Flow Parameters (flow + parameter)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Flow Parameters

  • blood flow parameter

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Effect of Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms on Doppler Blood Flow Parameters of Carotid and Brachial Arteries in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2006
    Onder Ozturk M.D.
    Background: Genetic influence on Doppler blood flow parameters of carotid and brachial arteries (BA) is uncertain. We investigated the relationship between the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) gene polymorphism and the blood flow characteristics of common carotid arteries (CCA) and BA by color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in patients with a first anterior acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and Results: Sixty-seven patients (15 women and 52 men), aged 25,77 years, with anterior AMI were studied. The AT1R genotypes were established. Based on the polymorphism of the AT1R, they were classified into three groups: AT1R AA genotype (Group1, n = 42 patients), AT1R AC genotype (Group 2, n = 17 patients), and AT1R CC genotype (Group 3, n = 8 patients). Peak-systolic velocity (PSV) and end-diastolic velocity (EDV) of right and left CCA, PSV of right BA, and intimal-medial thickness (IMT) of both CCA were measured by CDUS. All results evaluated statistically. The AT1R genotypes were distributed as follows: 63% AA, 25% AC, and 12% CC. PSV of BA and both CCA were higher in patients with CC and AC than AA (P < 0.05). Also, IMT of both CCA were also higher in the same groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that AT1R gene polymorphism influences Doppler blood flow parameters of both BA and CCA, and IMT of CCA. Although further studies are required. [source]

    Correlation between NT-pro BNP Levels and Early Mitral Annulus Velocity (E,) in Patients with Non,ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
    Marcia M. Barbosa M.D., Ph.D.
    Acute coronary syndromes in the absence of ST-segment elevation (NSTE-ACS) are a heterogeneous entity in which early risk stratification is essential. Diastolic dysfunction is precocious and associated with poor prognosis. BNP has been recognized as a biochemical marker of ventricular dysfunction and ischemia. Objective: To investigate if there is correlation of NT pro-BNP levels with diastolic dysfunction in patients with NSTE-ACS. Methods: Fifty-two patients with NSTE-ACS admitted to the coronary unit were included. NT-pro brain natriuretic hormone (BNP) levels and a Doppler echocardiogram were obtained in all and systolic and diastolic functions were analyzed. Their Doppler indexes were compared with those of 53 age- and sex-matched controls, without heart failure symptoms and with normal ejection fraction (EF) and normal NT-pro BNP levels. Results: Twenty-four patients (46%) with unstable angina and 28 patients (54%) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were included. Mean EF was 55.9 ± 10.7% and mean NT-pro BNP level was 835 ± 989 pg/ml. No mitral or pulmonary venous flow parameters of diastolic function correlated with NT-pro BNP levels. E,/A, correlated with NT-pro BNP level in univariate analysis but, in a multivariate analysis, only the EF and the E, showed negative correlation with the peptide level (r =,0.33, P = 0.024 and r =,0.29, P = 0.045, respectively). Thirteen patients presented with stage II diastolic dysfunction but the NT-pro BNP level in these patients did not differ from the level in stage I patients. Conclusion: NT-pro BNP levels are elevated in acute coronary syndromes, even in the absence of significant necrosis. Of all echocardiographic parameters investigated, only E, and the EF correlated with the levels of NT-pro BNP in this group of patients. [source]

    Proximal Coronary Hemodynamic Changes Evaluated by Intracardiac Echocardiography during Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion in a Canine Model

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2008
    Beibei Han M.D.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the dynamic changes in coronary flow velocity and coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) within proximal coronary arteries are related to myocardial perfusion status and infarct size in a myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Methods: In 14 dogs, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was ligated for 2 hours followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Coronary flow velocity was obtained by ICE within coronary arteries at baseline, and at the end of both occlusion and reperfusion period. The CFVR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to resting peak diastolic velocity (PDV). Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by real time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). The infarct area was detected by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and expressed as the percentage of the whole left ventricular (LV) area. Results: CFVR significantly decreased both in proximal LAD and left circumflex (LCx) artery at the end of occlusion, and did not recover at the end of reperfusion. However, no significant difference in flow parameters was observed between dogs with myocardial perfusion defect and those without. CFVR in LAD at the end of reperfusion did not correlate with the infarct size (r =,0.182, P = NS) either. Conclusions: Decreased CFVR detected by ICE occurs both in ischemic and in nonischemic proximal arteries during myocardial ischemia and early stage of reperfusion. This change in CFVR has poor correlation with the extent of microvascular impairment and cannot be used to predict infarct size. [source]

    The Effect of Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms on Doppler Blood Flow Parameters of Carotid and Brachial Arteries in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2006
    Onder Ozturk M.D.
    Background: Genetic influence on Doppler blood flow parameters of carotid and brachial arteries (BA) is uncertain. We investigated the relationship between the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) gene polymorphism and the blood flow characteristics of common carotid arteries (CCA) and BA by color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in patients with a first anterior acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and Results: Sixty-seven patients (15 women and 52 men), aged 25,77 years, with anterior AMI were studied. The AT1R genotypes were established. Based on the polymorphism of the AT1R, they were classified into three groups: AT1R AA genotype (Group1, n = 42 patients), AT1R AC genotype (Group 2, n = 17 patients), and AT1R CC genotype (Group 3, n = 8 patients). Peak-systolic velocity (PSV) and end-diastolic velocity (EDV) of right and left CCA, PSV of right BA, and intimal-medial thickness (IMT) of both CCA were measured by CDUS. All results evaluated statistically. The AT1R genotypes were distributed as follows: 63% AA, 25% AC, and 12% CC. PSV of BA and both CCA were higher in patients with CC and AC than AA (P < 0.05). Also, IMT of both CCA were also higher in the same groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that AT1R gene polymorphism influences Doppler blood flow parameters of both BA and CCA, and IMT of CCA. Although further studies are required. [source]

    Combined Oral Contraceptives do not Influence Post-Exercise Hypotension in Women

    Karen Birch
    The aim of the present study was to examine the pattern of cardiovascular recovery from exercise in 15 women (age, 20.3 ± 1.4 years; body mass, 61.5 ± 4.3 kg) across two phases of oral contraceptive (OC) use: 21 days of consumption and 7 days of withdrawal. Cardiovascular recovery was measured in the supine position for 60 min following 30 min of exercise at 60% maximal rate of oxygen consumption (V,O2,max). Central and peripheral haemodynamics were assessed during consumption and withdrawal of the OC pill using occlusion plethysmography, Doppler flowmetry and echocardiography. Significant hypotension occurred following exercise (P < 0.05), returning to baseline values after 60 min. The peak hypotension occurred 5 min into recovery. Cardiac output and heart rate were elevated for 60 min following exercise (P < 0.05), whilst stroke volume remained at baseline values. Heart rate was greater throughout recovery during consumption compared to withdrawal (P < 0.05); however, although there was a trend for greater responses during consumption, phase of OC use did not affect the other central cardiovascular variables (P > 0.05). Post-exercise blood flow parameters were not significantly affected by exercise or OC phase; however, calf blood flow was greater, and resistance to flow lower during consumption (P > 0.05). The pattern of post-exercise fluctuations in cardiovascular parameters may differ from those seen in men, whilst oestrogen variation may influence research findings. [source]

    Ground Water Flow Parameterization of an Appalachian Coal Mine Complex

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2004
    William R. Winters
    We examined a large (240 km2) northern Appalachian bituminous coal basin (Irwin Syncline, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania) comprising 27 mine complexes with nine major (> 2.5 × 103 L/min) discharges. The synclinal basin was divided into seven subbasins based on equilibrium hydraulic relationships established during the past 25 years. Recharge rates, mine pool velocity, and residence times respond to hydraulic changes in the overburden induced by mine subsidence. The estimated maximum depth for subsidence fractures is 60 m (30 times mined thickness) with recharge rates decreasing significantly in subbasins with thicker overburden (> 75 m). Calculated subbasin recharge rates range from 2 to 6 × 10,4 L/min/m2 and are significantly lower than the previously used rate for the basin. Residence time of ground water in the Irwin subbasins calculated using average linear velocity ranged from one to five years and were more consistent with field observations than estimates obtained using discharge and basin volume area. A positive correlation (r2= 0.80) exists between net alkalinity of the mine water-impacted discharges and residence time in the mine pools. Our results for the Irwin coal basin suggest that use of a subbasin approach incorporating overburden depth, mining methodology, and the extent of postmining inundation will lead to improved determination of ground water flow parameters in mined watersheds in northern Appalachia and elsewhere. [source]

    A study on un-fully developed slug flow in a vertical tube

    Zhijia Yu
    Abstract Gas-liquid co-current vertical slug flow was studied in a vertical Plexiglas tube. Taylor bubbles and liquid slug lengths and their rising velocities were measured by means of a pair of conductivity probes under un-fully developed flow conditions. The influences of the superficial velocity of gas and liquid on slug flow parameters were examined. Using statistical analysis on the length of Taylor bubbles, the probability distribution of the length of the Taylor bubbles was obtained, which obeyed a normal distribution under a significance level of , = 0.05. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 34(4): 235,242, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20063 [source]

    Finite element and sensitivity analysis of thermally induced flow instabilities

    Jean-Serge Giguère
    Abstract This paper presents a finite element algorithm for the simulation of thermo-hydrodynamic instabilities causing manufacturing defects in injection molding of plastic and metal powder. Mold-filling parameters determine the flow pattern during filling, which in turn influences the quality of the final part. Insufficiently, well-controlled operating conditions may generate inhomogeneities, empty spaces or unusable parts. An understanding of the flow behavior will enable manufacturers to reduce or even eliminate defects and improve their competitiveness. This work presents a rigorous study using numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis. The problem is modeled by the Navier,Stokes equations, the energy equation and a generalized Newtonian viscosity model. The solution algorithm is applied to a simple flow in a symmetrical gate geometry. This problem exhibits both symmetrical and non-symmetrical solutions depending on the values taken by flow parameters. Under particular combinations of operating conditions, the flow was stable and symmetric, while some other combinations leading to large thermally induced viscosity gradients produce unstable and asymmetric flow. Based on the numerical results, a stability chart of the flow was established, identifying the boundaries between regions of stable and unstable flow in terms of the Graetz number (ratio of thermal conduction time to the convection time scale) and B, a dimensionless ratio indicating the sensitivity of viscosity to temperature changes. Sensitivities with respect to flow parameters are then computed using the continuous sensitivity equations method. We demonstrate that sensitivities are able to detect the transition between the stable and unstable flow regimes and correctly indicate how parameters should change in order to increase the stability of the flow. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A numerical-variational procedure for laminar flow in curved square ducts

    P. M. Hatzikonstantinou
    Abstract A new numerical method is presented for the solution of the Navier,Stokes and continuity equations governing the internal incompressible flows. The method denoted as the CVP method consists in the numerical solution of these equations in conjunction with three additional variational equations for the continuity, the vorticity and the pressure field, using a non-staggered grid. The method is used for the study of the characteristics of the laminar fully developed flows in curved square ducts. Numerical results are presented for the effects of the flow parameters like the curvature, the Dean number and the stream pressure gradient on the velocity distributions, the friction factor and the appearance of a pair of vortices in addition to those of the familiar secondary flow. The accuracy of the method is discussed and the results are compared with those obtained by us, using a variation of the velocity,pressure linked equation methods denoted as the PLEM method and the results obtained by other methods. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effects of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®) therapy on retrobulbar blood flow parameters in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Ahmet Mete MD
    Abstract Background. To investigate the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab on retrobulbar circulation in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Method. Thirty patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed prospectively by both color Doppler imaging and fundus fluorescein angiography. Spectral Doppler analysis allowed the measurement of the maximum velocity (Vmax) and minimum velocity (Vmin) of the central retinal vein (CRV), and peak systolic (PSV), end-diastolic (EDV) velocities of blood flows, and pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) values in the central retinal artery (CRA), nasal and temporal posterior ciliary arteries (NPCA, TPCA), and ophthalmic artery (OA). The t test for paired samples was used to compare retrobulbar blood flow values before and after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Result. PSV and EDV of the NPCA and PSV of the TPCA were significantly decreased after intravitreal bevacizumab injection (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the other parameters. Conclusion. Our results suggest that intravitreal bevacizumab therapy has a measurable effect on retrobulbar blood flow. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 2010 [source]

    The effects of copper contraceptive intrauterine device on the uterine blood flow: A prospective transvaginal Doppler study

    Nuray Yigit MD
    Abstract Purpose. To evaluate the hemodynamic changes by transvaginal color Doppler sonography (CDS) in the uterine vascular bed after the insertion of a contraceptive intrauterine device (CIUD) and to investigate whether those CDS findings could predict potential side effects, such as dysmenorrhea and abnormal bleeding. Method. Pulsatility index (PI), resistance index, and systole/diastole ratio (S/D) were measured in the uterine artery and its myometrial branches on 28 patients before and after the insertion of copper IUD, and a correlation with dysmenorrhea and abnormal bleeding was investigated. Result. PI and S/D values in the uterine artery increased significantly after the insertion of the CIUD (p < 0.05). Patients with increased bleeding scores after insertion of CIUD had significantly lower uterine artery PI compared with those without increased bleeding scores (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was detected in the Doppler flow parameters regarding dysmenorrhea scores. Conclusion. Low uterine artery PI values recorded in the early phase of the menstrual cycle in patients with a CIUD were associated with an increased bleeding risk. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 2009 [source]

    Long-term effect of varicocele repair on intratesticular arterial resistance index

    Ali Balci MD
    Abstract Purpose To investigate the long-term effect of varicocele repair on ipsilateral intratesticular arterial resistance index (RI) using color Doppler sonography (CDS). Methods A total of 26 infertile patients with left varicocele who underwent a testicular artery and lymphatic-sparing subinguinal varicocelectomy were examined with CDS for intratesticular flow parameters before and at least 6 months after surgery. We also evaluated preoperative and postoperative semen parameters. Results The mean values of RI, end-diastolic velocity and pulsatility index decreased significantly after surgery, whereas no significant change was observed in peak systolic velocity. Repair of the varicocele resulted in a statistically significant increase in the total sperm count, motility, morphology, and total motile sperm count. However, no significant correlation was found between sperm parameters and RI values (p > 0.05). Conclusions Our data show that a significant improvement occurs in testicular blood supply and sperm parameters after surgical varicocele repair, without significant correlation between these 2 changes. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2008 [source]

    Doppler measurement of blood flow velocities in extraocular orbital vessels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    C. Zuhal Erdem MD
    Abstract Purpose. We used color Doppler sonography to determine blood flow velocities in the extraocular orbital vessels of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and compared the results with those of healthy control subjects without OSAS. Methods. Patients with OSAS were classified according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as having mild OSAS (AHI < 20) or severe OSAS (AHI , 20). The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistance index were measured in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), lateral short posterior ciliary artery, and medial short posterior ciliary artery using color Doppler sonography. Only 1 eye was measured in each study participant, and right and left eyes were chosen randomly. The blood flow velocities of patients with OSAS and those of control subjects were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. Results. The study comprised 30 patients (15 with mild and 15 with severe OSAS) and 20 healthy control subjects. Blood flow velocities were higher in most measured vessels in patients with OSAS than they were in the control subjects. Among patients with mild OSAS, the PSVs and EDVs in the posterior ciliary arteries were statistically significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05), but those in the OA and CRA did not differ significantly between the mild OSAS group and the control group (p > 0.05). However, as the severity of OSAS increased, the PSVs and EDVs of the OA and CRA were also affected (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Color Doppler sonographic measurements of blood flow parameters in the orbital vessels may differ significantly between patients with OSAS and those without the syndrome. Therefore, OSAS should be considered in addition to other conditions when interpreting the results of color Doppler sonography of the extraocular orbital vessels if the clinical history points toward such a diagnosis. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 31:250,257, 2003 [source]

    Observer experience improves reproducibility of color doppler sonography of orbital blood vessels

    János Németh MD
    Abstract Purpose. The study investigated the reproducibility of orbital blood flow measurements with color Doppler imaging (CDI) at different stages of observer experience. Methods. The subjects were 31 healthy volunteers and 2 sequential groups of 25 glaucoma patients each. Repeated blood flow measurements (usually 3 sets) in orbital vessels (ophthalmic artery, short posterior ciliary arteries, central retinal artery, and central retinal vein) were performed by the same observer in a single session in each subject. Results. The parameters with the best reproducibility were the resistance index (mean coefficient of variation [COV], 3.3,8.8%), the peak systolic velocity (mean COV, 6.9,13.7%), the time-averaged velocity (mean COV, 7.2,16.0%), and the systolic acceleration time (mean COV, 8.8,12.3%). The mean COV was greater (9.9,20.3%) for the other arterial flow parameters (end-diastolic velocity and systolic acceleration) and for the venous flow velocities (maximum and minimum). The COVs of the parameters were improved by 20,40% as the observer became more experienced in ophthalmic CDI. Conclusions. We confirm the general reliability of CDI measurements in orbital vessels and show that observer experience improves reproducibility. It appears, however, that observer performance in these measurements is vessel specific. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 30:332,335, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/jcu.10079 [source]

    Dispersal and gene flow of Populus nigra (Salicaceae) along a dynamic river system

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Eric Imbert
    Summary 1,We used genetic markers to study gene flow of the riparian pioneer tree species Populus nigra along the Drôme river (France). This dioecious species is supposed to have more efficient dispersal mechanisms for pollen (wind) and seeds (wind and water) than other trees. 2,Seedlings belonging to the same reproduction/migration event were sampled in 22 riparian forest fragments along the river and their genetic diversity assessed through six nuclear microsatellites. 3,We found a high level of diversity and significant differentiation among populations. The significant isolation by distance allowed us to reject the infinite island model of migration. 4,Gene flow parameters were higher in the upper, mountainous part than in the alluvial plain downstream. There was no accumulation of diversity downstream, indicating migration rates were symmetrical upstream and downstream. This was confirmed by computing individual migration parameters between adjacent populations. 5,The results are discussed with regard to the dispersal mechanisms of seeds and pollen. The discrepancy between potential gene flow and effective gene flow is interpreted as an effect of fragmentation, due to the alteration of the natural dynamics of the riparian ecosystem rather than to physical barriers. [source]

    Snap-off of a liquid drop immersed in another liquid flowing through a constricted capillary

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 8 2009
    T. J. Peña
    Abstract Emulsions are encountered at different stages of oil production processes, often impacting many aspects of oilfield operations. Emulsions may form as oil and water come in contact inside the reservoir rock, valves, pumps, and other equipments. Snap-off is a possible mechanism to explain emulsion formation in two-phase flow in porous media. Quartz capillary tubes with a constriction (pore neck) served to analyze snap-off of long ("infinite") oil droplets as a function of capillary number and oil-water viscosity ratio. The flow of large oil drops through the constriction and the drop break-up process were visualized using an optical microscope. Snap-off occurrence was mapped as a function of flow parameters. High oil viscosity suppresses the breakup process, whereas snap-up was always observed at low dispersed-phase viscosity. At moderate viscosity oil/water ratio, snap-off was observed only at low capillary number. Mechanistic explanations based on competing forces in the liquid phases were proposed. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

    A Comparative Study of Intraplacental Villous Arteries by Latex Cast Model in vitro and Color Doppler Flow Imaging in vivo,

    Junwu Mu
    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether color Doppler sonogram can accurately depict the placental vascular structures using a latex cast model of the placental vessels, and to make a nomogram of several blood flow parameters according to the vascular structures. Methods: First, we made 9 latex cast models of placental arteries and performed morphologic observation and measurement. Second, the comparative anatomical observation of placental vessels by color flow mapping was performed for all 9 patients from whom the latex models were made. Third, a total of 102 uncomplicated pregnant women between 18 and 40 weeks gestation were examined by color Doppler imaging. The resistance indices (RI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) were measured. Results: In the latex cast model of placentas, cotyledons could be differentiated by the presence of independent vascular structure units. First, second, third and fourth branches were noted in one cotyledon. Cotyledons were easily identified and counted by color Doppler imaging. Each cotyledon contained only one first branch of the intraplacental villous artery (IPVA). The number of IPVA-1 on color Doppler imaging was equal to the number of the cotyledon calculated from the latex model. RI exhibited a negative, and PSV a positive correlation with gestational age (p < 0.05 in both cases). At any given gestational age, both RI and PSV in the peripheral arteries were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than those in the upstream arteries. Conclusions: Color Doppler flow sonography is a valuable tool for detecting the blood flow of intraplacental villous arteries in vivo and the images agree with the vascular anatomy of placenta in vitro. These results may also provide the basic parameters for future studies of some complicated pregnancies. [source]

    CFD modeling of heat transfer in turbulent pipe flows

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 9 2000
    S. S. Thakre
    Twelve versions of low Reynolds number k-, and two low Reynolds number Reynolds stress turbulence models for heat transfer were analyzed comparatively. Predictions of the mean axial temperature, the radial and axial turbulent heat fluxes, and the effect of Prandtl number on Nusselt number were compared with the experimental data. The model by Lai and So from the k-, group and Lai and So from the Reynolds stress group had the best overall predictive ability for heat transfer in turbulent pipe flow. The Lai and So model was attributed to its success in the predictions of flow parameters such as mean axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, eddy diffusivity, and the overall energy dissipation rate. The k-, models performed relatively better than the Reynolds stress models for predicting the mean axial temperature and the Nusselt number. This qualitative and quantitative study found the need for more sophisticated near-wall experimental measurements and the accuracy of the dissipation (of turbulent energy) and the pressure-scrambling models. [source]

    Nonaqueous Aluminum Nitride Extrusion: I, Die-Entry Flow Behavior

    John F. Jr. Wight
    Simultaneous orifice and capillary rheometry at 160°C was used to determine flow parameters of aluminum nitride extrudates plasticized with a polyethylene,mineral-oil binder. Data were analyzed using the Benbow model for square-entry ram extrusion. Variables included the powder concentration, polymer molecular weight and concentration, and lubricant concentration. Die-entry rheology was explained in terms of the mean interparticle separation, polymer spatial requirements, and lubricant adsorption. Particles and polymer were observed to not pack independently. The yield stress of the body increased rapidly as the solids loading approached the critical volume limit of extrudability. An increase in polymer molecular weight or partial decrease of adsorbed lubricant increased the yield stress of the body and produced a satisfactory extrudate. [source]

    Descending thoracic aortic blood flow parameters during emergent surgery in anesthetized critically ill dogs

    Richard J. Mills DVM
    Abstract Objective: To explore the potential value of transesophageally-determined descending thoracic aortic blood flow parameters in critically ill dogs undergoing surgery. Design: Observational case series. Setting: Private small animal referral hospital. Animals: Ten anesthetized critically ill dogs that underwent emergent surgery. Interventions: Placement of the ultrasonic transesophageal probe. Measurements and main results: Transesophageally-determined descending thoracic aortic blood flow, stroke volume, blood velocity, blood acceleration, left ventricular ejection time interval, and heart rate parameters were recorded every minute. Systolic and mean arterial blood pressures were non-invasively determined and recorded at 1,5 minute intervals. The anesthetist and surgeon were blinded to the descending thoracic aortic blood flow parameters. All dogs received fluid challenges as part of their management, and 2 dogs received dopamine. The variability of the descending thoracic aortic blood flow parameters within each dog was greater than has been reported in non-critically ill anesthetized dogs. Consistent trends in descending thoracic aortic blood flow parameters after fluid challenges were not found. An escalating dopamine infusion was, however, accompanied by increasing aortic blood flow, stroke volume, acceleration, and peak velocity. Conclusions: Descending thoracic aortic blood flow parameters may eventually be useful for evaluating the responses to and suggesting the need for cardiovascular interventions during emergent surgeries in anesthetized critically ill canine patients. For this to occur, more experience with this technology will be required. [source]

    Transesophageal monitoring of aortic blood flow during nonemergent canine surgeries

    Piper L. Wall
    Abstract Objective: To establish baseline values for descending thoracic aortic blood flow parameters as determined with a transesophageal combined M-mode and pulsed Doppler ultrasound-based monitoring method. Design: Preliminary observational study. Setting: University small animal teaching hospital. Animals: The study population consisted of anesthetized canine patients undergoing nonemergent surgeries. Prospectively set criteria for inclusion were adequate body size for placement of the esophageal probe and a nonemergent reason for surgery. The criterion for exclusion was recent trauma. Interventions: Placement of the transesophageal probe. Measurements and main results: Data was collected during 15 surgeries. Data from three dogs was excluded from data analysis (two recently hit by motor vehicles, one recently having undergone a total hip replacement). Each parameter was stable across time within each individual dog. The ranges of the descending thoracic aortic parameters across the 12 nonemergent cases were as follows: blood flow, 0.038,0.085 L min,1 kg,1; blood flow per beat, 0.31,0.84 mL kg,1; blood acceleration, 6,29 m s2,1; blood peak velocity, 38,105 m s,1; left ventricular ejection time interval 331,492 ms; and diameter, 0.30,0.93 mm kg,1. Conclusions: The range of descending thoracic aortic blood flow parameters encountered in this small group of dogs during nonemergent surgeries was broad; however, each parameter was quite stable across time with little change occurring in any dog during monitoring. [source]

    Relationship between water flow volume and in-lake total phosphorus concentrations via dissolved oxygen concentrations and temperature in a warm temperate reservoir: Implications by path analysis

    lhami Tüzün
    Abstract The effects of water inflow,outflow volumes on the in-lake total phosphorus (TP) concentrations was investigated for the deep, stratified Çubuk II Dam Lake. The fluctuations in the TP concentrations followed a seasonal pattern, with lower values found during the summer, and peak values during wet seasons. Both the seasonal pattern and the horizontal/vertical heterogeneities in the TP concentrations were usually found to be in accordance with those of the water flow parameters. The vertical differences in the TP concentrations provided evidence that an interflow formed at the 5 m and 10 m depths by the water inflow resulted in higher mean TP concentrations at these depths. In contrast, the water outflows had a reducing effect on the TP concentrations, particularly at the 15 m depth, by promoting net TP export. Although the horizontal distribution of the TP concentrations differed slightly between the riverine, transition and lacustrine zones, the differences did not indicate any statistical significance (P > 0.05, multivariate analysis of variance). The path analysis performed on the vertical data proved to be a promising tool in estimating the direct correlations between water flow dynamics and TP concentrations when the decomposition of indirect correlations via dissolved oxygen concentrations and temperature was accounted for in these mutual associations. [source]

    Critical properties and stability of stationary solutions in multitransonic pseudo-Schwarzschild accretion

    Soumini Chaudhury
    ABSTRACT For inviscid, rotational accretion flows, both isothermal and polytropic, a simple dynamical system analysis of the critical points has given a very accurate mathematical scheme to understand the nature of these points, for any pseudo-potential by which the flow may be driven on to a Schwarzschild black hole. This allows us for a complete classification of the critical points for a wide range of flow parameters, and shows that the only possible critical points for this kind of flow are saddle points and centre-type points. A restrictive upper bound on the angular momentum of critical solutions has been established. A time-dependent perturbative study reveals that the form of the perturbation equation, for both isothermal and polytropic flows, is invariant under the choice of any particular pseudo-potential. Under generically true outer boundary conditions, the inviscid flow has been shown to be stable under an adiabatic and radially propagating perturbation. The perturbation equation has also served the dual purpose of enabling and understanding the acoustic geometry for inviscid and rotational flows. [source]

    Radial nonuniformity index (RNI) in fluidized beds and other multiphase flow systems

    Jing-Xu (Jesse) Zhu
    Abstract The radial nonuniformity index (RNI) is a new non-dimensional index recently devised to quantify the extent of radial variations of flow parameters in fluidized beds and other multiphase flow systems. The index, defined as the ratio of the standard deviation of the given flow parameter in the radial direction to the maximum practically possible standard deviation of that particular parameter, is shown to be an excellent measure of the radial flow structure. This index allows the use of a single value to summarize the radial variation of a given flow parameter. The higher the value of the RNI the less uniform is the flow, and vice versa. Using this technique, radial distributions of local solids concentration and particle velocities from different circulating fluidized bed systems (gas-solid and liquid-solid, upflow and downflow) were examined. It has been found that the RNI can be confidently related to the flow conditions in the circulating fluidized beds, and more insight understanding has been achieved. L'indice de non-uniformité radiale (RNI) est un nouvel indice adimensionnel introduit récemment pour quantifier l'étendue des variations radiales des paramètres d'écoulement dans les lits fluidisés et autres systèmes d'écoulement multiphasiques. On montre que cet indice, défini comme le rapport entre I'écart type du paramètre d'écoulement donné dans la direction radiale et I'écart type maximum pratiquement possible de ce paramètre particulier, est une excellente mesure de la structure d'écoulement radial. Il permet I'utilisation d'une valeur unique pour décrire la variation radiale d'un paramètre d'écoulement donné. Plus la valeur de RNI est élevée, moins I'écoulement est uniforme, et vice-versa. À I'aide de cette technique, on a examiné les distributions radiales des concentrations de solides locales et des vitesses de particules pour différents systèmes de lits fluidisés circulants (gaz-solide et liquide-solide, ascendant et descendant). On a trouvé que le RNI pouvait ,tre relié en toute confiance aux conditions d'écoulement dans les lits fluidisés circulants, ce qui permet de mieux comprendre ce problème. [source]

    Modeling Flow in a Compromised Pediatric Airway Breathing Air and Heliox

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 12 2008
    Mihai Mihaescu PhD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to perform computer simulations of flow within an accurate model of a pediatric airway with subglottic stenosis. It is believed that the airflow characteristics in a stenotic airway are strongly related to the sensation of dyspnea. Methodology: Computed tomography images through the respiratory tract of an infant with subglottic stenosis, were used to construct the three-dimensional geometry of the airway. By using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to capture airway flow patterns during inspiration and expiration, we obtained information pertaining to flow velocity, static airway wall pressure, pressure drop across the stenosis, and wall shear stress. These simulations were performed with both air and heliox. Results: Unlike air, heliox maintained laminar flow through the stenosis. The calculated pressure drop over stenosis was lower for the heliox flow, in contrast to the airflow case. This lead to an approximately 40% decrease in airway resistance when using heliox, and presumably causes a decrease in the level of effort required for breathing. Conclusions: CFD simulations offer a quantitative method of evaluating airway flow dynamics in patients with airway abnormalities. CFD modeling illustrated the flow features and quantified flow parameters within a pediatric airway with subglottic stenosis. Simulations with air and heliox conditions mirrored the known clinical benefits of heliox as compared with air. We anticipate that computer simulation models will ultimately allow a better understanding of changes in flow caused by specific medical and surgical interventions in patients with conditions associated with dyspnea. [source]

    Effect of flow parameters of rumen digesta on effective degradability and microbial yield in sheep

    Toshiyoshi ICHINOHE
    ABSTRACT The aim of this experiment was to examine the effect of rumen digesta flow parameters on effective degradability (EDG) and microbial nitrogen (MBN) yield in sheep fed diets of identical provision of both metabolizable energy and rumen degradable nitrogen (RDN). Ruminal degradation parameters of early-harvested perennial ryegrass hay (EH), late-harvested perennial ryegrasses hay (LH) and winter sown barley straw (BS) were determined by a nylon bag technique. Subsequently, three experimental diets (EHD, LHD and BSD) were formulated using the tested forages, sucrose and urea as supplements. An in vivo feeding study was conducted using four rumen cannulated sheep in a partial Latin square design. Digestibility, rate constants of rumen particle breakdown and passage, ruminal fermentation parameters and MBN supply to the small intestine were determined. Animals thoroughly consumed the forages fed at a restricted level. Digestion coefficients were greater for EHD than for LHD and were lowest for BSD (P < 0.05). The rate constant of large particle breakdown was 4.3, 5.9 and 6.7 %/h, respectively, and small particle passage was 5.3, 4.7 and 6.3 %/h for EHD, LHD and BSD, respectively. The estimates differed (P < 0.05) between the diets. The overall passage rate constant of total rumen particles was estimated to be higher for BSD than that for EHD or LHD (P < 0.05). Ruminal fermentation parameters were unaffected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05). Intake levels of rumen degradable organic matter (RDOM) and RDN were estimated to be greater for LHD than that for EHD or BSD (P < 0.05). Although dietary arrangements were made to give identical microbial efficiency, the estimated value was higher for EHD than that for LHD or BSD (P < 0.05); and the MBN yield for BSD was estimated to be lower than that for EHD or LHD (P < 0.05). Rumen kinetic parameters of degradation and particle flow of forage affected EDG values and MBN yield from forage-related RDN intake, although those had little effect on the efficiency of MBN yield from forage-related RDOM intake. [source]

    Perfusion seeding of channeled elastomeric scaffolds with myocytes and endothelial cells for cardiac tissue engineering

    Robert Maidhof
    Abstract The requirements for engineering clinically sized cardiac constructs include medium perfusion (to maintain cell viability throughout the construct volume) and the protection of cardiac myocytes from hydrodynamic shear. To reconcile these conflicting requirements, we proposed the use of porous elastomeric scaffolds with an array of channels providing conduits for medium perfusion, and sized to provide efficient transport of oxygen to the cells, by a combination of convective flow and molecular diffusion over short distances between the channels. In this study, we investigate the conditions for perfusion seeding of channeled constructs with myocytes and endothelial cells without the gel carrier we previously used to lock the cells within the scaffold pores. We first established the flow parameters for perfusion seeding of porous elastomer scaffolds using the C2C12 myoblast line, and determined that a linear perfusion velocity of 1.0 mm/s resulted in seeding efficiency of 87% ± 26% within 2 hours. When applied to seeding of channeled scaffolds with neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, these conditions also resulted in high efficiency (77.2% ± 23.7%) of cell seeding. Uniform spatial cell distributions were obtained when scaffolds were stacked on top of one another in perfusion cartridges, effectively closing off the channels during perfusion seeding. Perfusion seeding of single scaffolds resulted in preferential cell attachment at the channel surfaces, and was employed for seeding scaffolds with rat aortic endothelial cells. We thus propose that these techniques can be utilized to engineer thick and compact cardiac constructs with parallel channels lined with endothelial cells. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]

    Review Article: Ocular blood flow assessment using continuous laser Doppler flowmetry

    Charles E. Riva
    Acta Ophthalmol. 2010: 88: 622,629 Abstract. This article describes the technique of continuous laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) as applied to the measurement of the flux of red blood cells in the optic nerve head, iris and subfoveal choroid. Starting with the exposition of the physical principles underlying LDF, we first describe the various devices developed to perform LDF in these vascular beds. We then discuss the clinical protocols, blood flow parameters, calibration procedures, reproducibility and limitations of the LDF technique. Various problems still need to be solved in order to bring to light the full potential of LDF in the assessment of microcirculatory haemodynamics. [source]

    Twelve-hour reproducibility of retinal and optic nerve blood flow parameters in healthy individuals

    Alexandra Luksch
    Abstract. Purpose:, The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and potential diurnal variation of optic nerve head and retinal blood flow parameters in healthy individuals over a period of 12 hr. Methods:, We measured optic nerve head and retinal blood flow parameters in 16 healthy male non-smoking individuals at five time-points during the day (08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00 and 20:00 hr). Outcome parameters were perimacular white blood cell flux (as assessed with the blue field entoptic technique), blood velocities in retinal veins (as assessed with bi-directional laser Doppler velocimetry), retinal arterial and venous diameters (as assessed with the retinal vessel analyser), optic nerve head blood flow, volume and velocity (as assessed with single point and scanning laser Doppler flowmetry) and blood velocities in the central retinal artery (as assessed with colour Doppler imaging). The coefficient of variation and the maximum change from baseline in an individual were calculated for each outcome parameter. Results:, No diurnal variation in optic nerve head or retinal blood flow was observed with any of the techniques employed. Coefficients of variation were between 1.6% and 18.5% for all outcome parameters. The maximum change from baseline in an individual was much higher, ranging from 3.7% to 78.2%. Conclusion:, Our data indicate that in healthy individuals the selected techniques provide adequate reproducibility to be used in clinical studies. However, in patients with eye diseases and reduced vision the reproducibility may be considerably worse. [source]

    Ocular haemodynamic changes after single treatment with photodynamic therapy assessed with non-invasive techniques

    Noemi Maar
    Abstract. Purpose:, To investigate in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) the changes in ocular perfusion caused by single treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT) by different non-invasive methods; to evaluate correlations between relative changes of ocular haemodynamic parameters after PDT among each other and compared to morphological parameters; and to assess this in relation to early changes of visual acuity. Methods:, Study population: 17 consecutive patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) caused by ARMD scheduled for PDT without previous PDT treatment (four patients with predominantly classic CNV and 13 patients with occult CNV). Observation procedures: best-corrected visual acuity (before PDT, 6 and 8 weeks after PDT), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, haemodynamic measurements with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), laser interferometry and ocular blood flow (OBF) tonometry (baseline and 1, 2, 6 and 8 weeks after treatment). Main outcome measures: choroidal blood flow (CHBF), fundus pulsation amplitude (FPA), pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF), visual acuity. Changes smaller than 20% were considered clinically irrelevant. Results:, Ocular haemodynamic parameters did not change significantly in the follow-up period. Changes of haemodynamic parameters showed no correlation to treatment spot, morphological changes or visual acuity. Changes of visual acuity were comparable to results of earlier studies. Conclusion:, Single treatment with PDT did not modify ocular blood flow parameters above 20% as assessed with different non-invasive methods. [source]