a lipophilic nicotinate ester, was used to induce nonimmunologic contact urticaria in human volunteers of 2 age groups: 10 young subjects [24,34 years, mean standard deviation (SD) 29.8 3.9 years] and 10 older volunteers (66,83 years, mean SD 73.6 17.4 years); and to define skin function and potential age-related differences in various facial areas. About 5 mM of HN in ethanol was applied to 8 locations on the face, neck, and volar forearm. A laser Doppler flowmeter was used to determine baseline blood flow and to monitor the skin blood flow changes after HN application. In the contralateral areas, stratum corneum turnover was determined using 5% dansyl chloride in petrolatum. In the young group, the perioral area exhibited the strongest reaction to HN. In the older group, the chin was the most sensitive site. In both the groups, the forearm was the least responsive. The older group demonstrated a stronger reaction than the younger group in 3 sites (forehead, cheek, and nasolabial area). Stratum corneum turnover was slower in the nasolabial area and in the forearm in both age groups, whereas the fastest was in the perioral area and the chin in the younger group and in the chin and the forehead in the older group. Compared to the older group, the younger group showed a slower stratum corneum turnover in the nose and the neck. This study demonstrates the regional and the age-related variability of the stratum corneum turnover and the skin reactions to HN. These observations may help explain some aspects of the cutaneous intolerance in skin care of the face. [source]


    P73 The magnitude of contact allergy responses can be quantified with imaged perfusion

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Bolli Bjarnason
    Objective:, The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of the perfusion of the contact hypersensitivity response as measured by the laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) technique was associated with immunological parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods:, Urushiol was applied on one of the forearms of volunteers for 48 hours while the other forearm served as a control. Twenty-four hours later, measurements of perfusion of the patch test sites were performed with the LDPI technique. To determine whether there was a correlation with immunological parameters associated with human contact hypersensitivity, suction blisters were produced at the test sites. Blister fluid was removed and examined for the cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). Results:, There was an extremely close correlation between the magnitude of the contact hypersensitivity response as measured by the imaged perfusion and the level of IL-8 in the blister fluid (r = 1.00). Compared to subjects with visually positive urushiol reactions, patients who failed to develop urushiol contact hypersensitivity despite repeated exposures to that substance had both greatly diminished perfusion and blister fluid IL-8 levels. Conclusion:, The results indicate that LDPI is a sensitive method of quantifying contact hypersensitivity reactions in humans and that the magnitude of the measurements with this technique correlates extremely well with cutaneous cytokine levels that have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of contact hypersensitivity. [source]


    Forearm and leg amino acid metabolism in the basal state and during combined insulin and amino acid stimulation after a 3-day fast

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    J. Gjedsted
    Abstract Aim:, Fasting is characterized by a progressive loss of protein, but data on protein kinetics are unclear and few have studied the effects of re-feeding. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that a combined infusion of insulin and amino acids after fasting would induce compensatory increases in protein synthesis and reductions in protein breakdown at the whole body level and in muscle. Methods:, We included 10 healthy male volunteers and studied them twice: (1) in the post-absorptive state and (2) after 72 h of fasting. Amino acid kinetics was measured using labelled phenylalanine and tyrosine, whole body energy expenditure was assessed and urea nitrogen synthesis rates were calculated. Results:, After fasting we observed an increase in arterial blood concentration of branched chain amino acids and a decrease in gluconeogenic amino acids (P < 0.05). Isotopically determined whole body, forearm and leg phenylalanine fluxes were unaltered apart from a 30% decrease in phenylalanine-to-tyrosine conversion (2.0 vs. 1.4 ,mol kg,1 h,1, P < 0.01). During infusion of insulin and amino acids, amino acid concentrations increased. Conclusion:, Our data indicate that after a 72-h fast basal and insulin/amino acid-stimulated regional phenylalanine fluxes in leg and forearm muscle are unaltered. During fasting concentrations of gluconeogenic amino acids decrease and hepatic and/or renal phenylalanine-to-tyrosine conversion decreases. Thus, as opposed to glucose and lipid metabolism, fasting does not induce insulin resistance as regards amino acid metabolism. [source]


    Effects of C-peptide on forearm blood flow and brachial artery dilatation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2001
    E. Fernqvist-Forbes
    Recent studies suggest that C-peptide increases blood flow in both exercising and resting forearm in patients with type 1 diabetes. Now we have studied the effect of C-peptide administration on endothelial-mediated and non-endothelial-mediated arterial responses as well as central haemodynamics in 10 patients with type 1 diabetes in a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Euglycaemia was maintained with an i.v. insulin infusion before and during the study. A high-resolution ultrasound technique and Doppler echocardiography were used to assess haemodynamic functions. Brachial artery blood flow and brachial artery diameter were measured in the basal state, 1 and 10 min after reactive hyperaemia and 4 min after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate administration (GTN; endothelial-independent vasodilatation), both before and after the end of 60-min C-peptide (6 pmol kg,1 min,1) or saline infusion periods. Echocardiographic measurements were also performed before and at the end of the infusion periods. Seven healthy age-matched males served as controls for vascular studies. The patients showed a blunted brachial dilatation after reactive hyperaemia in comparison with the healthy controls (2.1 0.5% vs. 9.3 0.3%, P < 0.001), indicating a disturbed endothelial function. C-peptide infusion compared with saline resulted in increased basal blood flow (33 6%, P < 0.001) and brachial arterial dilatation (4 1%, P < 0.05). Left ventricular ejection fraction seemed to be improved (5 2%, P < 0.05) at the end of C-peptide infusion compared with placebo. The vascular response to reactive hyperaemia and GTN was not affected by C-peptide infusion. Our results demonstrate that physiological concentrations of C-peptide increase resting forearm blood flow, brachial artery diameter and left ventricular systolic function in patients with type 1 diabetes. [source]


    Orthopaedic issues in the musculoskeletal care of adults with cerebral palsy

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 2009
    HELEN M HORSTMANN MD
    Aims, Orthopaedic care of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) has not been well documented in orthopaedic literature. This paper focuses on some of the common problems which present themselves when adults with CP seek orthopaedic intervention. In particular, we review the most common orthopaedic issues which present to the Penn Neuro-Orthopaedics Program. Method, A formal review of consecutive surgeries performed by the senior author on adults with CP was previously conducted. This paper focuses on the health delivery care for the adult with orthopaedic problems related to cerebral palsy. Ninety-two percent of these patients required lower extremity surgery. Forty percent had procedures performed on the upper extremities. Results, The majority of problems seen in the Penn Neuro-Orthopaedics Program are associated with the residuals of childhood issues, particularly deformities associated with contractures. Patients are also referred for treatment of acquired musculoskeletal problems such as degenerative arthritis of the hip or knee. A combination of problems contribute most frequently to foot deformities and pain with weight-bearing, shoewear or both, most often due to equinovarus. The surgical correction of this is most often facilitated through a split anterior tibial tendon transfer. Posterior tibial transfers are rarely indicated. Residual equinus deformities contribute to a pes planus deformity. The split anterior tibial tendon transfer is usually combined with gastrocnemius-soleus recession and plantar release. Transfer of the flexor digitorum longus to the os calcis is done to augment the plantar flexor power. Rigid pes planus deformity is treated with a triple arthrodesis. Resolution of deformity allows for a good base for standing, improved ability to tolerate shoewear, and/or braces. Other recurrent or unresolved issues involve hip and knee contractures. Issues of lever arm dysfunction create problems with mechanical inefficiency. Upper extremity intervention is principally to correct contractures. Internal rotation and adductor tightness at the shoulder makes for difficult underarm hygiene and predispose a patient to a spiral fracture of the humerus. A tight flexor, pronation pattern is frequently noted through the elbow and forearm with further flexion contractures through the wrist and fingers. Lengthenings are more frequently performed than tendon transfers in the upper extremity. Arthrodesis of the wrist or on rare occasions of the metacarpal-phalangeal joints supplement the lengthenings when needed. Conclusions, The Penn Neuro-Orthopaedics Program has successfully treated adults with both residual and acquired musculoskeletal deformities. These deformities become more critical when combined with degenerative changes, a relative increase in body mass, fatigue, and weakness associated with the aging process. [source]


    Biopsy of the posterior interosseous nerve: a low morbidity method for assessment of peripheral nerve disorders

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2009
    N. O. B. Thomsen
    Abstract Aims The sural nerve is the commonest peripheral nerve biopsied to help in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause. However, associated complications limit its use. The aim was, as an alternative, to asses biopsy of the terminal branch of the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) in the forearm. Methods PIN pathology was morphometrically quantified in 10 male patients with Type 2 diabetes and compared with six PIN biopsy specimens taken post mortem from male cadavers with no history of neuropathy or trauma. Results The PIN biopsy procedure provides a long (approximately 3 cm) mono- or bifascicular nerve biopsy with generous epineurial tissue and adjacent vessels. Our results show a significantly lower myelinated fibre density in subjects with diabetes [5782 (3332,9060)/mm2] compared with autopsy control material [9256 (6593,12 935)/mm2, P < 0.007]. No postoperative discomfort or complications were encountered. Conclusions A reduction in myelinated fibre density has previously been shown to be a clinically meaningful measure of neuropathy in diabetic patients. We demonstrate similar findings using the PIN biopsy. The PIN biopsy procedure fulfils the criteria for nerve biopsy and was well tolerated by the patients. It may be a possible alternative to sural nerve biopsy to allow for diagnosis of neuropathy. [source]


    A diet enriched with mackerel (Scomber scombrus),derived products improves the endothelial function in a senior population (Prevencin de las Enfermedades Cardiovasculares: Estudio Santoa , PECES project)

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 3 2009
    J. R. De Berrazueta
    ABSTRACT Background, Regular consumption of fish reduces cardiovascular risks. Here, we investigate if the consumption of products with mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with 882 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content per 100 g of product improves parameters of endothelial function in a controlled population. Materials and methods, Subjects maintained a 12-week diet with products with mackerel. The population consisted of 58 senior subjects (12 withdrawals, 25 women), aged 8208 813 years (Group A). Twenty-three senior subjects (13 women) on a regular diet were used as the control group (Group B). Subjects of Group A received 57 portions throughout 12 weeks (four to five portions a week of products with a mean EPA + DHA content of 25 g a day). A continuous follow-up and a final evaluation were performed to determine the level of consumption. Plasma samples were stored at ,70 C for a biochemical study. Endothelial function was analysed by reactive hyperemia with a mercury strain gauge plethysmography with measurement of blood flow in the forearm, both baseline and at the end of the 12-week diet. Results, Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation significantly increased in Group A subjects (P < 0001). No changes were found in Group B. The subgroup analyses showed that improvements were produced in Group A subjects without cardiovascular disease (P < 0001). Nitrites/nitrates and von Willebrand factor plasma concentrations were higher in participants after the 12-week diet. Conclusions, The consumption of mackerel meat products improves endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilatation in a senior population. This finding might explain some of the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption. [source]


    Electrophysiological sensory demyelination in typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    Y. A. Rajabally
    Background:, The presence of electrophysiological demyelination of sensory nerves is not routinely assessed in the evaluation of suspected chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Whether this can be useful is unknown. Methods:, We compared, using surface recording techniques, in 19 patients with typical CIDP and 26 controls with distal large fibre sensory axonal neuropathy, the forearm median sensory conductions, sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes and durations and sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs) of median, radial and sural nerves. Results:, Median nerve sensory conduction block (SCB) across the forearm was greater in CIDP patients than in controls (P = 0.005). SNAP durations were longer in CIDP patients for median (P = 0.001) and sural nerves (P = 0.004). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves provided sensitive (>40%) and specific (>95%) cut-offs for median nerve SCB as well as median and sural SNAP durations. SNCVs were significantly slower for median and sural nerves in CIDP patients, but ROC curves did not demonstrate cut-offs with useful sensitivities/specificities. Median SCB or prolonged median SNAP duration or prolonged sural SNAP duration offered a sensitivity of 73.7% for CIDP and specificity of 96.2%. Used as additional parameters, they improved diagnostic sensitivity of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria for CIDP of 1991, from 42.1% to 78.9% in this population, with preserved specificity of 100%. Discussion:, Sensory electrophysiological demyelination is present and may be diagnostically useful in typical CIDP. SCB detection and SNAP duration prolongation appear to represent more useful markers of demyelination than SNCV reduction. [source]


    Rapid cortical reorganisation and improved sensitivity of the hand following cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
    Anders Bjrkman
    Abstract The cortical representation of various body parts constantly changes based on the pattern of afferent nerve impulses. As peripheral nerve injury results in a cortical and subcortical reorganisation this has been suggested as one explanation for the poor clinical outcome seen after peripheral nerve repair in humans. Cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm in healthy subjects and in patients with nerve injuries results in rapid improvement of hand sensitivity. The mechanism behind the improvement is probably based on a rapid cortical and subcortical reorganisation. The aim of this work was to study cortical changes following temporary cutaneous forearm anaesthesia. Ten healthy volunteers participated in the study. Twenty grams of a local anaesthetic cream (EMLA) was applied to the volar aspect of the right forearm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during sensory stimulation of all fingers of the right hand before and during cutaneous forearm anaesthesia. Sensitivity was also clinically assessed before and during forearm anaesthesia. A group analysis of functional magnetic resonance image data showed that, during anaesthesia, the hand area in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex expanded cranially over the anaesthetised forearm area. Clinically right hand sensitivity in the volunteers improved during forearm anaesthesia. No significant changes were seen in the left hand. The clinically improved hand sensitivity following forearm anaesthesia is probably based on a rapid expansion of the hand area in the primary somatosensory cortex which presumably results in more nerve cells being made available for the hand in the primary somatosensory cortex. [source]


    Changes in the bucco-lingual thickness of the mandibular alveolar process and skeletal bone mineral density in dentate women: a 5-yr prospective study

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 2 2005
    Grethe Jonasson
    After tooth extraction there is a great interindividual variation in the remodelling pattern of the alveolar process in edentulous areas, with some individuals losing little bone and others undergoing extensive resorption. However, little is known about possible longitudinal changes in the dentate region of the alveolar process of adults and if these are related to alterations in the skeletal bone mineral density (BMD). In a prospective study, on two occasions, 5-yr apart, the BMD of 117 women was determined in the distal forearm by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the bucco-lingual thickness of the mandibular alveolar process was measured on dental casts by using a dial calliper. A decrease in the mean alveolar thickness, exceeding a cut-off value of 0.1 mm, was found in 60% of the women and an increase was found in 3% of the individuals. This decrease was 0.22 0.20 mm in the posterior region and 0.16 0.19 mm in the anterior region. The changes in alveolar thickness in the posterior region were significantly correlated to the BMD changes both on the mid-crestal level site and on the cervical level site. We conclude that the bucco-lingual thickness decreases with age in the dentate alveolar process, possibly owing to periosteal resorption related to skeletal bone loss. [source]


    Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin

    EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2008
    Juan Manuel Decara
    Abstract:,Trans -urocanic acid is a major chromophore for ultraviolet (UV) radiation in human epidermis. The UV induces photoisomerization of trans -urocanic acid (tUCA) form to cis -urocanic acid (cUCA) and has been reported as an important mediator in the immunosuppression induced by UV. This immunomodulation has been recognized as an important factor related to skin cancer development. This is the first time that UCA isomers have been measured in epidermis of skin biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with the tumor periphery and biopsies of healthy photoexposed and non-photoexposed skin as controls. The UCA isomers were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of UCA in healthy skin showed significant increase in total UCA content in non-photoexposed body sites compared with highly exposed skins. In contrast, the percentage of cUCA was higher in photoexposed body sites. Maximal levels of cUCA were found in cheek, forehead and forearm and lower levels in abdomen and thigh. No differences were found in total UCA concentration between the tumor samples and healthy photoexposed skin. However, differences were found in relation between isomers. Higher levels of cUCA were detected in SCC biopsies (44% of total UCA) compared with samples of BCC and that of healthy photoexposed skin (30%). These results suggest that the UV radiation exposure, a main factor in development of SCC can be mediated, apart from direct effect to cells (DNA damage), by immunosuppression pathways mediated by high production of cUCA. [source]


    In vivo UVB irradiation induces clustering of Fas (CD95) on human epidermal cells

    EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    Bo Bang
    Abstract:,In vitro studies with human cell lines have demonstrated that the death receptor Fas plays a role in ultraviolet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between Fas expression and apoptosis as well as clustering of Fas in human epidermis after a single dose of UVB irradiation. Normal healthy individuals were irradiated with three minimal erythema doses (MED) of UVB on forearm or buttock skin. Suction blisters from unirradiated and irradiated skin were raised, and Fas, FasL, and apoptosis of epidermal cells were quantified by flow cytometry. Clustering of Fas was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy on cryostat sections from skin biopsies. Soluble FasL in suction blister fluid was quantified by ELISA. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated increased expression intensity of Fas after irradiation, with 1.6-, 2.2- and 2.7-fold increased median expression at 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation, respectively (n = 4). Apoptosis was demonstrated by the TUNEL reaction, and the maximum of apoptotic cells was detected at 48 h after irradiation. Double-staining for Fas and TUNEL showed that apoptosis was restricted to the Fas-positive epidermal subpopulation, but there was no correlation between the intensities of Fas expression and TUNEL reaction. Median expression intensity of FasL-positive cells transiently decreased to 0.9- and 0.8-fold of the preirradiation respective level after 24 h and 48 h, respectively, and returned to the respective preirradiation level at 72 h after irradiation (n = 4). Concentrations of soluble FasL in suction blister fluid from UVB-irradiated skin did not differ from those in unirradiated skin (n = 5). Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a rapid clustering of Fas within 30 min after irradiation. A simultaneous clustering of the adapter signalling protein FADD suggested that Fas clustering has a functional significance. Our results are in accordance with previous findings from in vitro studies, and suggest that Fas is activated in vivo in human epidermis after UVB exposure. [source]


    Evidence from proprioception of fusimotor coactivation during voluntary contractions in humans

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Trevor J. Allen
    In experiments on position sense at the elbow joint in the horizontal plane, blindfolded subjects were required to match the position of one forearm (reference) by placement of their other arm (indicator). Position errors were measured after conditioning elbow muscles of the reference arm with an isometric contraction while the arm was held either flexed or extended. The difference in errors after the two forms of conditioning was large when the conditioned muscles remained relaxed during the matching process and it became less when elbow muscles were required to lift a load during the match (10 and 25% of maximal voluntary contraction, respectively). Errors from muscle conditioning were attributed to signals arising in muscle spindles and were hypothesized to result from the thixotropic property of passive intrafusal fibres. Active muscle does not exhibit thixotropy. It is proposed that during a voluntary contraction the errors after conditioning are less, because the spindles become coactivated through the fusimotor system. The distribution of errors is therefore seen to be a reflection of fusimotor recruitment thresholds. For elbow flexors most, but not all, fusimotor fibres appear to be recruited by 10% of a maximal contraction. [source]


    Forearm vascular responses to combined muscle metaboreceptor activation in the upper and lower limbs in humans

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Ken Tokizawa
    Our previous studies showed that venous occlusion or passive stretch of the lower limb, assuming a mechanical stimulus, attenuates the vasoconstriction in the non-exercised forearm during postexercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI) of the upper limb. In this study, we investigated whether a metabolic stimulus to the lower limb induces a similar response. Eight subjects performed a 2 min static handgrip exercise at 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 3 min PEMI of the upper limb, concomitant with or without 2 min static ankle dorsiflexion at 30% MVC followed by 2 min PEMI of the lower limb. During PEMI of the upper limb alone, forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) in the non-exercised arm decreased significantly, whereas during combined PEMI of the upper and lower limbs, the decreases in FBF and FVC produced by PEMI of the upper limb was attenuated. Forearm blood flow and FVC were significantly greater during combined PEMI of the upper and lower limbs than during PEMI of the upper limb alone. When PEMI of the lower limb was released after combined PEMI of the upper and lower limbs (only PEMI of the upper limb was maintained continuously), the attenuated decreases in FBF and FVC observed during combined PEMI of the upper and lower limbs was not observed. Thus, forearm vascular responses differ when muscle metaboreceptors are activated in the upper limb and when there is combined activation of muscle metaboreceptors in both the upper and lower limbs. [source]


    Simplifying head and neck microvascular reconstruction

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 11 2004
    Eben Rosenthal MD
    Abstract Background. Free-tissue transfer has become the preferred method of head and neck reconstruction but is a technique that is considered to use excessive hospital resources. Methods. This study is a retrospective review of 125 consecutive free flaps in 117 patients over a 16-month period at a tertiary care university hospital. Results. Defects of the oral cavity/oropharynx (60%), midface (9%), hypopharynx (15%), or cervical and facial skin (16%) were reconstructed from three donor sites: forearm (70%), rectus (11%), and fibula (19%). Microvascular anastomoses were performed with a continuous suture technique or an anastomotic coupling device for end-to-end venous anastomoses. A single vein was anastomosed in 97% of tissue transfers. There were five flaps (4%) requiring exploration for vascular compromise, and the overall success rate was 97.6%. The major complication rate was 13%. Mean hospital stay was 7 days for all patients and 5 days for those with cutaneous defects. Combined ablative and reconstructive operative times were 6 hours 42 minutes, 7 hours 40 minutes, and 8 hours 32 minutes for forearm, rectus, and fibular free grafts, respectively. A subset of this patient series with oral cavity and oropharynx defects (76 patients; 58%) available for follow-up (74 patients) was assessed for deglutition. Forty-three patients (58%) had a regular diet, 22 patients (30%) had a limited diet or required supplemental tube feedings, and nine patients (12%) were dependent on tube feedings with a severely limited diet. Conclusions. This series suggests that most head and neck defects can be reconstructed by use of a simplified microvascular technique and a limited number of donor sites. Analysis of operative times and length of stay suggest improved efficiency with this approach to microvascular reconstruction. Complications and functional results are comparable to previously published results. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 930,936, 2004 [source]


    Primary oromandibular reconstruction using free flaps and thorp plates in cancer patients: A 5-year experience,

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 1 2003
    Tito Poli MD
    Abstract Background. Low-profile second-generation THORP titanium plates combined with soft tissues free flaps (forearm or TRAM) can be used for oromandibular reconstruction in patients with SCC in advanced stage (stage III,IV). Methods. To evaluate long-term stability and possible complications of this reconstructive technique, we recorded, retrospectively, data of 25 patients with posterolateral oromandibular defects after tumor resection collected during a 5-year period. Results. All free flaps were successfully transferred, although eight patients were initially seen with delayed hardware-related reconstructive complications: plate exposure in four patients and plate fracture in four patients. Conclusions. Nowadays, the state-of-the-art treatment for mandibular defects is primary bone reconstruction with bone free flaps, but in selected cases (elderly patients, poor performance status, posterolateral oromandibular defects, soft tissue defects much more important than bone defects) the association with THORP plate-soft tissue free flaps represents a good reconstructive choice. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 000,000, 2002 [source]


    Endothelial Function in Patients With Migraine During the Interictal Period

    HEADACHE, Issue 1 2007
    Federico A. Silva MD
    Objectives.,The aim of this study is to evaluate endothelial function in migraineur subjects during the asymptomatic period. Background.,Migraine has been proposed as a risk factor for cerebrovascular events. The underlying mechanisms that relate these 2 pathologies are unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as the final causative molecule of migraine. Increased NO metabolites concentrations have been reported in migraineur subjects during acute migraine attacks, but there is no evidence indicating alterations in endothelial NO release during the symptom free period in theses subjects. Design and Methods.,Fifty migraineur subjects and 25 healthy subjects matched by gender and age were included. Every subject underwent a complete examination that included medical history, physical examination, resting electrocardiogram, forearm flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood determinations of fasting nitrates and nitrites (NO2,+ NO3,), glucose, lipid profile, creatinine, C-reactive protein, and blood cell count. Results.,No differences in FMD or NO2,+ NO3, were detected among groups. The only difference between migraineurs and control subjects was a higher mean blood pressure 92.1 (8.8) mmHg versus 86.7 (8.2) mmHg P= .01. Conclusion.,The endothelial function is not altered during the interictal period in migraineur subjects. [source]


    Identification of the maximum acceptable frequencies of upper-extremity motions in the sagittal plane

    HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS IN MANUFACTURING & SERVICE INDUSTRIES, Issue 3 2009
    Ochae Kwon
    The present study examined the maximum acceptable frequencies (MAFs; motions/min) of upper-extremity motions in the sagittal plane at different forces. A dumbbell of 9.8 or 39.2 N was rotated by the arm about the shoulder, the forearm about the elbow, and the hand about the wrist; a dynamometer was pressed to 2.45 or 9.8 N by the index finger. Seventeen right-handed Korean men in their 20s without any history of musculoskeletal disorders received 1 hour of individual training and conducted each upper-extremity task for 30 minutes a day, assuming they were on an incentive basis. The participants determined their MAFs for 8 hours of work by the self-adjustment method, and work pulse (change in heart rate; beats per minute [bpm]) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. For a limited set of conditions, the reproducibility of the MAF experimental protocol was found satisfactory (r = 0.97; interclass correlation coefficient > 0.95). The average MAFs of arm, forearm, hand, and index finger motions were 24, 45, 56, and 128 at their low force level and 9, 20, 30, and 66 at their high force level. The average work pulses of arm, forearm, and hand motions were 3.0, 2.1, and 1.5 times that of index finger motion (4.2 bpm at their low force level and 5.7 bpm at their high force level). The maximum average RPEs at the upper-extremity regions ranged from 2.1 (weak) to 3.1 (moderate) in Borg's CR-10 scale. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Effects of endodontic instrument handle diameter on electromyographic activity of forearm and hand muscles

    INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 2 2001
    T. Ozawa
    Abstract Aim To determine the influence of the handle diameter of endodontic instruments on forearm and hand muscle activity using electromyographic (EMG) recording. Methodology Size 45 K-type files were fitted with four different handle diameters; 3.5, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 mm. Seven dentists then attempted to negotiate to the working length acrylic resin root canals with each of the four handle sizes using a reaming motion. EMG activities were recorded from the flexor pollicis brevis muscle (f.p.b.), the flexor carpi radialis muscle (f.c.r.), and the brachioradialis muscle (b) with bipolar surface electrodes. The time taken to negotiate the canals, the area of integrated EMG that corresponded to the amount of EMG activity required during penetration and the maximum amplitude of EMG were measured using the EMG data. Results were analysed statistically using a one-way factorial anova test and multiple comparison tests. Results Reaming time and integrated EMG area of each muscle decreased with an increase in handle diameter. The most significant difference in time and area of integrated EMG was detected between handles of 6 mm and 3.5 mm diameter (time: P < 0.01, area of the f.p.b.: P < 0.01, area of the f.c.r. and b: P < 0.05), and between handles of 5 mm and 3.5 mm diameter (P < 0.05). Both 5 mm and 6 mm handles significantly decreased the maximum amplitude of EMG recorded from the f.p.b. compared with 3.5 mm handles (between 3.5 mm and 6 mm: P < 0.01, between 3.5 mm and 5 mm: P < 0.05). Conclusion The results indicate that handle diameter has an effect on reaming time as well as on muscle activity. As a consequence, handle diameter influenced operator performance during instrumentation. [source]


    Is the axilla a distinct skin phenotype?

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
    A. Watkinson
    The axillary skin is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant use impacts upon it. To characterize axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have evaluated a range of skin parameters, comparing these with the volar forearm. Trans-epidermal water loss and corneosurfametry revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. However, application of antiperspirant had no effect upon these barrier properties. High performance thin layer chromatography analysis of stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramide and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. This modification of barrier lipid ratios appeared to result in a more ordered lipid lamellae phase behaviour, as determined by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with transition phase changes occurring at higher temperatures. Morphological differences were also seen in the cells of the axillary stratum corneum. Microscopic evaluation of axillary-cornified envelopes revealed them to be smaller, indicative of a shorter stratum corneum turnover. However, there appeared to be no significant difference corneocyte maturation. ,Skin dryness' squamometry measurements indicated that the axillary stratum corneum retained desquamated material on its surface more than on the forearm. This correlated with decreased levels of the desquamatory stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme in the surface layers of the skin. These results indicate that the axilla has a distinct phenotype. Paper presented at the 22nd IFSCC Congress 2002, Edinburgh, Scotland [source]


    Influence of environmental stress on skin tone, color and melanogenesis in Japanese skin

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Issue 1 2005
    K. Kikuchi
    Introduction It is needless to say that one of the most potent environmental stress for melanogenesis of the human skin is the effect of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sunlight. Characteristic skin aging as a result of this UV light is recognized as photoaging. Clinical features in photoaging are wrinkles, skin laxity, coarseness, leathery, yellowing, lentigenes, mottled pigmentation, telangiectasia, sebaceous hypertrophy and purpura. There is an apparent difference in clinical features in photoaging among different races, i.e. between Caucasians, African American and Asians that include Japanese. Not only photo skin type but also environmental factors, such as climate, latitude, altitude and their habit of sunbathing, smoking and skin care influence the characteristic development of their photoaging. Racial difference in photoaging Caucasians tend to develop skin laxity and fine wrinkles more than Asians [1]. Asians tend to produce coarser wrinkles than the Caucasians although their development is rather late in life. There is also a difference in the skin color. Pigmentation is an earliest and prominent skin changes in Asians [1] and it increases with age [2]. In contrast, pigmentation is not apparent in the Caucasians although redness probably because of an increase in cutaneous vascularization becomes prominent in middle aged Caucasians [2]. Chung reported that seborrheic keratosis is a major pigmentary lesion in men, whereas hyperpigmented macules are prominent features in women in Koreans [3]. Melanogenesis pigmentation disorders in Japanese Ephelides (freckles) are commonly found in those with photo skin type I who have fair skin and red eyes and blond hair. They are also found in the Japanese. Clinical feature reveals that multiple small pigmentary macules on sun-exposed areas mainly on the mid-portion of the face. These lesions seem to be familial, becoming apparent even in early childhood after sun exposure. Melasma is an acquired pigmentary disorder commonly found in middle aged Japanese women characterized by irregular brown macules and patches on the sun-exposed areas on the face typically as bilaterally present macules on the cheeks. An increase in sex hormones as a result of pregnancy and intake of contraceptive pills is one of the etiological factors to develop melasma. Sun exposure also worsens it. Nevus of Ota is also a common pigmentary disorder found in the Japanese. It is usually unilateral, blue-brown to slate-gray pigmentary macules on the eyelid and cheek that appear in early childhood or in puberty. Acquired dermal melanocytosis is also a pigmentary disorder, in which dermal melanocytes are found as shown in nevus of Ota, characterized by bilateral brown to blue-gray macules on the forehead, temple, eyelid and malar areas in middle aged Japanese women. This tends to be misdiagnosed as melasma. Solar lentigo is an acquired pigmented macule induced by sun exposure. Solar lentigines are usually multiple, circumscribed brown macules. There are two types of solar lentigo. One is a small macular type, characterized by multiple, small brown macules whose diameter is less than 5 mm, being similar to ephelides (freckles). The other type is a large macular type, characterized by a few round to oval, brown macules whose diameter is beyond 1 cm. Some of their surface are hyperkeratotic and become elevated to produce seborrheic keratosis. Again, the early sign of photoaging in Japanese is pigmentated spots and these pigmentation disorders increase with age. Among the pigmentary changes, nevus of Ota, acquired dermal melanocytosis, melasma and large macular type of solar lentigo are characteristic skin changes found in the Japanese in addition to ephelides and small macular type of solar lentigo. Seasonal changes of the various functional properties of the skin including skin color assessed by non-invasive bioengineering techniques [4]. When we consider skin tone, color and melanogenesis, UV light from the sunlight is the most potent environmental stress, although we cannot forget also the important influence of environmental relative humidity affects our skin functions as well as its appearance. We investigated seasonal influences on the various properties of the skin in 39 healthy Japanese females consisting of different age groups. Their skin is thought to be affected by the UV light in summer, and by the exposure to the dry and cold air in winter. Materials and methods Biophysical, non-invasive measurements, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as a parameter for the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC), high frequency conductance as a parameter for the hydration state of the SC, skin color and casual surface lipid levels, were conducted during late summer and winter months. Skin color was determined with a chromameter according to the L*a*b* CIE 1976 system, where L* is an attribute on the luminance scale, a* that on the red versus green scale and b* that on the yellow versus blue scale. All the measurements were conducted in an environment controlled-chamber (21 1 C room temperature, and 50 3% relative humidity). Results The barrier function of the SC was found to be significantly impaired in winter on the cheek as compared with that measured in summer, whereas no such seasonal change was apparent both in the hydration state of the SC and sebum levels on the cheek. In the assessment of the skin color on the cheek, a significant increase in a* (redness) and a decrease in b* (yellowness) were observed in winter. In contrast, on the flexor forearm, the values of L* (luminescence) increased in winter, but no seasonal change was noted in the values of a* and b*. In this study, skin changes with aging were also found by the non-invasive bioengineering methods. The value of TEWL on the cheek tended to increase with age, whereas no significant change was observed in the value of TEWL on the forearm. In the assessment of skin color, b* value on the cheek significantly increased with age whereas a* and L* values on the cheek did not show any significant change with age. Summary of this study We think that such an increase in yellowness with aging of the cheek skin is a phenomenon unique to the Japanese (Asians) since an increase in b* value was not observed in Caucasians [2]. The facial skin that is always exposed shows barrier impairment in a dry and cold winter environment and demonstrates increased yellowness in skin color because of a prolonged exposure to the UV light from the sun in the summer season. The non-invasive bioengineering methods are useful to demonstrate even invisible seasonal changes occurring in the same individuals and changes with age occurring in the skin. References 1.,Goh, S.H. The treatment of visible signs of senescence: the Asian experience. Br. J. Dermatol.122, 105,109 (1990). 2.,LeFur, I., Numagami, K., Guinot, C. et al. Age-related reference values of skin color in Caucasian and Japanese healthy women according to skin site. Pigment Cell Res. 7, 67 (1999). 3.,Chung, J.H., Lee, S.H., Youn, C.S. et al. Cutaneous photodamage in Koreans: influence of sex, sun exposure, smoking, and skin color. Arch. Dermatol. 137, 1043,1051 (2001). 4.,Kikuchi, K., Kobayashi, H., Le Fur, I. et al. Winter season affects more severely the facial skin than the forearm skin: comparative biophysical studies conducted in the same Japanese females in later summer and winter. Exog. Dermatol. 1, 32,38 (2002). [source]


    Multiple keratoacanthomas in a young woman: report of a case emphasizing medical management and a review of the spectrum of multiple keratoacanthomas

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Ron J. Feldman MD
    A 27-year-old white woman was referred for consultation with regard to the presence of extensive multiple keratotic lesions. She began to develop these lesions at the age of 9 years, with healing of the lesions resulting in scar formation. A biopsy was performed at the age of 16 years, but the patient was unsure of the results. Since then, she had not had any treatment or biopsies, and stated that she had not suffered from any health problems during the intervening period. She was most concerned about the tumors on her heels and soles, which caused difficulty with ambulation. The family history was negative for skin diseases, including melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer, psoriasis, and eczema, and positive for Type II diabetes mellitus. A relative reported that the patient's grandfather had similar lesions, but the patient's parents and siblings were healthy. She was married and had one child, a 9-year-old daughter. Her child had no skin lesions. The patient's only medication was Ortho-Tricyclene birth control pills. She had no known drug allergies. Physical examination revealed the presence of multiple lesions on her body (Fig. 1). Her left superior helix contained a well-demarcated, dome-shaped nodule with a rolled, mildly erythematous border with a central hyperkeratotic plug. A similar lesion was present in the scaphoid fossa of the left ear and smaller lesions were scattered on her face. Numerous lesions were present on the arms and legs bilaterally, with the majority of lesions being located on the anterior lower legs. There were also lesions present on the palms and soles. The lesions ranged in size from 5 mm to 3 cm, the largest being a verrucous exophytic nodule on the anterior aspect of her left leg. Overall, there appeared to be two distinct types of lesion. One type appeared round, oval, and symmetric with a central keratotic plug, similar to that on the ear. The other type was larger, more exophytic, and verrucous, including the lesions on the volar surfaces. Also present were numerous, irregularly shaped atrophic scars where previous lesions had healed spontaneously. There were no oral lesions or lesions on her fingernails or toenails, and her teeth and hair were normal. Figure 1. Initial presentation of left ear and anterior legs before treatment A biopsy was obtained from an early lesion on the right dorsal forearm. Histology revealed an exo-/endophytic growth having a central crater containing keratinous material (Fig. 2). The crater was surrounded by markedly hyperplastic squamous epithelium with large squamous epithelial cells having abundant glassy cytoplasm. Some cells were dyskeratotic. Within the dermis was a dense, chiefly mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. A buttress of epidermis surrounded the crater. The clinical and pathologic data were consistent with keratoacanthomas. Figure 2. Keratoacanthoma exhibiting an exo- and endophytic growth pattern with a central crater containing keratin (hematoxylin and eosin; original magnification, 40) Initial laboratory screenings revealed elevated triglycerides and total cholesterol, 537 mg/dL (normal, < 150 mg/dL) and 225 mg/dL (normal, < 200 mg/dL), respectively, with all other laboratory results within normal limits. In anticipation of starting oral retinoid therapy for her multiple keratoacanthomas, she was referred to her primary care physician for control of hyperlipidemia. After her lipids had been controlled, she was placed on isotretinoin (Accutane) 40 mg/day. There was some interval improvement with regression of some lesions leaving atrophic scars. She was also started on topical application of tazarotene (Tazorac) for all nonresolving lesions. Possible side-effects from the isotretinoin occurred, including dry mouth and eyes. After 8 months of isotretinoin, the patient was switched to acitretin (Soriatane) 25 mg to determine whether it might have a more beneficial effect on the resistant lesions. Many of the larger lesions regressed leaving atrophic scars. The dose of acitretin was subsequently increased to 35 mg because the lesions on her heel and the ball of her foot persisted. Almost all of the lesions resolved, except those on her feet, which are slowly regressing. Currently, the patient is on a regimen of acitretin 25 mg once a day with tazarotene 0.1% gel applied directly to the few residual keratoacanthomas on her feet, which are slowly improving. [source]


    Bullous variant of Sweet's syndrome

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 11 2005
    Susanne Voelter-Mahlknecht MD
    A 69-year-old woman presented to our clinic as an emergency with erythematous, well-circumscribed plaques, which were partly vesicular, on her extremities and in her armpits, and additionally hemorrhagic blisters on both her palms and her fingers (Fig. 1a), which had developed 2 days after the first appearance of the skin lesions. The rapid onset of the lesions (within a few hours) and the pain associated with them were extremely troublesome to the patient. On admission she complained of fever, tiredness and being easily fatigued. Because of a urinary tract infection 1 month prior to admission, trospiumchloride was given. On clinical examination, body temperature was found to be above 38 C and infraclavicular lymph nodes were enlarged but not tender. Figure 1. (a) Bullae on the patient's right hand. (b) Multiple partly confluent vesicles with neutrophilic granulocytes intraepidermally and a dense interstitial perivascular infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes and lymphomononuclear cells (H&E, 200) Normal or negative laboratory tests included blood counts, liver and kidney parameters, electrolytes and infection screen. Laboratory examination demonstrated minor leukocytosis and absolute neutrophilia (white blood cell count 10 440 cells/L, neutrophils 8030 cells/L). X-ray screening, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory investigations were all normal. There was no response to antibiotics when erythromycine was given. However, there was a good response to systemic corticosteroids. The patient was treated with a low dosage of prednisolone, beginning at 50 mg/day, which was then tapered off. Skin lesions resolved within 7 days. Histology from a lesion on the patient's left forearm showed a dense interstitial inflammatory infiltration consisting predominantly of neutrophilic granulocytes from the subepidermal layer to the middle of the reticular dermis. Inflammatory cells penetrated into both blood vessels and vessel walls; vasculitis was not prominent. In the lower dermis, perivascular infiltrations of lymphomononuclear cells were found. In addition, intraepidermally multiple partly confluent vesicles, with inclusions of neutrophilic granulocytes, were found, confirming the diagnosis of this rare variant of an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Fig. 1b). [source]


    Multiple pilomatricoma with perforation

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 12 2002
    Emel Fetil MD
    A 22-year-old woman presented to our clinic with a complaint of masses on various parts of her body. A mass on her right forearm had appeared 5 years ago and had enlarged during the past 6 months. Two lesions on the back of her neck had a 3-year history, one lesion on her eyebrow had a 2-year history, and one lesion on her left forearm had a 1-year history. The lesion on her left forearm was discharging purulent material. Dermatologic examination revealed a 15 16 mm tumor on the right forearm, 11 6 mm and 10 5 mm tumors on the back of the neck, and a 20 20 mm tumor on the eyebrow; they were flesh-colored, well-defined, firm tumors. On her left forearm, there was a 12 10 mm, well-defined, firm, blue,red tumor discharging chalky white granules; purulent material was detected (Fig. 1). Figure 1. Firm, blue,red tumor discharging chalky white granules There was no regional lymphadenopathy. Systemic examination was normal. Laboratory examination of hematologic, biochemical, and urinalysis tests was normal. There was no family history of similar lesions. Total excision of all the tumors was performed. Histopathologic examination of the material revealed clusters of eosinophilic shadow cells surrounded by a fibrous capsule. There were also foreign body giant cells. Areas of calcification, cholesterol clefts, and ossification were detected. An intraepidermal perforating area was detected from the biopsy material of the left forearm (Fig. 2). There were no recurrences after 1 year of follow-up. Figure 2. Intraepidermal perforating area and clusters of shadow cells (hematoxylin and eosin, 200) [source]