Fluorescent Protein (fluorescent + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Fluorescent Protein

  • cyan fluorescent protein
  • encoding green fluorescent protein
  • enhanced green fluorescent protein
  • express green fluorescent protein
  • green fluorescent protein
  • monomeric red fluorescent protein
  • red fluorescent protein
  • yellow fluorescent protein

  • Terms modified by Fluorescent Protein

  • fluorescent protein fused
  • fluorescent protein reporter

  • Selected Abstracts

    Monitoring Host Nuclear Migration and Degradation with Green Fluorescent Protein during Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Nicotiana tabacum with Colletotrichum Species

    X. C. Shan
    Abstract Recent evidence has emerged suggesting that nuclei sense and migrate towards infection sites in plants, and a novel approach to examine the dynamics of nuclei is described utilizing transgenic plants expressing a version of green fluorescent protein (GFP) that specifically labels plant nuclei. Nicotiana tabacum with GFP-labelled nuclei were inoculated with GFP-labelled strains of the hemibiotrophic fungi, Colletotrichum destructivum and C. graminicola. The nucleus in an epidermal host cell migrated to just underneath the appressorium of the compatible fungus, C. destructivum, but then migrated away from the developing fungus once it had penetrated and started to grow biotrophically. As the necrotrophic phase developed, the nuclei appeared to shrink and eventually their green fluorescence was no longer visible. The interaction of C. graminicola with N. tabacum was considered to show non-host incompatibility. The host nuclei in the epidermal cells also migrated underneath the appressoria. Once fungal penetration had failed, the nuclei then migrated back towards locations typically observed in epidermal cells of uninoculated plants. The use of both plant structures and a fungus that are labelled with a readily detectable fluorescent marker provides significant advantages as it permits direct observation of changes in living host and pathogen cells during a plant,fungal interaction. [source]

    Influence of genetic background on transformation and expression of Green Fluorescent Protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    W. Teughels
    Background/aims:, The development of an electro-transformation system and the construction of shuttle plasmids for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans have enhanced the molecular analysis of virulence factors. However, inefficient transformation is frequently encountered. This study investigated the efficiency of electro-transformation and expression of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in 12 different A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. The influence of the plasmid vector, serotype, and phenotype were the major factors taken into consideration. Material and methods:, Twelve serotyped A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were independently electro-transformed with two different Escherichia coli,A. actinomycetemcomitans shuttle plasmids (pVT1303 and pVT1304), both containing an identical ltx-GFPmut2 gene construct but a different backbone (pDMG4 and pPK1, respectively). The transformation efficiency, transformation frequency, and electro-transformation survival rate were determined by culture techniques. GFP expression was observed at the colony level by fluorescence microscopy. Results:, All strains could be transformed with both plasmids. However, major differences were observed for the transformation efficiency, transformation frequency, and electro-transformation survival rate between strains. The data demonstrated that plasmid vector, serotype, and phenotype are key players for obtaining a successful transformation. An inverted relationship between the electro-transformation survival rate and tranformation frequency was also observed. GFP expression was also influenced by phenotype, serotype and plasmid vector. Conclusions:, The serotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans has an important influence on its survival after electro-transformation and on transformation frequency. The expression of GFP is strain and plasmid vector dependent. [source]

    Presumptive pre-sertoli cells express genes involved in cell proliferation and cell signalling during a critical window in early testis differentiation

    Aron T. Cory
    In mammals, the pre-Sertoli cell of the male genital ridge is the first cell type to display sex specific differentiation and differential gene expression. The genetic cascade driving the differentiationof pre-Sertoli cells and ultimately testis formationis beginning to be unravelled, but many questions remain. A better understanding of the transcriptome of pre-Sertoli cells immediately after sex determination is essential in order to further understand this differentiationprocess. A mouse model expressing Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) under the control of a hybrid mouse/pig SRY promoter (HybSRYp-RFP) was used to purify cells from embryonic day 12.0 (e12.0) male genital ridges. To compare the transcriptomes of HybSRYp-RFP cell populations versus age matched whole female genital ridges, RNA was extracted and used to generate molecular probes that were hybridized onto Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 micro-arrays. The expression of genes considered markers for pre-Sertoli cells, including Sox9, Mis, Dhh and Fgf9 were identified within the HybSRYp-RFP expressing cell population, while markers for germ cells (Oct4, SSEA-1) and endothelial cells (Ntrk3) were not identified. In contrast, markers for ovarian somatic cell expression, including Fst and Bmp2, were identified as overexpressed within the ovarian cell population. In a general fashion, genes identified as 2.5-fold over expressed in HybSRYp-RFP expressing cells coded notably for cell signalling and extra cellular proteins. The expression of Sox10, Stc2, Fgf18, Fgf13 and Wnt6 were further characterized via whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) on male and female genital ridges between e11.5 and e14.5. Sox10, Fgf18, Fgf13 and Stc2 gene expression was detected within the male genital ridges while Wnt6 was found diffusely within both the male and female genital ridges. These data represent the earliest comprehensive microarray expression analysis of purified presumptive pre-Sertoli cells available to date. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 74: 1491,1504, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Activities of the Bimodal Fluorescent Protein Produced by Photobacterium phosphoreum Strain bmFP in the Luciferase Reaction In Vitro

    Hajime Karatani
    ABSTRACT The activity of the bimodal fluorescent protein (bmFP) (,max, 488 and 517 nm) in the in vitro luciferase reaction has been studied. The bmFP that is produced by Photobacterium phosphoreum strain bmFP is a dimer of two homologous subunits binding four riboflavin 5,-phosphate (FMN)-myristate chromophores. The addition of bmFP to the luciferase reaction in the presence of the lumazine protein prevented the lumazine protein-induced blue shift in the emission band. The bmFP reduced electrochemically serves as a substrate in the luciferase reaction in the absence of added FMN, resulting in light emission with a single maximum at about 487 nm. The bmFP was also active in lieu of FMN in the NADH/FMN oxidoreductase (flavin reductase),luciferase coupled bioluminescence reaction in the absence of added FMN. In the coupled reaction, bioluminescence with the isolated bmFP chromophore was weaker than that with the holo-bmFP. After bmFP was used in luciferase reactions initiated either chemically or electrochemically, it was still capable of emitting bimodal fluorescence. [source]

    Protein dynamics control proton transfer from bulk solvent to protein interior: A case study with a green fluorescent protein

    PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 7 2005
    Anoop M. Saxena
    Abstract The kinetics of proton transfer in Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) have been studied as a model system for characterizing the correlation between dynamics and function of proteins in general. The kinetics in EGFP (a variant of GFP) were monitored by using a laser-induced pH jump method. The pH was jumped from 8 to 5 by nanosecond flash photolysis of the "caged proton," o -nitrobenzaldehyde, and subsequent proton transfer was monitored by following the decrease in fluorescence intensity. The modulation of proton transfer kinetics by external perturbants such as viscosity, pH, and subdenaturing concentrations of GdnHCl as well as of salts was studied. The rate of proton transfer was inversely proportional to solvent viscosity, suggesting that the rate-limiting step is the transfer of protons through the protein matrix. The rate is accelerated at lower pH values, and measurements of the fluorescence properties of tryptophan 57 suggest that the enhancement in rate is associated with an enhancement in protein dynamics. The rate of proton transfer is nearly independent of temperature, unlike the rate of the reverse process. When the stability of the protein was either decreased or increased by the addition of co-solutes, including the salts KCl, KNO3, and K2SO4, a significant decrease in the rate of proton transfer was observed in all cases. The lack of correlation between the rate of proton transfer and the stability of the protein suggests that the structure is tuned to ensure maximum efficiency of the dynamics that control the proton transfer function of the protein. [source]

    A Facile Method To Encapsulate Proteins in Silica Nanoparticles: Encapsulated Green Fluorescent Protein as a Robust Fluorescence Probe,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 17 2010
    Aoneng Cao Prof.
    Schutzhülle für Proteine: Polyhistidin-markierte Proteine lassen sich mithilfe von Calciumionen (gelb im Bild) in Siliciumdioxidnanopartikeln (NPs; grau) verkapseln. EGFP, ein grün fluoreszierendes Protein, reagiert auf die Verkapselung in den NPs mit einer deutlich stärkeren Fluoreszenz und höheren Beständigkeit gegen denaturierende Substanzen, Proteasen und Erhitzen. [source]

    Lighting up gap junction channels in a flash

    BIOESSAYS, Issue 10 2002
    W. Howard Evans
    Gap junction intercellular communication channels permit the exchange of small regulatory molecules and ions between neighbouring cells and coordinate cellular activity in diverse tissue and organ systems. These channels have short half-lives and complex assembly and degradation pathways. Much of the recent work elucidating gap junction biogenesis has featured the use of connexins (Cx), the constituent proteins of gap junctions, tagged with reporter proteins such as Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and has illuminated the dynamics of channel assembly in live cells by high-resolution time-lapse microscopy. With some studies, however, there are potential short-comings associated with the GFP chimeric protein technologies. A recent report by Gaietta et al., has highlighted the use of recombinant proteins with tetracysteine tags attached to the carboxyl terminus of Cx43, which differentially labels ,old' and ,new' connexins thus opening up new avenues for studying temporal and spatial localisation of proteins and in situ trafficking events.1 BioEssays 24:876,880, 2002. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    A wheat embryo cell-free protein synthesis system not requiring an exogenous supply of GTP

    Hirohisa Koga
    Abstract Most in vitro protein synthesis systems require a supply of GTP for the formation of translation initiation complexes, with two GTP molecules per amino acid needed as an energy source for a peptide elongation reaction. In order to optimize protein synthesis reactions in a continuous-flow wheat embryo cell-free system, we have examined the influence of adding GTP and found that the system does not require any supply of GTP. We report here the preparation of a wheat embryo extract from which endogenous GTP was removed by gel filtration, and the influence of adding GTP to the system on protein synthesis reactions. Using Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as a reporter, higher levels of production were observed at lower concentrations of GTP, with the optimal level of production obtained with no supply of GTP. A HPLC-based analysis of the extract and the translation mixture containing only ATP as an energy source revealed that GTP was not detectable in the extract, however, 35 ,M of GTP was found in the translation mixture. This result suggests that GTP could be generated from other compounds, such as GDP and GMP, using ATP. A similar experiment with a C-terminally truncated form of human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (hPTP1B1-320) gave almost the same result. The wheat embryo cell-free translation system worked most efficiently without exogenous GTP, producing 3.5 mg/mL of translation mixture over a 48-h period at 26°C. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]

    Monitoring Protein Interactions in the Living Cell Through the Fluorescence Decays of the Cyan Fluorescent Protein

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 7 2006
    Regis Grailhe Dr.
    Abstract Using fluorescence lifetime microspectroscopy and imaging techniques, we have studied the fluorescence of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells, in the presence or absence of its fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) partner, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). When the two proteins are attached through a 27-amino-acid linker, a 33,% average efficiency of intramolecular energy transfer is accurately determined inside the cell. Additionally, we observe a systematic quenching of the CFP fluorescence with increasing levels of protein expression. This quenching cannot be accounted for by formation of the previously described dimer of GFP-related proteins, since its magnitude is unchanged when the fluorescent proteins carry the mutation A206K shown to dissociate this dimer in vitro. Even when the intracellular protein concentration largely exceeds the in vitro dissociation constant of the dimer, self-association remains undetectable, either between free proteins or intramolecularly within the CFP,YFP construct. Instead, the detailed concentration effects are satisfactorily accounted for by a model of intermolecular, concentration-dependent energy transfer, arising from molecular proximity and crowding. In the case of CFP alone, we suggest that self-quenching could result from a pseudo-homo FRET mechanism between different, spectrally shifted emissive forms of the protein. These phenomena require careful consideration in intracellular FRET studies. [source]

    Characterization of the Photochromic Pigments in Red Fluorescent Proteins Purified from the Gut Juice of the Silkworm Bombyx mori L.

    Santosh G. Sunagar
    Multiple forms of red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) were observed in the gut juice of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. It is to be noted that only one RFP band is reported in the literature so far. However, we report here three electrophoretically separated RFPs (A, B and C) found to be heterogeneous with respect to their components, namely the protein part and the fluorescent tetrapyrrole pigment moiety. Of the three RFPs, band C was found to be a glycoprotein. The absorption extinction coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields of the three RFPs were estimated. Further, this is the first communication demonstrating the presence of three different chlorophyll derivatives associated with the three different RFPs. The pigments were analyzed by thin layer chromatography followed by their elution to characterize the pigments by spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric methods. Spectral characteristics have led to the identification of monovinyl chlorophyllide a, divinyl protochlorophyllide a and monovinyl pheophytin a as being associated with RFP bands A, B and C, respectively. These three purified RFPs can serve as the source of the three pigments as the standards. [source]

    Partitioning and Characterization of Tyrosine-Tagged Green Fluorescent Proteins in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

    Sara Fexby
    The green fluorescent protein GFPuv has been genetically engineered to investigate the influence of N-terminal tyrosine extensions in aqueous two-phase systems. Fusions in the N-terminus affected the protein expression, and tags containing three tyrosines and prolines influenced the expression favorably. This effect is probably due to changes in mRNA stability, because the amounts of corresponding mRNAs correlated with the amounts of GFPuv proteins. The partitioning was investigated in two different aqueous two-phase systems, a two-polymer system composed of EO30PO70/dextran and a PEG/salt system with potassium phosphate. Partitioning in the PEG/salt system generally was more favorable than in the EO30PO70/dextran system. Tags with three tyrosines resulted in higher partitioning toward the EO30PO70- and PEG-rich phases, respectively. The effect of adding proline residues to the tag was also investigated, and the partitioning effect of the tag was enhanced when prolines were included in the tags with three tyrosines. The best tyrosine tag, Y3P2, increased the partition coefficient 5 times in the PEG/salt system. Thermoseparation of the EO30PO70 phase allowed recovery of 83% Y3P2-GFPuv protein in a water phase. [source]

    Rapid and easy semi-quantitative evaluation method for diacylglycerol and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate generation in orexin receptor signalling

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    M. E. Ekholm
    Abstract Aim:, Fluorescent protein-based indicators have enabled measurement of intracellular signals previously nearly inaccessible for studies. However, indicators showing intracellular translocation upon response suffer from serious limitations, especially the very time-consuming data collection. We therefore set out in this study to evaluate whether fixing and counting cells showing translocation could mend this issue. Methods:, Altogether three different genetically encoded indicators for diacylglycerol and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate were transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing human OX1 orexin receptors. Upon stimulation with orexin-A, the cells were fixed with six different protocols. Results:, Different protocols showed clear differences in their ability to preserve the indicator's localization (i.e. translocation after stimulus) and its fluorescence, and the best results for each indicator were obtained with a different protocol. The concentration,response data obtained with cell counting are mostly comparable to the real-time translocation and biochemical data. Conclusion:, The counting method, as used here, works at single time point and looses the single-cell-quantitative aspect. However, it also has some useful properties. First, it easily allows processing of a 100- to 1000-fold higher cell numbers than real-time imaging producing statistically consistent population-quantitative data much faster. Secondly, it does not require expensive real-time imaging equipment. Fluorescence in fixed cells can also be quantitated, though this analysis would be more time-consuming than cell counting. Thirdly, in addition to the quantitative data collection, the method could be applied for identifying responsive cells. This might be very useful in identification of e.g. orexin-responding neurones in a large population of non-responsive cells in primary cultures. [source]

    Dual fluorescent protein reporters for studying cell behaviors in vivo

    M. David Stewart
    Abstract Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are useful tools for visualizing live cells and their behaviors. Protein domains that mediate subcellular localization have been fused to FPs to highlight cellular structures. FPs fused with histone H2B incorporate into chromatin allowing visualization of nuclear events. FPs fused to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor signal sequence label the plasma membrane, highlighting cellular shape. Thus, a reporter gene containing both types of FP fusions would allow for effective monitoring of cell shape, movement, mitotic stage, apoptosis, and other cellular activities. Here, we report a binary color-coding system using four differently colored FP reporters that generates 16 distinct color codes to label the nuclei and plasma membranes of live cells in culture and in transgenic mice. As an initial test of this system in vivo, the promoter of the human Ubiquitin C (UBC) gene was used to widely express one of the color-code reporters. Widespread expression of the reporter was attained in embryos; however, both male and female transgenic mice were infertile. In contrast, the promoter of the mouse Oct4/Pou5f1 gene linked to two different color-code reporters specifically labeled blastocysts, primordial germ cells, and postnatal germ cells, and these mice were fertile. Time-lapse movies of fluorescently-labeled primordial germs cells demonstrate the utility of the color-code system to visualize cell behaviors. This set of new FP reporters should be a useful tool for labeling distinct cell populations and studying their behaviors in complex tissues in vivo. genesis 47:708,717, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fluorescent proteins for live cell imaging: Opportunities, limitations, and challenges

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 11 2009
    Jörg Wiedenmann
    Abstract The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria can be used as a genetically encoded fluorescence marker due to its autocatalytic formation of the chromophore. In recent years, numerous GFP-like proteins with emission colors ranging from cyan to red were discovered in marine organisms. Their diverse molecular properties enabled novel approaches in live cell imaging but also impose certain limitations on their applicability as markers. In this review, we give an overview of key structural and functional properties of fluorescent proteins that should be considered when selecting a marker protein for a particular application and also discuss challenges that lie ahead in the further optimization of the glowing probes. © 2009 IUBMB IUBMB Life, 61(11): 1029,1042, 2009 [source]

    Fluorescent proteins for single-molecule fluorescence applications

    Britta Seefeldt
    Abstract We present single-molecule fluorescence data of fluorescent proteins GFP, YFP, DsRed, and mCherry, a new derivative of DsRed. Ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence experiments proved mCherry as an ideally suited fluorophore for single-molecule applications, demonstrated by high photostability and rare fluorescence-intensity fluctuations. Although mCherry exhibits the lowest fluorescence quantum yield among the fluorescent proteins investigated, its superior photophysical characteristics suggest mCherry as an ideal alternative in single-molecule fluorescence experiments. Due to its spectral characteristics and short fluorescence lifetime of 1.46 ns, mCherry complements other existing fluorescent proteins and is recommended for tracking and localization of target molecules with high accuracy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), or multicolor applications. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Fluorescent proteins as markers in the plant secretory pathway

    Sally L. Hanton
    Abstract The use of fluorescent proteins and live cell imaging has greatly increased our knowledge of cell biology in recent years. Not only can these technologies be used to study protein trafficking under different conditions, but they have also been of use in elucidating the relationships between different organelles in a noninvasive manner. The use of multiple different fluorochromes allows the observation of interactions between organelles and between proteins, making this one of the fastest-developing and exciting fields at this time. In this review, we discuss the multitude of fluorescent markers that have been generated to study the plant secretory pathway. Although these markers have been used to solve many mysteries in this field, some areas that require further discussion remain. Microsc. Res. Tech. 69:152,159, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Optical Spectroscopy of Biomolecular Dynamics

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 9 2004
    Peter Vöhringer Prof.
    Of visible interest: At the Minerva-Gentner Symposium on Optical Spectroscopy of Biomolecular Dynamics, which took place between 21st and 25th March 2004 at Banz, Germany, scientists from many disciplines came together to compare the study of single molecules to that of ensembles. Fluorescent proteins, time-resolved IR, and protein folding dynamics were among the main topics discussed. [source]

    Modulation of calcium signalling by intracellular organelles seen with targeted aequorins

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    M. T. Alonso
    Abstract The cytosolic Ca2+ signals that trigger cell responses occur either as localized domains of high Ca2+ concentration or as propagating Ca2+ waves. Cytoplasmic organelles, taking up or releasing Ca2+ to the cytosol, shape the cytosolic signals. On the other hand, Ca2+ concentration inside organelles is also important in physiology and pathophysiology. Comprehensive study of these matters requires to measure [Ca2+] inside organelles and at the relevant cytosolic domains. Aequorins, the best-known chemiluminescent Ca2+ probes, are excellent for this end as they do not require stressing illumination, have a large dynamic range and a sharp Ca2+ -dependence, can be targeted to the appropriate location and engineered to have the proper Ca2+ affinity. Using this methodology, we have evidenced the existence in chromaffin cells of functional units composed by three closely interrelated elements: (1) plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, (2) subplasmalemmal endoplasmic reticulum and (3) mitochondria. These Ca2+ -signalling triads optimize Ca2+ microdomains for secretion and prevent propagation of the Ca2+ wave towards the cell core. Oscillatory cytosolic Ca2+ signals originate also oscillations of mitochondrial Ca2+ in several cell types. The nuclear envelope slows down the propagation of the Ca2+ wave to the nucleus and filters high frequencies. On the other hand, inositol-trisphosphate may produce direct release of Ca2+ to the nucleoplasm in GH3 pituitary cells, thus providing mechanisms for selective nuclear signalling. Aequorins emitting at different wavelengths, prepared by fusion either with green or red fluorescent protein, permit simultaneous and independent monitorization of the Ca2+ signals in different subcellular domains within the same cell. [source]

    Rho plays a central role in regulating local cell-matrix mechanical interactions in 3D culture

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 6 2007
    N. Lakshman
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the role of the small GTPase Rho on cell morphology, f-actin organization, and cell-induced matrix remodeling in 3D culture. Human corneal fibroblasts (HTK) were infected with adenoviruses that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP-N19Rho (dominant negative Rho). One day later cells were plated inside collagen matrices and allowed to spread for 24 h. Cells were fixed and stained for f-actin. Fluorescent (for f-actin) and reflected light (for collagen fibrils) images were acquired using confocal microscopy. Fourier transform analysis was used to assess local collagen fibril alignment, and changes in cell morphology and collagen density were measured using MetaMorph. The decrease in matrix height was used as an indicator of global matrix contraction. HTK and HTK-GFP cells induced significant global matrix contraction; this was inhibited by N19Rho. HTK and HTK-GFP fibroblasts generally had a bipolar morphology and occasional intracellular stress fibers. Collagen fibrils were compacted and aligned parallel to stress fibers and pseudopodia. In contrast, HTK-GFPN19 cells were elongated, and had a more cortical f-actin distribution. Numerous small extensions were also observed along the cell body. In addition, both local collagen fibril density and alignment were significantly reduced. Rho plays a key role in regulating both the morphology and mechanical behavior of corneal fibroblasts in 3D culture. Overall, the data suggest that Rho-kinase dependent cell contractility contributes to global and local matrix remodeling, whereas Rho dependent activation of mDia and/or other downstream effectors regulates the structure and number of cell processes. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Role of the two type II myosins, Myo2 and Myp2, in cytokinetic actomyosin ring formation and function in fission yeast

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 3 2003
    Daniel P. Mulvihill
    Abstract The formation and contraction of a cytokinetic actomyosin ring (CAR) is essential for the execution of cytokinesis in fission yeast. Unlike most organisms in which its composition has been investigated, the fission yeast CAR contains two type II myosins encoded by the genes myo2+ and myp2+. myo2+ is an essential gene whilst myp2+ is dispensable under normal growth conditions. Myo2 is hence the major contractile protein of the CAR whilst Myp2 plays a more subtle and, as yet, incompletely documented role. Using a fission yeast strain in which the chromosomal copy of the myo2+ gene is fused to the gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), we analysed CAR formation and function in the presence and absence of Myp2. No change in the rate of CAR contraction was observed when Myp2 was absent although the CAR persisted longer in the contracted state and was occasionally observed to split into two discrete rings. This was also observed in myp2, cells following actin depolymerisation with latrunculin. CAR contraction in the absence of Myp2 was completely abolished in the presence of elevated levels of chloride ions. Thus, Myp2 appears to contribute to the stability of the CAR, in particular at a late stage of CAR contraction, and to be a component of the signalling pathway that regulates cytokinesis in response to elevated levels of chloride. To determine whether the presence of two type II myosins was a feature of cytokinesis in other fungi that divide by septation, we searched the genomes of two filamentous fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Neurospora crassa, for myosin genes. As in fission yeast, both A. fumigatus and N. crassa contained myosins of classes I, II, and V. Unlike fission yeast, both contained a single type II myosin gene that, on the basis of its tail structure, was more reminiscent of Myp2 than Myo2. The significance of these observations to our understanding of septum to formation and cleavage is discussed. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 54:208,216, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Acute effects of desmin mutations on cytoskeletal and cellular integrity in cardiac myocytes

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2003
    Kurt Haubold
    Mutations in desmin have been associated with a subset of human myopathies. Symptoms typically appear in the second to third decades of life, but in the most severe cases can manifest themselves earlier. How desmin mutations lead to aberrant muscle function, however, remains poorly defined. We created a series of four mutations in rat desmin and tested their in vitro filament assembly properties. RDM-G, a chimera between desmin and green fluorescent protein, formed protofilament-like structures in vitro. RDM-1 and RDM-2 blocked in vitro assembly at the unit-length filament stage, while RDM-3 had more subtle effects on assembly. When expressed in cultured rat neonatal cardiac myocytes via adenovirus infection, these mutant proteins disrupted the endogenous desmin filament to an extent that correlated with their defects in in vitro assembly properties. Disruption of the desmin network by RDM-1 was also associated with disruption of plectin, myosin, and ,-actinin organization in a significant percentage of infected cells. In contrast, expression of RDM-2, which is similar to previously characterized human mutant desmins, took longer to disrupt desmin and plectin organization and had no significant effect on myosin or ,-actinin organization over the 5-day time course of our studies. RDM-3 had the mildest effect on in vitro assembly and no discernable effect on either desmin, plectin, myosin, or ,-actinin organization in vivo. These results indicate that mutations in desmin have both direct and indirect effects on the cytoarchitecture of cardiac myocytes. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 54:105,121, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hemidesmosome protein dynamics in live epithelial cells

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2003
    Daisuke Tsuruta
    Abstract Hemidesmosomes mediate stable anchorage of epithelial cells to laminin-5 in the basement membrane zone and have been likened to spot-welds. Indeed, it has been assumed that hemidesmosomes are not dynamic, at least when compared to other matrix adhesion sites including focal contacts. We tested this notion by monitoring the fate of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human integrin ,4 subunit (GFP-h,4) and GFP-tagged 180-kD human bullous pemphigoid (BP) autoantigen (GFP-BP180) in live cultures of 804G cells that assemble numerous mature hemidesmosomes. In subconfluent 804G cells, both GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 protein clusters are not stable but assemble into and disassemble out of cat paw,like arrays at a relatively rapid rate. In confluent populations of 804G cells, although some cat paw,like clusters of both GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 are stable over periods of >60 min, other GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 protein arrays form and/or disappear during the same time period. Moreover, individual labeled particles show considerable motility in the plane of the membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses provide a further indication of the dynamics of hemidesmosome proteins. In particular, bleached GFP-h,4 protein clusters in confluent cells recover signal within about 30 min, indicating that there is a relatively rapid turnover of hemidesmosome components in protein arrays clustered along the substratum attached surface of a cell. The rate of recovery is dependent on an intact microfilament system. In sharp contrast, bleached GFP-BP180 protein clusters in confluent cells fail to recover signal even when observed for longer than 60 min. To evaluate hemidesmosome protein dynamics in motile cells, we monitored GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 in 804G cells populating scrape wound sites in vitro. In these migratory cells, which lack mature hemidesmosomes, integrin ,4 subunit and BP180 protein clusters progressively assemble and disassemble into linear and cat-paw arrays. In summary, hemidesmosome protein clusters, like their counterparts in focal contacts, are dynamic. We discuss these results in relation to hemidesmosome functions. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 54:122,134, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Dermal fibroblasts contribute to multiple tissues in the accessory limb model

    Ayako Hirata
    The accessory limb model has become an alternative model for performing investigations of limb regeneration in an amputated limb. In the accessory limb model, a complete patterned limb can be induced as a result of an interaction between the wound epithelium, a nerve and dermal fibroblasts in the skin. Studies should therefore focus on examining these tissues. To date, however, a study of cellular contributions in the accessory limb model has not been reported. By using green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic axolotl tissues, we can trace cell fate at the tissue level. Therefore, in the present study, we transgrafted GFP skin onto the limb of a non-GFP host and induced an accessory limb to investigate cellular contributions. Previous studies of cell contribution to amputation-induced blastemas have demonstrated that dermal cells are the progenitors of many of the early blastema cells, and that these cells contribute to regeneration of the connective tissues, including cartilage. In the present study, we have determined that this same population of progenitor cells responds to signaling from the nerve and wound epithelium in the absence of limb amputation to form an ectopic blastema and regenerate the connective tissues of an ectopic limb. Blastema cells from dermal fibroblasts, however, did not differentiate into either muscle or neural cells, and we conclude that dermal fibroblasts are dedifferentiated along its developmental lineage. [source]

    Congenic method in the chick limb buds by electroporation

    Takayuki Suzuki
    Electroporation is a powerful tool with which to study limb development. Limb development, however, remains an intricate series of events, requiring the precise dissection of developmental processes using relevant transgenes. In this review, we describe the anatomy of the limb field as the basis of targeted electroporation, and specific expression vectors are discussed. We share a useful protocol for electroporation of chick limb buds, and the expression pattern of enhanced green fluorescent protein in the limb buds is used to demonstrate relevant embryonic patterning. Finally, useful trouble-shooting techniques are described. [source]

    RNA interference by expressing short hairpin RNA in the Ciona intestinalis embryo

    Aya Nishiyama
    We carried out RNA interference by expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in the Ciona intestinalis embryo. For this purpose, we identified a gene encoding U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) in the C. intestinalis genome. The 1-kb sequence upstream of the U6 snRNA gene was sufficient for directing transcription of short RNA as revealed by Northern blot hybridization. An shRNA-expressing plasmid vector was constructed, in which shRNA-encoding oligonucleotides are inserted downstream of the U6 promoter. An shRNA that contained a sequence homologous to the C. intestinalis tyrosinase gene (Ci-tyrosinase) suppressed melanization of pigment cells in the brain of morphologically normal tailbud embryos. An shRNA that perfectly matched the translated sequence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (a mutant type of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein) suppressed the expression of the coelectroporated EGFP transgene. These results suggest that the expression of shRNA interferes with functions of both endogenous and exogenous genes. The shRNA-expressing plasmid constructed in the present study provides an easy and inexpensive alternative for the functional analysis of genes in ascidian embryos. [source]

    Midblastula transition (MBT) of the cell cycles in the yolk and pigment granule-free translucent blastomeres obtained from centrifuged Xenopus embryos

    Yasuhiro Iwao
    We obtained translucent blastomeres free of yolk and pigment granules from Xenopus embryos which had been centrifuged at the beginning of the 8-cell stage with cellular integrity. They divided synchronously regardless of their cell size until they had decreased to 37.5 µm in radius; those smaller than this critical size, however, divided asynchronously with cell cycle times inversely proportional to the square of the cell radius after midblastula transition (MBT). The length of the S phase was determined as the time during which nuclear DNA fluorescence increased in Hoechst-stained blastomeres. When the cell cycle time exceeded 45 min, S and M phases were lengthened; when the cell cycle times exceeded 70 min, the G2 phase appeared; and after cell cycle times became longer than 150 min, the G1 phase appeared. Lengths of G1, S and M phases increased linearly with increasing cell cycle time. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expressed in the blastomeres appeared in the S phase nucleus, but suddenly dispersed into the cytoplasm at the M phase. The system developed in this study is useful for examining the cell cycle behavior of the cell cycle-regulating molecules in living Xenopus blastomeres by fluorescence microscopy in real time. [source]

    Real-time observation of Wnt ,-catenin signaling in the chick embryo

    Anne C. Rios
    Abstract A critical mediator of cell,cell signaling events during embryogenesis is the highly conserved Wnt family of secreted proteins. Reporter constructs containing multimerized TCF DNA binding sites have been used to detect Wnt ,-catenin dependent activity during animal development. In this report, we have constructed and compared several TCF green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs. They contained 3, 8, or 12 TCF binding sites upstream of a minimal promoter driving native or destabilized enhanced GFP (EGFP). We have used the electroporation of somites in the chick embryo as a paradigm to test them in vivo. We have verified that they all respond to Wnt signaling in vivo. We have then assessed their efficiency at reflecting the activity of the Wnt pathway. Using destabilized EGFP reporter constructs, we show that somite cells dynamically regulate Wnt/,-catenin,dependent signaling, a finding that was confirmed by performing time-lapse video confocal observation of electroporated embryos. Developmental Dynamics 239:346,353, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Probing events with single molecule sensitivity in zebrafish and Drosophila embryos by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Xianke Shi
    Abstract Zebrafish and Drosophila are animal models widely used in developmental biology. High-resolution microscopy and live imaging techniques have allowed the investigation of biological processes down to the cellular level in these models. Here, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we show that even processes on a molecular level can be studied in these embryos. The two animal models provide different advantages and challenges. We first characterize their autofluorescence pattern and determine usable penetration depth for FCS especially in the case of zebrafish, where tissue thickness is an issue. Next, the applicability of FCS to study molecular processes is shown by the determination of blood flow velocities with high spatial resolution and the determination of diffusion coefficients of cytosolic and membrane-bound enhanced green fluorescent protein,labeled proteins in different cell types. This work provides an approach to study molecular processes in vivo and opens up the possibility to relate these molecular processes to developmental biology questions. Developmental Dynamics 238:3156,3167, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    gfap and nestin reporter lines reveal characteristics of neural progenitors in the adult zebrafish brain

    Chen Sok Lam
    Abstract Adult neurogenesis arises from niches that harbor neural stem cells (NSC). Although holding great promise for regenerative medicine, the identity of NSC remains elusive. In mammals, a key attribute of NSC is the expression of the filamentous proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NESTIN. To assess whether these two markers are relevant in the fish model, two transgenic zebrafish lines for gfap and nestin were generated. Analysis of adult brains showed that the fusion GFAP,green fluorescent protein closely mimics endogenous GFAP, while the nestin transgene recapitulates nestin at the ventricular zones. Cells expressing the two reporters display radial glial morphology, colocalize with the NSC marker Sox2, undergo proliferation, and are capable of self-renewal within the matrix of distinct thickness in the telencephalon. Together, these two transgenic lines reveal a conserved feature of putative NSC in the adult zebrafish brain and provide a means for the identification and manipulation of these cells in vivo. Developmental Dynamics 238:475,486, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Tol2kit: A multisite gateway-based construction kit for Tol2 transposon transgenesis constructs

    Kristen M. Kwan
    Abstract Transgenesis is an important tool for assessing gene function. In zebrafish, transgenesis has suffered from three problems: the labor of building complex expression constructs using conventional subcloning; low transgenesis efficiency, leading to mosaicism in transient transgenics and infrequent germline incorporation; and difficulty in identifying germline integrations unless using a fluorescent marker transgene. The Tol2kit system uses site-specific recombination-based cloning (multisite Gateway technology) to allow quick, modular assembly of [promoter],[coding sequence],[3, tag] constructs in a Tol2 transposon backbone. It includes a destination vector with a cmlc2:EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) transgenesis marker and a variety of widely useful entry clones, including hsp70 and beta-actin promoters; cytoplasmic, nuclear, and membrane-localized fluorescent proteins; and internal ribosome entry sequence,driven EGFP cassettes for bicistronic expression. The Tol2kit greatly facilitates zebrafish transgenesis, simplifies the sharing of clones, and enables large-scale projects testing the functions of libraries of regulatory or coding sequences. Developmental Dynamics 236:3088,3099, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]